Self-Identification: Toward an Integration of the Private and Public Self

  • Barry R. Schlenker
Part of the Springer Series in Social Psychology book series (SSSOC)

Abstract

It is tempting to draw a sharp line of demarcation between the private and public sides of the self. The private self has been afforded a prestigious status within psychology. It is usually regarded as both a structure, containing the organized, relatively stable contents of one’s personal experiences, and an active process that guides and regulates one’s thoughts, feelings, and actions. It is the core of one’s inner being: basic, enduring, distinctive, genuine, and a worthy subject for examination by psychologists.

Keywords

Depression Covariance Expense Defend Heroine 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alexander, C. N., Jr., & Rudd, J. (1981). Situated identities and response variables. In J. T. Tedeschi (Ed.), Impression management theory and social psychological research. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, C. N., Jr., & Wiley, M. G. (1981). Situated activity and identity formation. In M. Rosenberg & R. H. Turner (Eds.), Social psychology: Sociological perspectives. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  3. Alicke, M. D. (in press). Public explanation and private ratiocination: Communication between the public and private selves. In R. H. Hogan & W. H. Jones (Eds.), Perspectives in personality: Theory, measurement, and interpersonal dynamics (Vol. 2). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  4. Aronson, E. (1969). The theory of cognitive dissonance: A current perspective. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 4). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  5. Backman, C. W. (1985). Identity, self-presentation, and the resolution of moral dilemmas: Towards a social psychological theory of moral behavior. In B. R. Schlenker (Ed.), The self and social life. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  6. Backman, C. W., Second, P. S., & Peirce, J. R. (1963). Resistance to change in the self-concept as a function of consensus among significant others. Sociometry, 26, 102– 111.Google Scholar
  7. Baldwin, J. M. (1897). Social and ethical interpretations. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  8. Baumeister, R. F. (1982). A self-presentational view of social phenomena. Psychological Bulletin, 91, 3–26.Google Scholar
  9. Baumeister, R. E, & Jones, E. E. (1978). When self-presentation is constrained by the target’s prior knowledge: Consistency and compensation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 608–618.Google Scholar
  10. Bern, D. J. (1972). Self-perception theory. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 6). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  11. Bern, D. J., & Funder, D. C. (1978). Predicting more of the people more of the time: Assessing the personality of situations. Psychological Review, 85, 485–501.Google Scholar
  12. Buss, A. H. (1980). Self-consciousness and social anxiety. San Francisco: Freeman.Google Scholar
  13. Buss, A. H., & Briggs, S. R. (1984). Drama and the self in social interactions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 1310–1324.Google Scholar
  14. Cantor, N., & Mischel, W. (1979). Prototypes in person perception. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 12). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  15. Carver, C. S. (1979). A cybernetic model of self-attention processes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1251–1281.Google Scholar
  16. Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (1981). Attention and self-regulation: A control-theory approach to human behavior. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  17. Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (1985). Aspects of self and the control of behavior. In B. R. Schlenker (Ed.), The self and social life. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  18. Chaiken, S., & Baldwin, M. W. (1981). Affective-cognitive consistency and the effect of salient behavioral information on the self-perception of attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 1–12.Google Scholar
  19. Cheek, J. M. (1982). Aggregation, moderator variables, and the validity of personality tests: A peer-rating study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 1254–1269.Google Scholar
  20. Cheek, J. M., & Hogan, R. (1983). Self-concepts, self-presentations, and moral judgments. In J. Suls & A. G. Greenwald (Eds.), Psychological perspectives on the self (Vol. 2). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  21. Christie, R., & Geis, F. L. (Eds.) (1970). Studies in Machiavellianism. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  22. Collins, B. E., & Hoyt, M. F. (1972). Personal responsibility-for-consequences: An integration and extension of the “forced compliance” literature. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 8, 558–593.Google Scholar
  23. Cooley, C. H. (1902). Human nature and the social order. New York: Scribners.Google Scholar
  24. Cooper, J., & Fazio, R. H. (1984). A new look at dissonance theory. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 17). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  25. Crowne, D. P., & Marlowe, D. (1964). The approval motive. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  26. Dlugolecki, D., & Schlenker, B. R. (1985). The impact of self-presentations on subsequent self-appraisals: General or specific effects? Unpublished manuscript, University of Florida, Gainesville.Google Scholar
