Platelet and Granulocyte Transfusions in Cancer Patients

  • Janice P. Dutcher
Part of the Advances in Immunity and Cancer Therapy book series (IMMUNITY, volume 2)


Recent advances in cancer treatment, both of solid tumors and of hematologic malignancies, have largely been through the administration of more intensive and effective therapy. With this therapy, we are asked, therefore, to support these patients through periods of marrow hypoplasia with its attendant pancytopenia, with the hope of producing extended freedom from disease. In solid tumors, this approach includes the use of intensive chemotherapy, as well as combinations of chemo-and radiotherapy, and at times with the addition of autologous bone marrow transplantation. In acute leukemia, the primary treatment goal is ablation of the malignant bone marrow to allow regrowth of normal marrow. Aggressive transfusion therapy is necessary to support the leukemia patient through the somewhat predictable period of marrow aplasia, until he or she enters remission or at least develops regeneration of some normal peripheral blood cells (1,2). In addition, recent data from a number of institutions suggest that treatment with prolonged periodic intensive therapy has the potential for producing prolonged disease-free survival, an approach that requires periodic intensive transfusion support.


Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Platelet Transfusion Transfusion Therapy Granulocyte Transfusion Count Increment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



acquired immune deficiency syndrome


serum alanine aminotransferase


acute nonlymphocytic leukemia


acute progranulocytic leukemia


corrected count increment


chronic myelocytic leukemia




cerebrospinal fluid


disseminated intravascular coagulation




granulocyte indirect immunofluorescence test


graft-versus-host disease


hydroxyethyl starch


human T cell leukemia virus


lymphadenopathy associated virus


polymorphonuclear leukocyte


white blood cell


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Dutcher JP: Platelet transfusion therapy. In Wiernik PH, Canellos GP, Kyle RA, Schiffer CA (eds): Neoplastic Diseases of the Blood, pp 1039–1059. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1985.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dutcher JP: Granulocyte transfusion therapy. Am J Med Sci 287:11–17, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Duke WW: Relationship of blood platelets to hemorrhagic disease: Description of a method for determining bleeding time and coagulation time and report of cases of hemorrhagic disease relieved by transfusion. JAMA 55:1185, 1910.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Freireich EJ, Kliman A, Gaydos LA, Mantel N, Frei E III: Response to repeated platelet transfusion from the same donor. Ann Intern Med 59:177–187, 1963.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Freireich EJ, Levin RH, Whang J, Carbone PP, Bronson W, Morse EE: The function and fate of transfused leukocytes from donors with chronic myelocytic leukemia in leukopenic recipients. Ann NYAcad Sci 113:1081–1089, 1964.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lowenthal RM, Grossman L, Goldman JM, Storring RA, Buskard NA, Park DS, Murphy BC, Spiers ASD, Galton DAG: Granulocyte transfusions for control of infections in patients with acute leukaemia and aplastic anaemia. Lancet 1:353–358, 1975.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schiffer CA, Aisner J, Dutcher JP, Wiernik PH: Sustained post-transfusion granulocyte count increments following transfusion of leukocytes obtained from donors with chronic myelogenous leukemia. Am J Hematol 15:65–74, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gaydos LA, Freireich EJ, Mantel N: The quantitative relation between platelet count and hemorrhage in patients with acute leukemia. N Engl J Med 266:905–909, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Szymanski IO, Patti K, Kliman A: Efficacy of the Latham Blood Processor to perform plateletpheresis. Transfusion 13:405–411, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hester JP, Kellogg RM, McCredie KB, Freireich EJ: Patient response to dual stage platelet concentrates. Transfusion 20(Suppl):14a, 1980.