Stem Cells and Alcohol-Related Cancers

Chapter

Abstract

Stem cells are populations of cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells, tissues, and organs. Stem cells are characterized by their capacities of multipotency to differentiate or self-renew. They play a crucial role in many aspects of biology, from embryo development to tissue repair and maintenance. In many organs and tissues, they serve as an internal system for regeneration and repair. Stem cells divide essentially without limit to maintain the stem cell pool and replenish other cells as long as needed.

Keywords

Obesity Hepatitis Estrogen Leukemia Aldehyde 

Abbreviations

ADH

Alcohol dehydrogenase

AKT/PKB

AKT/protein kinase B

ALDH

Aldehyde dehydrogenase

BMP

Bone morphogenetic protein

CSC

Cancer stem cell

CXCR4

C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4

CYP2E1

Cytochrome P450 2E1

DAX1

Dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia critical region, on chromosome X, gene 1

EGF

Epidermal growth factor

Eomes

Eomesodermin

ER

Estrogen receptor

ES

Embryonic stem (cell)

FACS

Fluorescence-activated cell sorting

Foxa2

Forkhead box A2

Gata6

GATA-binding protein 6

GH

Growth hormone

GI

Gastrointestinal

GKM

Gatekeeper mutation

Gsc

Goosecoid

GST

Glutathione S transferase

Hand1

Heart and neural crest derivatives-expressed 1

HBV

Hepatitis B virus

HCV

Hepatitis C virus

HESX1

Homeobox expressed in ES cells 1

HoxB1

Homeobox protein Hox-B1

IGF

Insulin-like growth factor

iPS

Induced pluripotent stem (cell)

Lgr5

Leucine-rich-repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5

Lhx5

LIM homeobox 5

LIF

Leukemia inhibitory factor

miRNA

microRNA

MTHFR

Methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase

Myf5

Myogenic factor 5

NANOG

Homeobox protein NANOG

NOD/SCID

Nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency

OC

Oval cells

OCT4

Octamer-binding protein 4

ONC

Oncogenes

Otx1

Orthodenticle homologue 1

PcGs

Polycomb group proteins

REX1/ZPF42

Zinc finger protein 42

SALL4

Sal-like protein 4

SOX2

SRY box-containing factor 2

SP

Side population

Stat3

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3

T

Brachyury protein homolog

TBX3

T-box transcription factor

TCF3

Transcription factor 3 (E2A immunoglobulin enhancer-binding factors E12/E47)

TPG

Tumor-progenitor genes

TSG

Tumor suppressor genes

ZIC3

Zinc finger protein ZIC 3

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Metabolism and Health EffectsNational Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA

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