  27. Elms, A. C. (1967). Role playing, incentive, and dissonance. Psychological Bulletin, 68, 132–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Epstein, S. (1973). The self-concept revisited: Or a theory of a theory. American Psychologist, 28, 404–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Erikson, E. H. (1959). Identity and the life cycle. In G. S. Klein (Ed.), Psychological issues. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  30. Fazio, R. H., Effrein, E. A., & Falender, V. J. (1981). Self-perceptions following social interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 232–242.Google Scholar
  31. Fazio, R. H., Herr, P. M., & Olney, T. J. (1984). Attitude accessibility following a self-perception process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 277–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Fazio, R. H., & Zanna, M. P. (1981). Direct experience and attitude-behavior consistency. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 14). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  33. Fazio, R. H., Zanna M. P., & Cooper, J. (1977). Dissonance and self-perception: An integrative view of each theory’s proper domain of application. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 13, 464–479.Google Scholar
  34. Fenigstein, A., Scheier, M. E, & Buss, A. H. (1975). Public and private self-consciousness: Assessment and theory. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 522–527.Google Scholar
  35. Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson.Google Scholar
  36. Fiske, S. T., & Taylor, S. E. (1984). Social cognition. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  37. Frey, D. (1981). The effect of negative feedback about oneself and cost of information on preference for information about the source of this feedback. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 17, 42–50.Google Scholar
  38. Gergen, K. J. (1965). Interaction goals and personalistic feedback as factors affecting the presentation of self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1, 413–424.Google Scholar
  39. Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  40. Gollwitzer, P. M., & Wicklund, R. A. (1985). Self-symbolizing and the neglect of others’ perspectives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 702–715.Google Scholar
  41. Green, D. (1974). Dissonance and self-perception analyses of “forced compliance”: When two theories make competing predictions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 29, 819–828.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Greenwald, A. G. (1980). The totalitarian ego: Fabrication and revision of personal history. American Psychologist, 35, 603–618.Google Scholar
  43. Greenwald, A. G., & Breckler, S. J. (1985). To whom is the self presented? In B. R. Schlenker (Ed.), The self and social life. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  44. Greenwald, A. G., & Pratkanis, A. R. (1984). The self. In R. S. Wyer & T. K. Srull (Eds.), Handbook of social cognition (Vol. 3). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  45. Harré, R. (1983). Identity projects. In G. M. Breakwell (Ed.), Threatened identities. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  46. Hewitt, J. P. (1976). Self and society: A symbolic interactionist social psychology. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  47. Higgins, E. T., & King, G. A. (1981). Accessibility of social constructs: Information-processing consequences of individual and contextual variability. In N. Cantor & J. F. Kihlstrom (Eds.), Personality, cognition, and social interaction. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  48. Hogan, R. (1982). A socioanalytic theory of personality. In M. Page (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  49. Hogan, R., & Cheek, J. M. (1983). Identity, authenticity, and maturity. In T. R. Sarbin & K. E. Scheibe (Eds.), Studies in social identity. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  50. Hogan, R., Jones, W W, & Cheek, J. M. (1985). Socioanalytic theory: An alternative to armadillo psychology. In B. R. Schlenker (Ed.), The self and social life. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  51. Hogan, R., & Sloan, T. (1985). Self-presentation and personality: A reply to Buss and Briggs. Unpublished manuscript, University of Tulsa.Google Scholar
  52. Isen, A. M. (1984). Toward understanding the role of affect in cognition. In R. S. Wyer & T. K. Srull (Eds.), Handbook of social cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  53. James, W. (1890). The principles of psychology. New York: Holt.Google Scholar
  54. James, W. (1907). Pragmatism. New York: Longmans-Green.Google Scholar
  55. Janis, I. L. (1968). Attitude change via role-playing. In R. P. Abelson, E. Aronson, W. J. McGuire, T. M. Newcomb, M. R. Rosenberg, & P. H. Tannenbaum (Eds.), Theories of cognitive consistency: A sourcebook. Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  56. Jeffery, K. M., & Mischel, W. (1979). Effects of purpose on organization and recall of information in person perception. Journal of Personality, 47, 397–419.Google Scholar