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hester JP, Kellogg RM, Mulzet AP, Kruger VR, McCredie KB, Freireich EJ: Principles of blood separation and component extraction in a disposable continuous-flow single-stage channel. Blood 54:254–268, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Katz Ai, Genco PV, Blumberg N, Snyder EL, Camp B, Morse EE: Platelet collection and transfusion using the Fenwal CS-3000 cell separator. Transfusion 21:560–563, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Daly PA, Schiffer CA, Aisner J, Wiernik PH: A comparison of platelets prepared by the Haemonetics Model 30 and multiunit bag plateletpheresis. Transfusion 19:778–781, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hogge DE, Schiffer CA: Collection of platelets depleted of red and white cells with the “surge pump” adaption of a blood cell separator. Transfusion 23:177–181, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schoendorfer DW, Hansen LE, Kenney DM: The surge technique: A method to increase purity of platelet concentrates obtained by centrifuged apheresis. Transfusion 23:182–189, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Heal JM, Horan PK, Schmitt TC, Bailey G, Nushacher J: Long-term follow-up of donors cytapheresed more than 50 times. Vox Sang 45:14–24, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shulman NR: Immunological considerations attending platelet transfusion. Transfusion 6:39–49, 1966.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Claas FHJ, Smeenk RJT, Schmidt R, van Steenbrugge GJ, Eernisse JG: Alloimmunization against the MHC antigens after platelet transfusion is due to contaminating leukocytes in the platelet suspension. Erp Hematol 9:84–89, 1981.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dausset J, Rapaport FT: Transplantation antigen activity of human blood platelets. Transplantation 4:182–195, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Herzig RH, Herzig GP, Bull MI, Decter JA, Lohrmann H-P, Stout FG, Yankee RA, Graw RG Jr: Correction of poor platelet transfusion responses with leukocyte-poor HLA-matched platelet concentrates. Blood 46:743–750, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Katz A, Houx J, Ewald L: Storage of platelets prepared by discontinuous flow centrifugation. Transfusion 18:220–223, 1979.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Murphy S, Gardner FH: Platelet storage at 22°C; metabolic, morphologic, and functional studies. J Clin Invest 50:370–377, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Murphy S, Sayar SN, Gardner FH: Storage of platelet concentrates at 22°C. Blood 35:549–557, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Slichter SJ, Harker LA: Preparation and storage of platelet concentrates. H. Storage variables influencing platelet viability and function. Br J Haematol 34:403–418, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Filip DJ, Aster RH: Relative hemostatic effectiveness of human platelets stored at 4° and 22°C. J Lab Clin Med 91:618–624, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Murphy S, Gardner FH: Platelet storage at 22°C: Role of gas transport across plastic containers in maintenance of viability. Blood 46:209–218, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Holme S, Vaidja S, Murphy S: Platelet storage at 22°C: Effect of type of agitation on morphology, viability, and function in vitro. Blood 52:425–435, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Snyder EL, Koerner AW, Kakaiya R, Moore P, Kiraly T: Effect of mode of agitation on storage of platelet concentrates in PL-732 containers for 5 days. Vox Sang 44:300–304, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Snyder EL, Bookbinder M, Kakaiya R, Ferri P, Kiraly T: 5-day storage of platelet concentrates in CLX containers: Effect of type of agitation. Vox Sang 45:432–437, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Murphy S, Kahn RA, Holme S, Phillips GL, Sherwood W, Davisson W, Buchholz DH: Improved storage of platelets for transfusion in a new container. Blood 60:194–200, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Archer GT, Grimsley PG, Jindra J, Robson JE, Ribeiro A: Survival of transfused platelets collected into new formulation plastic packs. Vox Sang 43:223–230, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Simon TL, Nelson EJ, Carmen R, Murphy S: Extension of platelet concentrate storage. Transfusion 23:201–212, 1983.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kahn RA, Staggs SD, Phillips GL: Recovery, life-span, and function of stored plateletpheresis units. Vox Sang 40:253–259, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rock GA, Blanchette VS, Wong SC: Storage of platelets collected by apheresis. Transfusion 23:99–105, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Buchholz DH, Grode G, Porten J, Anderson M, Kozar I, Brda J, Smith J, Lin A: Seven day room temperature storage of platelets collected with the Fenwal CS-3000 blood cell separator. Proc Am Assoc Blood Banks, 35th Annual Meeting, November 1982. Transfusion 22:433, 1982 (Abstract S120).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Harker LA, Slichter SJ: The bleeding time as a screening test for evaluating, platelet function. N Engl J Med 287:155–159, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Han T, Stutzman L, Cohen E, Kim U: Effect of platelet transfusion on hemorrhage in patients with acute leukemia. An autopsy study. Cancer 19:1937–1942, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Roy AJ, Jaffe N, Djerassi I: Prophylactic platelet transfusions in children with acute leukemia: A dose response study. Transfusion 13:283–290, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Higby DJ, Cohen E, Holland JF, Sinks L: The prophylactic treatment of thrombocytopenic leukemic patients with platelets: A double blind study. Transfusion 14:440–446, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Murphy S, Koch PA, Evans AE: Randomized trial of prophylactic vs. therapeutic platelet transfusion in childhood acute leukemia. Clin Res 24:379A, 1976.