Advances in Cryogenic Engineering pp 560-572 | Cite as

# Fracture Mechanics Parameters for an Iron-13% Chromium-19% Manganese Stainless Steel and its Welds at Cryogenic Temperatures

## Abstract

A weldable austenitic stainless steel for liquefied natural gas tankage applications has been developed in the USSR. In the United States, ferritic 9% nickel alloy steels and 5083-0 aluminum are used for similar applications. The USSR alloy composition, Fe-13%Cr-19%Mn-0.2%N-0.8%Ni, has a low nickel content. Substantial amounts of nickel are traditionally required in ferrous alloys to resist low-temperature embrittlement. The substitution of nitrogen and manganese for nickel results in a relatively high-strength austenitic alloy.

## Keywords

Stress Intensity Factor Fatigue Crack Growth Fusion Zone Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Resistance Curve## Notation

- a
average value of crack length, measured from load line

- A
area under load-displacement curve, to point where test was terminated

- b
uncracked ligament of specimen (

*b*=*W*−*a*)- B
thickness of compact or bend specimen

- BM
base metal

- C
fatigue crack growth rate equation coefficient

- da/dN
fatigue crack growth rate

- E
Young’s modulus

- FZ
fusion zone of weld

- HAZ
heat-affected zone of weld

- J
*J*-integral; the parameter proportional to the amount of energy required to extend a crack*J*_{IC}critical value of

*J*at initiation of crack extension- K
elastic stress intensity factor

*K*_{IC}(*J*)critical stress intensity factor and plane strain fracture toughness as estimated from

*J*_{ IC }*K*_{max}^{f}maximum stress intensity factor used in fatigue cracking

- LT
designation for crack growth in the transverse direction

- M
moment applied to bend specimen

- N
number of load cycles

- n
exponent of fatigue crack growth equation

- P
load

- R
stress ratio

- S
span dimension for three point bend specimen

- TL
designation for crack growth in the rolling direction

- TS
designation for crack growth in the thickness direction

- W
width of compact or bend specimen

- Y
*K*calibration function

## Greek symbols

- δ
displacement

- Δ
*a* average value of crack extension in

*J*test- Δ
*K* stress intensity factor range in fatigue cycle, Δ

*K*=*K*_{max}−*K*_{min}- σ
_{f} flow stress; the average value of the material’s uniaxial yield and tensile stresses

- ν
Poisson’s ratio

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## References

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