  57. Jones, E. E. (1964). Ingratiation. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  58. Jones, E. E., Gergen, K. J., & Davis, K. E. (1962). Some determinants of reactions to being approved or disapproved as a person. Psychological Monographs, 76, (2, Whole No. 521).Google Scholar
  59. Jones, E. E., & Harris, V. A. (1967). The attribution of attitudes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 3, 2–24.Google Scholar
  60. Jones, E. E., & Pittman, T. S. (1982). Toward a general theory of strategic self-presentation. In J. Suls (Ed.), Psychological perspectives on the self (Vol. 1). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  61. Jones, E. E., Rhodewalt, E, Berglas, S., & Skelton, J. A. (1981). Effects of strategic self-presentation on subsequent self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 407–421.Google Scholar
  62. Jones, E. E., & Wortman, C. (1973). Ingratiation: An attributional approach. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.Google Scholar
  63. Jones, S. C. (1973). Self- and interpersonal evaluations: Esteem theories versus consistency theories. Psychological Bulletin, 79, 185–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kanouse, D. E., Gumpert, P., & Canavan-Gumpert, D. (1981). The semantics of praise. In J. H. Harvey, W. Ickes, & R. F. Kidd (Eds.), New directions in attribution research (Vol. 3). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  65. Kelley, H. H. (1967). Attribution theory in social psychology. In D. Levine (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  66. Kiesler, C. A. (1971). The psychology of commitment. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  67. Kihlstrom, J. E, & Cantor, N. (1984). Mental representations of the self. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 17). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  68. Langer, E. J. (1978). Rethinking the role of thought in social interaction. In J. H. Harvey, W. Ickes, & R. F. Kidd (Eds.), New directions in attribution research (Vol. 2). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  69. Leary, M. R. (1983). Understanding social anxiety: Social, personality, and clinical perspectives. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  70. Lieberman, S. (1956). The effects of changes in roles on the attitudes of role occupants. Human Relations, 9, 385–402.Google Scholar
  71. Markus, H. (1977). Self-schemata and processing information about the self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 63–78.Google Scholar
  72. McGuire, W. J., McGuire, C. V, Child, P., & Fujioka, T. (1978). Salience of ethnicity in the spontaneous self-concept as a function of one’s ethnic distinctiveness in the social environment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 511–520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. McGuire, W. J., McGuire, C. V, & Winton, W. (1979). Effects of household sex composition of the salience of one’s gender in the spontaneous self-concept. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 15, 77–90.Google Scholar
  74. McGuire, W. J., & Padawer-Singer, A. (1978). Trait salience in the spontaneous self-concept. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33, 743–754.Google Scholar
  75. Mead, G. H. (1934). Mind, self, and society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  76. Mettee, D. R., & Aronson, E. (1974). Affective reactions to appraisal from others. In T. L. Huston (Ed.), Foundations of interpersonal attraction. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  77. Mischel, W., Ebbesen, E. B., & Zeiss, A. R. (1973). Selective attention to the self: Situational and dispositional determinants. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 27, 129–142.Google Scholar
  78. Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1981). Attitudes and persuasion: Classic and contemporary approaches. Dubuque, IA: William C. Brown.Google Scholar
  79. Phillips, N. E. (1973). Militarism and grassroots involvement in the military-industrial complex. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 17, 625–655.Google Scholar
  80. Pierce, C. S. (1878). How to make our ideas clear. Popular Science Monthly, 12, 286– 302.Google Scholar
  81. Pyszczynski, T., Greenberg, J., & LaPrelle, J. (1985). Social comparison after success and failure: Biased search for information consistent with a self-serving conclusion. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 21, 195–211.Google Scholar
  82. Riess, M., Rosenfeld, P., Melburg, V., & Tedeschi, J. T. (1981). Self-serving attributions: Biased private perceptions and distorted public descriptions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 224–231.Google Scholar
  83. Riess, M., & Schlenker, B. R. (1977). Attitude change and responsibility avoidance as modes of dilemma resolution in forced compliance settings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 21–30.Google Scholar
  84. Rosenberg, M. (1979). Conceiving the self New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  85. Sarbin, T. R., & Allen, V. L. (1968). Role theory. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 1). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  86. Scheier, M. R., & Carver, C. S. (1980). Private and public self-attention, resistance to change, and dissonance reduction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 390–405.Google Scholar
