Produced Water pp 223-234 | Cite as

Experimental and Modelling Studies on the Mixing Behavior of Offshore Discharged Produced Water

  • Haibo Niu
  • Kenneth Lee
  • Tahir Husain
  • Brian Veitch
  • Neil Bose


A probabilistic based steady state model, PROMISE, was developed to predict the mixing behaviors of produced water in the marine environment. The model was also coupled with a MIKE3 model to study the dispersion in non-steady state conditions. Laboratory experiments were conducted in a 58 m towing tank to calibrate the near field model. Field experiments using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) were also performed to test the ability of an AUV in produced water plume mapping.


Produce Water Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Promise Model Impinge Angle Towing Tank 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Financial support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and Petroleum Research Atlantic Canada through a Collaborative Research and Development grant (NSERC/PRAC CRD) and the Panel for Energy Research and Development (PERD) is gratefully acknowledged.


  1. Chin DA (1987) Influence of surface waves on outfall dilution. J Hydraul Eng ASCE 113: 1006–1018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chyan JM, Hwung HH, Chang CY, Chen IP (2002) Effects of discharge angels on dilution of Buoyant jets in wave motions. In: Proceedings of the 5th international conference on hydrodynamics, Tainan, Taiwan, Oct 31–Nov 2 2002, pp 485–490Google Scholar
  3. Ger AM (1979) Wave effects on submerged buoyant jets. In: Proceedings of the 18th IAHR Congress, Cagliari, Italy, 10–14 Sept 1979, pp 295–300Google Scholar
  4. Huang H, Fergen RE (1997) A model for surface plume dispersion in an ocean current. In: Proceedings of the 27th IAHR Congress, San Francisco, CA, 10–15 Aug 1997Google Scholar
  5. Huang H, Fergen RE, Proni JR et al (1996) Probabilistic analysis of ocean outfall mixing zones. J Enviro Eng ASCE 122:359–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Koole R, Swan C (1994) Dispersion of pollution in a wave environment. In: Proceedings of the 24th International on Coastal Engineering Conference, Kobe, Japan, 23–28 Oct 1994, pp 3071–3085Google Scholar
  7. Kuang J, Hsu CT (1999) Experiments on 2-D submerged vertical jets with progressive water surface waves. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international symposium on environmental hydraulics, Hong Kong, pp 155–160Google Scholar
  8. Mukhtasor (2001) Hydrodynamic modeling and ecological risk-based design of produced water discharge from an offshore platform. Ph.D. Thesis, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  9. Niu H, Husain T, Veitch B et al (2004) Probabilistic modeling of produced water outfall. In: Lee JHW, Lam KM (eds) Environmental hydraulics and sustainable water management. Taylor & Francis Group, London, pp 467–472Google Scholar
  10. Niu H, Husain T, Veitch B et al (2009) Assessing ecological risks of produced water discharge in a wavy environment. Advances in Sustainable Petroleum Engineering and Science, Int J Risk Assess Manag. 1, pp 91–102Google Scholar
  11. Niu H, Lee K, Husain T et al (2011) A review of the state-of-the-art of produced water fate/transport models. International Journal of Environment and Waste Management Environ Model Softw. SubmittedGoogle Scholar
  12. Sharp JJ (1986) The effect of waves on buoyant jets. Proc Inst Civil Eng, Part 2 81:471–475Google Scholar
  13. Shuto N, Ti LH (1974) Wave effects on buoyant plumes. In: Proceedings of the 14th Coastal Engineering Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, 24–28 June 1974, pp 2199–2208Google Scholar
  14. Tate PM (2002) The rise and dilution of buoyant jets and their behavior in an internal wave field. Ph.D. Thesis, School of Mathematics, University of New South Wales, AustraliaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haibo Niu
    • 1
  • Kenneth Lee
    • 2
    • 3
  • Tahir Husain
    • 4
  • Brian Veitch
    • 4
  • Neil Bose
    • 5
  1. 1.Centre for Offshore Oil, Gas and Energy Research (COOGER), Fisheries and Oceans CanadaBedford Institute of OceanographyDartmouthCanada
  2. 2.Centre for Offshore Oil, Gas and Energy Research (COOGER), Fisheries and Oceans CanadaBedford Institute of OceanographyDartmouthCanada
  3. 3.Department of Building Civil and Environmental EngineeringConcordia UniversityMontrealCanada
  4. 4.Faculty of Engineering and Applied ScienceMemorial University of NewfoundlandSt. John’sCanada
  5. 5.Australian Maritime Hydrodynamics Research CentreUniversity of TasmaniaLauncestonAustralia

Personalised recommendations