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Schiffer CA, Aisner J, Wiernik PH: Platelet transfusion therapy for patients with leukemia. In Greenwalt TJ, Jamieson GA (eds): The Blood Platelet in Transfusion Therapy, pp 267–279. New York: AR Liss, Inc., 1978.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Dutcher JP, Schiffer CA, Aisner J, O’Connell BA, Levy C, Kendall JA, Wiernik PH: Incidence of thrombocytopenia and bleeding among patients with solid tumors. Cancer 53:557–562, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Daly PA, Schiffer CA, Wiernik PH: Acute progranulocytic leukemia-clinical management of 15 patients. Am J Hematol 8:347–359, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gralnick HK, Bagley J, Abrel E: Heparin treatment for the hemorrhagic diathesis of acute progranulocytic leukemia. Am J Med 52:167–174, 1971.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Daly PA, Schiffer CA, Aisner J, Wiernik PH: Platelet transfusion therapy. One hour post-transfusion increments are valuable in predicting the need for HLA-matched preparations. JAMA 243:435–438, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mittal KK, Mickey MR, Singal DP, Terasaki PI: Serotyping for homotransplantation XVIII: Refinement of microdroplet lymphocyte cytotoxicity test. Transplantation 6:913–927, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hogge DE, Dutcher JP, Aisner J, Schiffer CA: Lymphocytotoxic antibody is a predictor of response to random donor platelet transfusion. Am J Hematol 14:363–369, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kickler TS, Braine HG, Ness PM, Koester A, Bias W: A radiolabeled antiglobulin test for crossmatching platelet transfusions. Blood 61:238–242, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Cines DB, Schreiber AD: Immune thrombocytopenia: Use of a Coombs antiglobulin test to detect IgG and C3 on platelets. N Engl J Med 300:106–111, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Braine H, Kickler T, Koester A, Bias W, Ness P, Enterline J: The predictive value of crossmatching in HLA matched platelet transfusion. Proc Am Assoc Blood Banks, 36th Annual Meeting. Transfusion 23:414, 1983 (Abstract S30).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Green D, Tiro A, Basiliere J, Mittal KK: Cytotoxic antibody complicating platelet support in acute leukemia. Response to chemotherapy. JAMA 236:1044–1046, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Schiffer CA, Lichtenfeld JL, Wiernik PH, Mardiney MR Jr, Joseph JM: Antibody response in patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. Cancer 37:2177–2182, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Howard JE, Perkins HA: The natural history of alloimmunization to platelets. Transfusion 18:496–503, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Tejada F, Bias WB, Santos GW, Zieve PD: Immunologic response of patients with acute leukemia to platelet transfusions. Blood 42:405–412, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wu KK, Thompson JS, Koepke JA, Hoak JC, Flink R: Heterogeneity of antibody response to human platelet transfusion. J Clin Invest 58:532–538, 1976.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Silver RT, Utz JP, Fahey J, Frei E III: Antibody response in patients with acute leukemia. J Lab Clin Med 56:634–643, 1960.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Dutcher JP, Schiffer CA, Aisner J, Wiernik PH: Alloimmunization following platelet transfusion: The absence of a dose-response relationship. Blood 57:395–398, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Holohan TV, Terasaki PH, Deisseroth AB: Suppression of transfusion-related alloimmunization in intensively treated cancer patients. Blood 58:122–128, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Dutcher JP, Schiffer CA, Aisner J, Wiernik PH: Long-term follow-up of patients with leukemia receiving platelet transfusions: Identification of a large group of patients who do not become alloimmunized. Blood 58:1007–1012, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Slichter SJ: Controversies in platelet transfusion therapy. Ann Rev Med 31:509–540, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Eernisse JG, Brand A: Prevention of platelet refractoriness due to HLA antibodies by administration of leukocyte-poor blood components. Exp Hematol 9:77–83, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Schiffer CA, Dutcher JP, Aisner J, Hogge D, Wiernik PH, Reilly JP: A randomized trial of leukocyte-depleted platelet transfusion to modify alloimmunization in patients with leukemia. Blood 62:815–820, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Akkerman JWN: Personal communication.