  87. Schlenker, B. R. (1975). Self-presentation: Managing the impression of consistency when reality interferes with self-enhancement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 1030–1037.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Schlenker, B. R. (1980). Impression management: The self-concept, social identity, and interpersonal relations. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole (Distributed by Krieger Publishers, Melbourne, FL).Google Scholar
  89. Schlenker, B. R. (1981, August). Self-presentation: A conceptualization and model. Paper presented at the 89th Annual Meetings of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  90. Schlenker, B. R. (1982). Translating actions into attitudes: An identity-analytic approach to the explanation of social conduct. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 15). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  91. Schlenker, B. R. (1984). Identities, identifications, and relationships. In V Derlega (Ed.), Communication, intimacy and close relationships. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  92. Schlenker, B. R. (1985a). Identity and self-identification. In B. R. Schlenker (Ed.), The self and social life. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  93. Schlenker, B. R. (1985b). Introduction: Foundations of the self in social life. In B. R. Schlenker (Ed.), The self and social life. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  94. Schlenker, B. R. (in press). Threats to identity: Self-identification and social stress. In C. R. Snyder & C. E. Ford (Eds.), Coping with negative life events: Clinical and social psychological perspectives. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  95. Schlenker, B. R., Forsyth, D. R., Leary, M. R., & Miller, R. S. (1980). Self-presentational analysis of the effects of incentives on attitude change following counterattitudinal behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 553–577.Google Scholar
  96. Schlenker, B. R., & Goldman, H. J. (1982). Attitude change as a self-presentation tactic following attitude-consistent behavior: Effects of choice and role. Social Psychology Quarterly, 45, 92–99.Google Scholar
  97. Schlenker, B. R., Hallam, J. R., & McCown, N. E. (1983). Motives and social evaluation: Actor-observer differences in the delineation of motives for a beneficial act. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 19, 254–273.Google Scholar
  98. Schlenker, B. R., & Leary, M. R. (1982a). Social anxiety and self-presentation: A conceptualization and model. Psychological Bulletin, 92, 641–669.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Schlenker, B. R., & Leary, M. R. (1982b). Audiences’ reactions to self-enhancing, self-denigrating, and accurate self-presentations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 18, 89–104.Google Scholar
  100. Schlenker, B. R., & Leary, M. R. (in press). Social anxiety and communication about the self. Journal of Language and Social Psychology.Google Scholar
  101. Schlenker, B. R., Miller, R. S., & Leary, M. R. (1983). Self-presentation as a function of the validity and quality of past performance. Representative Research in Social Psychology, 13, 2–14.Google Scholar
  102. Schlenker, B. R., & Riess, M. (1979). Self-presentation of attitudes following commitment to proattitudinal behavior. Human Communication Research, 5, 325–334.Google Scholar
  103. Schlenker, B. R., & Schlenker, P. A. (1975). Reactions following counterattitudinal behavior which produces positive consequences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 962–971.Google Scholar
  104. Secord, P. R, & Backman, C. W. (1965). Interpersonal approach to personality. In B. H. Maher (Ed.), Progress in experimental personality research (Vol. 2). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  105. Shrauger, J. S. (1975). Responses to evaluation as a function of initial self-perceptions. Psychological Bulletin, 82, 581–596.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Sicoly, F, & Ross, M. (1977). Facilitation of ego-biased attributions by means of self-serving observer feedback. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 734–741.Google Scholar
  107. Snyder, C. R. (1985). The excuse: An amazing grace? In B. R. Schlenker (Ed.), The self and social life. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  108. Snyder, C. R., Higgins, R. L., & Stucky, R. J. (1983). Excuses: Masquerades in search of grace. New York: Wiley-Interscience.Google Scholar
  109. Snyder, M. (1979). Self-monitoring processes. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 12). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  110. Snyder, M. (1984). When belief creates reality. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 18). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  111. Snyder, M., & Swann, W. B., Jr. (1976). When actions reflect attitudes: The politics of impression management. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 1034–1042.Google Scholar
  112. Snyder, M., & White, P. (1982). Moods and memories: Elation, depression, and the remembering of the events of one’s life. Journal of Personality, 50, 149–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Spivak, R., & Schlenker, B. R. (1985). The impact of self-presentations on self-appraisals: Self-inference of self-affirmation? Unpublished manuscript, University of Florida, Gainesville.Google Scholar
  114. Stone, G. P. (1962). Appearance and the self. In A. M. Rose (Ed.), Human behavior and social processes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  115. Sullivan, H. S. (1953). Conceptions of modern psychiatry. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  116. Swann, W B., Jr. (1983). Self-verification: Bringing social reality into harmony with the self. In J. Suls & A. G. Greenwald (Eds.), Psychological perspectives on the self (Vol. 2). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  117. Swann, W. B., Jr. (1985). The self as architect of social reality. In B. R. Schlenker (Ed.), The self and social life. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  118. Swann, W B., Jr., & Hill, C. A. (1982). When our identities are mistaken: Reaffirming self-conceptions through social interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 59–66.Google Scholar
  119. Swann, W. B., Jr., & Read, S. J. (1981). Self-verification processes: How we sustain our self-conceptions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 17, 351–372.Google Scholar
  120. Taylor, S. E. (1975). On inferring one’s own attitudes from one’s behavior: Some delimiting conditions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 126–131.Google Scholar
  121. Tedeschi, J. T. (Ed.). (1981). Impression management theory and social psychological research. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  122. Tedeschi, J. T., & Norman, N. (1985). Social power, self-presentation, and the self. In B. R. Schlenker (Ed.), The self and social life. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  123. Tedeschi, J. T., & Rosenfeld, P. (1981). Impression management theory and the forced compliance situation. In J. T. Tedeschi (Ed.), Impression management theory and social psychological research. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  124. Tedeschi, J. T. Schlenker, B. R., & Bonoma, T. V. (1971). Cognitive dissonance: Private ratiocination or public spectacle? American Psychologist, 26, 685–695.Google Scholar
  125. Tesser, A. (1978). Self-generated attitude change. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 11). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  126. Tetlock, P. E. (1985). Toward an intuitive politician model of attribution processes. In B. R. Schlenker (Ed.), The self and social life. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  127. Tetlock, P. E., & Levi, A. (1982). Attribution bias: On the inconclusiveness of the cognition-motivation debate. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 18, 68–88.Google Scholar
  128. Tetlock, P. E., & Manstead, A. S. R. (1985). Impression management versus intrapsychic explanations in social psychology: A useful dichotomy? Psychological Review, 92, 59–77.Google Scholar
  129. Trzebinski, J., McGlynn, R. P., Gray, G., & Tubbs, D. (1985). The role of categories of an actor’s goals in organizing inferences about a person. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 1387–1397.Google Scholar
  130. Turner, R. H., & Gordon, S. (1981). The boundaries of the self: The relationship of authenticity in the self-conception. In M. D. Lynch, A. A. Norem-Hebeisen, & K. J. Gergen (Eds.), Self-concept: Advances in theory and research. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  131. Upshaw, H. S., & Yates, L. A. (1968). Self-persuasion, social approval, and task success as determinants of self-esteem following impression management. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 4, 143–152.Google Scholar
  132. Verhaeghe, H. (1976). Mistreating other persons through simple discrepant role playing: Dissonance arousal or response contagion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 125–137.Google Scholar
  133. Watson, D., & Friend, R. (1969). Measurement of social-evaluative anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 33, 448–457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Weary Bradley, G. (1978). Self-serving biases in the attribution process: A reexamination of the fact or fiction question. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 56–71.Google Scholar
  135. Wicklund, R. A., & Brehm, J. W (1976). Perspectives on cognitive dissonance. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  136. Wicklund, R. A., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (1982). Symbolic self-completion. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  137. Wood, W (1982). Retrieval of attitude-relevant information from memory: Effects on susceptibility to persuasion and on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 798–810.Google Scholar
  138. Woodyard, H. D. (1972). Self-perception, dissonance, and premanipulation attitudes. Psychonomic Science, 29, 193–196.Google Scholar
  139. Wyer, R. S., Jr., & Frey, D. (1983). The effects of feedback about self and others on the recall and judgments of feedback-relevant information. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 19, 540–559.Google Scholar
  140. Wyer, R. S., Jr., & Srull, T. K. (1981). Category accessibility: Some theoretical and empirical issues concerning the processing of social stimulus information. In E. T. Higgins, C. P. Herman, & M. P. Zanna (Eds.), Social cognition: The Ontario Symposium (Vol. 1). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry R. Schlenker

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations