Elastic Constants at Low Temperatures: Recent Measurements on Technological Materials at NBS

  • H. M. Ledbetter
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 24)

Abstract

Solid-state low-temperature elastic properties have been studied experimentally at the NBS Cryogenics Division for four years [1–18]. Most studies were between room temperature and liquid-helium temperature; some were only to liquid-nitrogen temperature. In this paper these studies are reviewed for 47 technological materials—metals, alloys, and composites—listed in Table I. Elastic constants primarily discussed are Young’s modulus, the shear modulus, the bulk modulus (reciprocal compressibility), and Poisson’s ratio. Young’s modulus, E, the shear modulus, G, and the bulk modulus, B, are the elastic resistances to uniaxial, shear or torsional, and hydrostatic stresses, respectively. All these moduli have units of stress. Poisson’s ratio, ν, is the dimensionless negative ratio of transverse strain to longitudinal strain under uniaxial stress.

Keywords

Zinc Entropy Titanium Nickel Quartz 

Notation

B

bulk modulus

C

general elastic-stiffness constant

E

Young’s modulus

e/a

electron/atom ratio

f

frequency

G

shear or torsional modulus

l

specimen length

s

parameter in Varshni equation

t

transit time, Einstein temperature

T

temperature, Kelvin

v

sound velocity

V

voltage

Greek symbols

λ

wavelength

ν

Poisson’s ratio

ρ

mass density

Subscripts

d

driver

g

gauge

t

transverse

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. M. Ledbetter
    • 1
  1. 1.National Bureau of StandardsBoulderUSA

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