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Sintnicolaas K, Vriesendorp HM, Sizoo W, Stenfert Kroese WF, Haije WG, Hop WCG, Löwenberg B: Delayed alloimmunization by random single donor platelet transfusions. Lancet 1:750–754, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Duquesnoy RJ: Recent developments in HLA typing. In Vogler WR (ed): Cytapheresis and Plasma &change: Clinical Indications, pp 125–142. New York: AR Liss, Inc., 1982.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Duquesnoy RJ, Filip DJ, Rodey GE, Rimm AA, Aster RH: Successful transfusion of platelets “mismatched” for HLA antigens to alloimmunized thrombocytopenic patients. Am J Hematol 2:219–226, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Schiffer CA, Slichter SJ: Platelet transfusions from single donors. N Engl J Med 307:245–248, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Schiffer CA, Aisner J, Daly PA, Schimpff SC, Wiernik PH: Alloimmunization following prophylactic granulocyte transfusion. Blood 54:766–774, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kalinin ND, Grindon AJ, Vogler WR, Mallard G: Single donor platelets vs. pooled platelet concentrates and the development of refractory state. Proc Am Assoc Blood Banks, 36th Annual Meeting. Transfusion 23:425, 1983 (Abstract S72).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    O’Donnell MR, Slichter SJ: Platelet (plt) alloimmunization: Correlation with donor source. Clin Res 27:390, 1979 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Yankee RA, Grumet FC, Rogentine GN: Platelet transfusion therapy. The selection of compatible platelet donors for refractory patients by lymphocyte HLA typing. N Engl J Med 281:1208–1212, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lohrmann H-P, Bull MI, Decter JA, Yankee RA, Graw RG Jr: Platelet transfusions from HL-A compatible unrelated donors to alloimmunized patients. Ann Intern Med 80:9–14, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Duquesnoy RJ, Viera J, Aster RH: Donor availability for platelet transfusion support of alloimmunized thrombocytopenic patients. Transplant Proc 9:519–521, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Schiffer CA, Keller C, Dutcher JP, Aisner J, Hogge D, Wiernik PH: Potential HLA matched platelet donor availability for alloimmunized patients. Transfusion 23:286–289, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Meyer DM, Hillman RS, Slichter SJ: Plateletpheresis program I. Donor recruitment and commitment. Transfusion 24:287–291, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Nagasawa T, Kim BK, Baldini MG: Temporary suppression of circulating antiplatelet alloantibodies by the massive infusion of fresh, stored or lyophilized platelets. Transfusion 18:429–432, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Blumberg N, Masel D, Mayer T, Horan P, Heal J: Removal of HLAA,B antigens from platelets. Blood 63:448–450, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Alter Hi, Purcell RH, Holland PV, Popper H: Transmissible agent non-A, non-B hepatitis. Lancet 2:459–463, 1978.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Aach RD, Szmuness W, Mosley JW, Hollinger FB, Kahn RA, Stevens CE, Edwards VM, Werch J: Serum alanine aminotransferase of donors in relation to the risk of non-A, non-B hepatitis in recipients. The transfusion-transmitted viruses study. N Engl J Med 304:989–994, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Gallo RC, Sarin PS, Gelmann EP, Robert-Guroff M, Richardson E: Isolation of human T-cell leukemia virus in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Science 220:865–867, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Klatzman D, Barre-Sinoussi F, Nugeyre MT, Dauget C, Vilmer E, Griscelli C, Brunvezinet F, Rouzioux C, Gluckman JC, Cherman J-C, Montagnier L: Selective tropism of lymphadenopathy associated virus (LAV) for helper-inducer T lymphocytes. Science 225:59–63, 1984.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Feorino PM, Jaffe HW, Palmer E, Peterman TA, Francis DP, Kalyanaraman VS, Weinstein RA, Stoneburner RL, Alexander WJ, Raevsky C, Getchell JP, Warfield D, Haverkos HW, Kilbourne BW, Nicholson JKA, Curran JW: Transfusion-associated acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 312:1293–1296, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Curran JW, Lawrence DN, Jaffe H, Kaplan JE, Zyla LD, Chamberland M, Weinstein R, Lui K-J, Schonberger LB, Spira TJ, Alexander WJ, Swinger D, Ammann A, Solomon S, Auerbach D, Mildran D, Stoneburner R, Jason JM, Haverkos HW, Evatt BL: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) associated with transfusions. N Engl J Med 310:69–75, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Bove JR: Transfusion-associated AIDS-a cause for concern (Editorial). N Engl J Med 310:115–116, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Sandler ST, Katz AJ: Impact of AIDS on blood service in the United States (Editorial). Vox Sang 46:1–4, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Osterholm MT, Bowman RJ, Chopek MW, McCullough JJ, Korlath JA, Polesky HF: Screening donated blood and plasma for HTLV III antibody: Facing more than one crisis? N Engl J Med 312:1185–1189, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Thomas ED, Storb R, Cliff RA, Fefer A, Johnson FL, Neiman PE, Lerner KG, Glucksberg H, Buckner CD: Bone marrow transplantation. N Engl J Med 292:832–843, 895–902, 1975.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Cohen D, Weinstein M, Mihm M, Yankee R: Nonfatal graft-versus-host disease occurring after transfusion with leukocytes and platelets obtained from normal donors. Blood 53:1053–1057, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ford JM, Cullen MH, Lucey JJ, Tobias JS, Lister TA: Fatal graft-versus-host disease following transfusion of granulocytes from normal donors. Lancet 2:1167–1169, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Weiden PL, Zuckerman N, Hansen JA, Sale GE, Remlinger K, Beck TM, Buckner CD: Fatal graft-versus-host disease in a patient with lymphoblastic leukemia following normal granulocyte transfusions. Blood 57:328–332, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Dinsmore RE, Straus DJ, Pollack MS, Woodruff JM, Garrett TJ, Young CW, Clarkson BD, Dupont B: Fatal graft-versus-host disease following blood transfusion in Hodgkin’s disease documented by HLA typing. Blood 55:831–834, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Von Flieder V, Higby DJ, Kim U: Graft-versus-host reaction following blood product transfusion. Am J Med 72:951–961, 1982.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Schiffer CA, Aisner J, Dutcher JP, Daly PA, Wiernik PH: A clinical program of autologous frozen platelet transfusion. In Vogler WR (ed): Cytapheresis and Plasma Exchange: Clinical Indications, pp 165–180. New York: AR Liss, Inc., 1982.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Schiffer CA, Aisner J, Wiernik PH: Frozen autologous platelet transfusion for patients with leukemia. N Engl J Med 299:7–12, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Herve P, Potron G, Droule C, Beduchaud MP, Masse M, Coffe C, Bassett JF, Peters A: Human platelets frozen with glycerol in liquid nitrogen: Biological and clinical aspects. Transfusion 21:384–390, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Vander Velden K, Sintnicolaas K, Lowenberg B: In vitro monitoring of platelet cryopreservation (Abstract). Proc Int Soc Hematol and Int Soc Blood Transfusion,Budapest, 1982.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Zaroulis CG, Spector JI, Emerson CP, Valeri CR: Therapeutic transfusions of previously frozen washed human platelets. Transfusion 19:371–378, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Lazarus HM, Kaniecki-Green EA, Warm SE, Aikawa M, Herzig RH: Therapeutic effectiveness of frozen platelet concentrates for transfusion. Blood 57:243–249, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kim BK, Baldini MG: Biochemistry, function and hemostatic effectiveness of frozen human platelets. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 145:830–835, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Valeri CR, Feingold H, Marchionni LL: A simple method for freezing human platelets using 6% dimethylsulfoxide and storage at -80°C. Blood 43:131–136, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Dayian G, Rowe AW: Cryopreservation of human platelets for transfusion: a glycerol-glucose moderate rate cooling procedure. Cryobiology 13:1–8, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kotelba-Witkowska B, Schiffer CA: Cryopreservation of platelet concentrate using glycerol-glucose. Transfusion 22:121–124, 1981.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Daly PA, Schiffer CA, Aisner J, Wiernik PH: Successful transfusion of platelets cryopreserved for more than 3 years. Blood 54:1023–1027, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Vallejos C, McCredie KB, Bodey GP, Hester JP, Freireich EJ: White blood cell transfusions for control of infections in neutropenic patients. Transfusion 15:28–35, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Eyre HJ, Goldstein IM, Perry S, Graw RG: Leukocyte transfusions: Function of transfused granulocytes from donors with chronic myelocytic leukemia. Blood 36:432–442, 1975.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Epstein RB, Waxman FJ, Bennett BT, Andersen BR: Pseudomonas septicemia in neutropenic dogs. I. Treatment with granulocyte transfusions. Transfusion 14:51–57, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Dale DC, Reynolds HY, Pennington JE, Elin RI, Pitts TW, Graw RG Jr: Granulocyte transfusion therapy of experimental Pseudomonas pneumonia. J Clin Invest 54:664–671, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    McCredie KB: Selective transfusion of blood components. Int Adv Surg Oncol 4:145–171, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Winton EF, Vogler WR: Development of a practical oral dexamethasone premedication schedule leading to improved granulocyte yields with the continuous-flow centrifugal blood cell separator. Blood 52:249–253, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Huestis DW, Goodsite LM, Price MJ: Granulocyte collection with the Haemonetics blood cell separator. In Goldman JM, Lowenthal RM (eds): Leukocytes: Separation, Collection and Transfusion, pp 208–219. New York: Academic Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Aisner J, Schiffer CA, Daly PA, Buchholz DH: Evaluation of gravity leukapheresis and comparison with intermittent centrifugation leukapheresis. Transfusion 21:100–106, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Schiffer CA: Filtration leukapheresis: Summary and perspectives. Exp Hematol 7:42–47, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Reiss RF, Pindyck J, Waldman AA, Raju M, Kulpa J: Transfusion of granulocyte-rich buffy coats to neutropenic patients. Med Pediatr Oncol 10:447–454, 1984.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    De Jongh CA, Schimpff SC: Prevention and management of infectious complications of cancer. In Wiernik PH (ed): Supportive Care of the Cancer Patient, pp 75–108. Mt Kisco, NY: Futura Publ Co, 1983.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Love LJ, Schimpff SC, Hahn DM, Young VM, Standiford HC, Bender JF, Fortner CL, Wiernik PH: Randomized trial of empiric antibiotic therapy with ticarcillin in combination with gentamicin, amikacin or netilmicin in febrile patients with granulocytopenia and cancer. Am J Med 66:603–613, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    EORTC International Antimicrobial Therapy Project Group: Three antibiotic regimens in the treatment of infection in febrile granulocytopenic patients with cancer. J Infect Dis 137:14–29, 1978.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Klastersky J: Combinations of antibiotics for therapy of severe infections in cancer patients. EurJ Cancer 15:3–13, 1979.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Love LJ, Schimpff SC, Schiffer CA, Wiernik PH: Improved prognosis for granulocytopenic patients with gram-negative bacteremia. Am J Med 68:643–648, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Keating MJ, Bodey GP, Valdivieso M, Rodriguez V: A randomized comparative trial of three aminoglyocosides-comparison of continuous infusions of gentamicin, amikacin and sisomicin combined with carbenicillin in the treatment of infections in neutropenic patients with malignancies. Medicine 58:159–170, 1970.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Herzig RH, Herzig GP, Graw RG Jr, Bull MI, Ray KK: Successful granulocyte transfusion therapy for gram-negative septicemia. A prospectively randomized controlled study. N Engl J Med 296:701–705, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Vogler WR, Winton EF: A controlled study of the efficacy of granulocyte transfusion in patients with neutropenia. Am J Med 63:548–555, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Wade JC, Schimpff SC, Newman KA, Wiernik PH: Staphylococcus epidermidis: An increasing cause of infection in patients with granulocytopenia. Ann Int Med 97:503–508, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Alavi JB, Root RK, Djerassi I, Evans AE, Gluckman SJ, MacGregor RR, Guerry D, Schreiber AD, Shaw JM, Koch P, Cooper RA: A randomized clinical trial of granulocyte transfusions for infection in acute leukemia. N Engl JMed 296:706–711, 1977.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Graw RG, Herzig G, Perry S, Henderson ES: Normal granulocyte transfusion therapy: Treatment of septicemia due to gram-negative bacteria. N Engl J Med 287:367–371, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Diamond RD, Krzesicki R, Epstein B, Jao W: Damage to hyphal forms of fungi by human leukocytes in vitro. Am J Pathol 91:313–323, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Swerdlow B, Deresinski S: Development of Aspergillus sinusitis in a patient receiving amphotericin B. Treatment with granulocyte transfusions. Am J Med 76:162–166, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Buckner CD, Clift RA, Thomas ED, Hersman J, Sanders JE, Stewart PS, Wade JC, Murphy M, Counts G, Meyers JD: Early infectious complications in allogeneic marrow transplant recipients with acute leukemia: Effects of prophylactic measures. Infection 11:243–250, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Gomez-Villagran JL, Torres-Gómez A, Gomez-Garcia P, Martinez-Guibelalde F, Velasco-Jimena F: A controlled trial of prophylactic granulocyte transfusions during induction chemotherapy for acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer 54:734–738, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Athens JW: Blood leukocytes. Ann Rev Physiol 25:195–212, 1963.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Cartwright GE, Athens JW, Wintrobe MM: The kinetics of granulopoiesis in normal man. Blood 24:780–798, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Boggs DR: The kinetics of neutrophilic leukocytes in health and in disease. Sem Hematol 4:359–386, 1967.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Boggs DR: Transfusion of neutrophils as prevention or treatment of infection in patients with neutropenia. N Engl J Med 290:1055–1062, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Dutcher JP, Schiffer CA, Johnston JC: Rapid migration of indium-labeled granulocytes to sites of infection. N Engl J Med 304:586–589, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Mannoni P, Rodet M, Vernant JP, Brun B, Coquin-Radeau EI, Bracq C, Rochant H, Dreyfus B: Efficiency of prophylactic granulocyte transfusions in preventing infections in acute leukemia. Rev Fr Transfos Immunohematol 22:503–518, 1979.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Winston DJ, Ho WG, Gale RP: Prophylactic granulocyte transfusions during chemotherapy of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. Ann Intern Med 94:616–622, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Strauss RG, Connett JE, Gale RP, Bloomfield CD, Herzig GP, McCullough J, Maguire LC, Winston DJ, Ho W, Stump DC, Miller WV, Koepke JA: A controlled trial of prophylactic granulocyte transfusions during initial induction chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia. N Engl J Med 305:597–638, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Clift RA, Sanders JE, Thomas ED, Williams B, Buckner CD: Granulocyte transfusions for the prevention of infection in patients receiving bone-marrow transplants. N Engl J Med 298:1052–1057, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Winston DJ, Ho WG, Young LS, Gale RP: Prophylactic granulocyte transfusions during human bone marrow transplantation. Am J Med 68:893–897, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Schiffer CA, Aisner J: Rational approach to granulocyte transfusion therapy. In LoBue J (ed): Contemporary Hematology/Oncology, vol 1, p 201. New York: Plenum Publ Corp, 1980.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Karp DD, Ervin TJ, Tuttle S, Gorgone BC, Lavin P, Yunis EJ: Pulmonary complications during granulocyte transfusions; incidence and clinical features. Vox Sang 42:57–61, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Wright DG, Robichaud KJ, Pizzo PA, Deisseroth AB: Lethal pulmonary reactions associated with the combined use of amphotericin-B and leukocyte transfusions. N Engl J Med 304:1185–1189, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Dana BW, Durie BGM, White RF, Huestis DW: Concomitant administration of granulocyte transfusions and amphotericin-B in neutropenic patients: Absence of significant pulmonary toxicity. Blood 57:90–94, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Dutcher JP, Kendall J, Papenberg D, Aiser J, Schiffer CA, Wiernik PH: Concurrent administration of amphotericin B and granulocyte transfusions: Lack of detrimental effect. Clin Res in press.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Boxer LA, Ingraham LM, Allen J, Oseas RS, Baehner RL: Amphotericin-B promotes leukocyte aggregation of nylon-wool-fiber-treated polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Blood 58:518–523, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Winston DJ, Ho WG, Howell CL, Miller MJ, Mickey R, Martin WJ, Lin C-H, Gale RP: Cytomegalovirus infections associated with leukocyte transfusions. Ann Intern Med 93:671–675, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Hersman J, Meyers JD, Thomas ED, Buckner CD, Clift R: The effect of granulocyte transfusions on the incidence of cytomegalovirus infection after allogeneic marrow transplantation. Ann Intern Med 96:149–152, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Rinaldo CR Jr, Black PH, Hirsch MS: Interaction of cytomegalovirus with leukocytes from patients with mononucleosis due to cytomegalovirus. J Infect Dis 136:667–671, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Prince AM, Szmuness W, Millian SJ, David DS: A serological study of cytomegalovirus infections associated with blood transfusions. N Engl J Med 284:1125–1131, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Winston DJ, Pollard RB, Ho WG, Gallagher JG, Rasmussen LE, Huang SN Y, Lin CH, Gossett TG, Merigan TC, Gale RP: Cytomegalovirus immune plasma in bone marrow transplant recipients. Ann Intern Med 97:11–18, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Meyers JD, Leszczynski J, Zaia JA, Flournoy N, Newton B, Snydman DR, Wright GG, Levin MJ, Thomas ED: Prevention of cytomegalovirus infection by cytomegalovirus immune globulin after marrow transplantation. Ann Intern Med 98:442–446, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Bayer WL, Tegtmeier GE: The blood donor: Detection and magnitude of cytomegalovirus carrier states and the prevalence of cytomegalovirus antibody. Yale J Biol Med 49:5–12, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Lalezari P. Neutrophil antigens: Immunology and clinical implications. In Greenwalt TJ, Jamieson GA (eds): The Granulocyte: Function and Clinical Utilization,pp 209–225. New York: AR Liss, Inc., 1977.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Hasegawa T, Graw RG, Terasaki PI: A microgranulocyte cytotoxicity test. Transplantation 15:492–498, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Verheugt FWA, von dem Borne AEGKR, Décary F, Engelfriedt CP: The detection of granulocyte alloantibodies with an indirect immunofluorescence test. Br J Haematol 36:533–544, 1977.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Ungerleider AS, Applebaum FR, Trapani RJ, Deisseroth AB: Lack of predictive value of antileukocyte antibody screening in granulocyte transfusion therapy. Transfusion 19:90–94, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Verheugt FWA, von dem Borne AEGKR, Prins HF, Engelfriet CP: The detection of granulocyte antibodies in relation to granulocyte transfusion. Exp Hematol 5 (Suppl):151–155, 1977.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Graw RG, Goldstein IM, Eyre HI, Terasaki PI: Histocompatibility testing for leukocyte transfusion. Lancet 2:77–78, 1970.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Goldstein IM, Eyre HJ, Terasaki PI, Henderson ES, Graw RG Jr: Leukocyte transfusions: Role of leukocyte alloantibodies in determining transfusion response. Transfusion 11:19–24, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Higby DJ, Mishler JM, Cohen E, Rhomberg W, Nicora RW, Holland JF: Increased elevation of peripheral leukocyte counts by infusion of histocompatible granulocytes. Vox Sang 27:186–189, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Westrick MA, Debelak-Fehir KM, Epstein RB: The effect of prior whole blood transfusion of subsequent granulocyte support in leukopenic dogs. Transfusion 17:611–614, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Applebaum RF, Trapani RI, Graw RG Jr: Consequences of prior alloimmunization during granulocyte transfusion. Transfusion 17:460–464, 1977.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Chow HS, Sarpel SC, Epstein RB: Pathophysiology of Candida albicans meningitis in normal, neutropenic and granulocyte transfused dogs. Blood 55:546–551, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Thakur ML, Lavender JP, Arnot RN, Silvester DJ, Segal AW: Indium-111-labeled autologous leukocytes in man. JNucl Med 18:1012–1019, 1977.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Thakur ML, Coleman RE, Welch MJ: Indium-111-labeled leukocytes for the localization of abscesses: Preparation, analysis, tissue distribution, and comparison with gallium-67 citrate in dogs. J Lab Clin Med 89:217–228, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Ascher NL, Ahrenholz DH, Simmons RL, Wieblen B, Gomez L, Forstrom LA, Frick MP, Henke C, McCullough J: Indium-I11 autologous tagged leukocytes in the diagnosis of intraperitoneal sepsis. Arch Surg 114:386–392, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    McCullough J, Weiblen BJ, Clay ME, Forstrom L: Effect of leukocyte antibodies on the fate in vivo of indium-111-labeled granulocytes. Blood 58:164–170, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Dutcher JP, Schiffer CA, Johnston GS, Papenburg D, Daly PA, Aisner J, Wiernik PH: Alloimmunization prevents the migration of transfused indium-111-labeled granulocytes to sites of infection. Blood 62:354–360, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    McCullough J, Clay M, Richards K, Forstrom L, Loken M: Leukocyte antibodies: Their effect on the fate in vivo of indium-111-labeled granulocytes. Blood 60:80a, 1982.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    McCullough J: Granulocyte transfusion. In Wiernik PH, Canellos GP, Kyle RA, Schiffer CA (eds): Neoplastic Diseases of the Blood, pp 1061–1079. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1985.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Zaroulis CG: Histocompatibility testing for platelets, granulocytes and marrow transplantation. In Wiernik PH, Canellos GP, Kyle RA, Schiffer CA (eds): Neoplastic Diseases of the Blood, pp 1081–1094. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1985.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Dutcher JP, Schiffer CA: Platelet and granulocyte transfusion therapy. In Wiernik PH (ed): Supportive Care of the Cancer Patient, pp 109–121. Mt Kisco, NY: Futura Publ, 1983.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janice P. Dutcher

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations