Tumor Growth Versus Fetal Development—Similarities and Confusions

  • P. K. Ray
  • Sandip Saha
Part of the Advances in Immunity and Cancer Therapy book series (IMMUNITY, volume 2)


The concept that allograft rejection is mediated by an immunological reaction was first proposed by Peter Gorer in 1938 (1). This concept formed the basis of transplantation immunology and was later expanded by the transplantation studies of Sir Peter Medawar (2).


Tumor Antigen Natl Cancer Inst Suppressor Cell Mouse Blastocyst Fetal Antigen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations used in text




antithymocyte serum


carcinoembryonic antigen




human chroionic gonadotropin


inner cell mass




mitomycin C


mammary tumor virus


pancreatic oncofetal antigne


tumor growth-enhancing factors


tumor-specific transplantation antigens


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Gorer PA: The antigenic basis of tumor transplantation. J Pathol Bacteriol 47: 231, 1938.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Medawar PB: The behaviour and fate of skin autografts and skin homografts in rabbits. J Anat 78: 1767, 1944.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Johnson LV, Calarco PG: Mammalian preimplantation development: The cell surface. Anat Record 196: 201, 1980.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hamilton MS, Hellstrom I: Cell-mediated immunity to embryonic antigens of syngeneically and allogeneically mated mice. Transplantation 21: 261, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Salinas FA, Silver HKB, Sheikh KM, Chanders SB: Natural occurrence of human tumor-associated anti-fetal antibodies during normal pregnancy. Cancer 42: 1653, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Allison AC: Relationship of cellular and humoral immunity in virus carcinogenesis. Life Sci 3: 1415, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Old LJ, Boyse EA: Immunology of experimental tumors. Ann Rev Med 15: 167, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sjogren HO: Transplantation methods as a tool for detection of tumor specific antigens. Prog Erp Tumor Res 6: 289, 1965.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rosenau W, Morton DL: Tumor-specific inhibition of growth of methylcholanthrene-induced sarcomas in vivo and in vitro by sensitized isologous lymphoid cells. J Natl Cancer Inst 36: 825, 1966.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hellstrom I, Hellstrom KE, Pierce GE: In vitro studies of immune reactions against autochthonous and syngeneic mouse tumor by methylcholanthrene and plastic discs. Int J Cancer 3: 467, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sjogren HO, Borum K: Tumor-specific immunity in the course of primary polyoma and Rous tumor development in intact and immunosuppressed rats. Cancer Res 31: 890, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Datta SK, Vandaputte M: Studies on cellular and humoral immunity to tumor-specific antigens in polyoma virus-induced tumors of rats. Cancer Res 31: 882, 1971.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hellstrom I, Sjogren HO: In vitro demonstration of humoral and cell-bound immunity against common specific transplantation antigens of adenovirus 12-induced mouse and hamster tumors. J Exp Med 125: 1105, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hellstrom I, Hellstrom KE, Pierce GE, Bill AH: Demonstration of cell-bound and humoral immunity against neuroblastoma cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 60: 1231, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wood WC, Morton DL: Micrototoxicity test: Detection in sarcoma patients of antibody cytotoxic to human sarcoma cells. Science 170: 1318, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Markert CL: Neoplasia: A disease of cell differentiation. Cancer Res 28: 1908, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hellstrom I, Hellstrom KD, Sjogren HO, Warner GA: Demonstration of cell-mediated immunity to human neoplasms of various morphological types. Int J Cancer 7: 1, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Black MM, Leis HP Jr, Shore B, Zachrau RE: Cellular hypersensitivity to breast cancer. Assessment by a leukocyte migration procedure. Cancer 33: 952, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Goldstein MS, Shore B, Gusberg SB: Cellular immunity as a host response to squamous carcinoma of the cervix. Am J Obstet Gynecol 111: 751, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Levi MM: Antigenicity of ovarian and cervical malignancies with a view toward possible immuno-diagnosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 109: 689, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    DiSaia PJ, Rutledge FN, Smith JP, Sinkovics JG: Cell-mediated immunoreaction to two gynecologic malignant tumors. Cancer 28: 1129, 1971.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nalick RH, DiSaia PJ, Rea TH, Morrow MH: Immunologic response in gynecologic malignancy as demonstrated by the delayed hypersensitivity reaction: Clinical correlations. Am J Obstet Gynecol 118: 393, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chen S, Koffler D, Cohen CJ: Cell-mediated immunity in patients with ovarian carcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 115: 467, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Faiferman I, Gleicher N, Cohen CJ, Koffler D: Leukocyte migration in ovarian carcinoma. Comparison of inhibitory activity of tumor extract. J Natl Cancer Inst 59: 1593, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shiku H, Takahashi T, Resnik LA, Oettgen HF, Old LJ: Cell surface antigens of human malignant melanoma. III. Recognition of auto-antibodies with unusual characteristics. J Exp Med 145: 784, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Currie GA, Bagshawe KD: The masking of antigens on trophoblast and cancer cells. Lancet 1: 708, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Apffel CA, Peters JH: Tumors and serum glycoproteins. The `symbodies’ Prog Exp Tumor Res 12: 1, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Watkins E Jr, Ogatoa Y, Anderson LL, Watkins E III, Waters MF: Activation of host lymphocytes cultured with cancer cells treated with neuraminidase. Nature 231: 83, 1971.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sanford BH: An alteration in tumor histocompatibility induced by neuraminidase. Transplantation 5: 1273, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ray PK: Bacterial neuraminidase and altered immunological behavior of treated mammalian cells. Adv Appl Microbiol 21: 227, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Simmons RL, Rios A, Ray PK, Lundgren G: Effect of neuraminidase on the growth of a 3-methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma in normal and immunosuppressed syngeneic mice. J Natl Cancer Inst 47: 1087, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ray PK, Thakur VS, Sundaram K: Antitumor immunity. II. Viability, tumorigenicity and immunogenicity of neuraminidase-treated tumor cells: Effective immunization of animals with a tumor vaccine. J Natl Cancer Inst 56: 83, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Naughton MA, Merrill DA, McManus LM, Fink LM, Berman E, White MJ, Martinez-Hernandez A: Localization of the ß chain of human chorionic gonadotropin on human tumor cells and placental cells. Cancer Res 35: 1887, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kaye MD, Jones WR: Effect of human chorionic gonadotropin on in vitro lymphocyte transformation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 109: 1029, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jenkins DM, Acres MG, Peters J, Riley J: Human chorionic gonadotropin and the fetal allograft. Am J Obstet Gynecol 114: 13, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Han T: Inhibitory effect of human chorionic gonadotropin on lymphocyte blastogenic response to mitogen, antigen, and allogenic cells. J Exp Immunol 18: 529, 1974.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Atanassov B, Astaldi G, Raitchev R, Blagoeva P: Hormonal factors in pregnancy and their relationship to lymphocyte transformations in vitro. Acta Eur Fertil 4: 97, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Albin RJ, Bruns GR, Guinan P, Bush IM: The effect of estrogen on the incorporation of 3H-thymidine by PHA-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes. J Immunol 113: 705, 1974.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Albin RJ, Bruns GR, Guinan P, Bush IM: Immuno-suppressive effect of estrogen on thymic dependent lymphocytic blastogenesis. Urol Res 2: 69, 1974.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Medawar PB, Sparrow EM: The effect of adrenocortical hormones, adrenocorticotrophic hormone and pregnancy of skin transplantation immunity in mice. J Endocrinol 14: 240, 1956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lips CJM, van Der Sluys Veer J, van Der Donk JA, van Dam RH, Hackeng WHL: Common precursor molecule as origin for the ectopic-hormone-producing-tumour syndrome. Lancet 1: 16, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Klein G, Klein E: Histocompatibility changes in tumors. J Cellular Comp Physiol 52 (Suppl 1): 125, 1958.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Klein E, Moller E: Relationship between host range and isoantigenic properties in different sublines of the same sarcoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 31: 347, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Prehn RF, Main JM: Immunity to methylcholanthrene-induced sarcomas. J Natl Cancer Inst 18: 769, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Klein G, Klein E: Antigenic properties of other experimental tumors. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 27: 463, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Old LJ, Boyse EA, Clarke DA, Carswell FA: Antigenic properties of chemically induced tumors. Ann NYAcad Sci 101: 80, 1962.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Old LJ, Stockert E, Boyse EA, Kim JH: Antigenic modulation. Loss of TL antigen from cells exposed to TL antibody, study of the phenomenon in vitro. J Exp Med 127: 523, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Sjogren HO: Transplantation methods as a tool for detection of tumor-specific antigens. Prog Exp Tumor Res 6: 289, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Fenyo EM, Klein G, Swiech K: Selection of an immunoresistant moloney lymphoma subline with decreased concentration of tumor-specific surface antigens. J Natl Cancer Inst 40: 69, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Weiss DW, Faulkin LJ Jr, De Orne KB: Acquisition of heightened resistance and susceptibility to spontaneous mouse mammary carcinomas in the original host. Cancer Res 24: 732, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Morton DL, Goldman L, Wood DA: Immunological tolerance to spontaneous mammary adenocarcinomas (SMC). Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 6: 47, 1965.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Rubin H: The immunological basis for non-infective Rous sarcomas. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 27: 441, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Klein E, Klein G: Antigenic properties of lymphomas induced by the Moloney agent. J Natl Cancer Inst 32: 547, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Sternsward J: Immune status of the primary host toward its own methylcholanthrene-induced sarcomas. J Natl Cancer Inst 40: 13, 1968.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wilson DB, Billingham RE: Lymphocytes and transplantation immunity. Adv Immunol 7: 189, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Schwarz MJ: The mixed lymphocyte reaction: An in vitro test for tolerance. J Exp Med 127: 879, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sjogren HO, Hellstrom I, Klein G: Resistance of polyoma virus immunized mice to transplantation of established polyoma tumors. Exp Cell Res 23: 204, 1961.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Burnet FM: Immunological recognition of self. Science 133: 307, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Snell GD, Winn HJ, Stimptling JH, Parker SJ: Depression by antibody of the immune response to homografts and its role in immunological enhancement. J Exp Med 112: 293, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Moller G: Interaction between humoral isoantibodies and immune lymphoid cells. J Natl Cancer Inst 30: 1205, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Moller G: Effect on tumor growth in syngeneic recipients of antibodies against tumor-specific antigens in methylcholanthrene-induced mouse sarcomas. Nature 204: 846, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Attia MAM, Weiss DW: Immunology of spontaneous mammary carcinomas in mice V. Acquired tumor resistance and enhancement in strain A mice infected with mammary tumor virus. Cancer Res 26: 1787, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Batchelor JR: The use of enhancement in studying tumor antigens. Cancer Res 28: 1410, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Moller E: Antagonistic effects of humoral isoantibodies on the in vitro cytotoxicity of immune lymphoid cells. J Exp Med 22: 11, 1965.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Brunner KT, Mauel J, Cerottini JC, Chapuis B: Quantitative assay of the lytic action of immune lymphoid cells on 51Cr-labeled allogeneic target cells in vitro: Inhibition by isoantibody and drug. Immunology 14: 181, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Takasugi M, Klein E: Role of blocking antibodies in immunological enhancement. Immunology 21: 675, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Peter HH, Feldman JD: Cell-mediated cytotoxicity during rejection and enhancement of allogeneic skin grafts in rats. J Exp Med 135: 1301, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hellstrom I, Hellstrom KE, Evans CA, Heppner GH, Pierce GE, Yang JPS: Serum-mediated protection of neoplastic cells from inhibition by lymphocytes immune to their tumor specific antigens. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 62: 362, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Takasugi M, Hildemann WH: Regulation of immunity toward allogeneic tumors in mice. 1. Effect of antiserum factions on tumor growth. J Natl Cancer Inst 43: 843, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Safford JW, Tokukda S: Suppression of the graft-versus-host reaction by passive immunization of donor against recipient antigens. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 133: 651, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Ran M, Witz IP: Tumor-associated immunoglobulins. Enhancement of syngeneic tumors by IgG2-containing tumor eluates. Int J Cancer 9: 242, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Chard J: Immunological enhancement by mouse isoantibodies. The importance of complement fixation. Immunology 14: 583, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Pierce GE: Enhanced growth of primary Moloney virus-induced sarcomas in mice. Int J Cancer 8: 22, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Pearson GR, Redmon LW, Bass LR: Protective effect of immune sera against transplantable Moloney virus-induced sarcoma and lymphoma. Cancer Res 33: 171, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Bansal SC, Sjogren HO: Counteractions of the blocking of cell-mediated tumor immunity by inoculation of unblocking sera and splenectomy: Immunotherapeutic effects on primary polyoma tumors in rats. Int J Cancer 9: 490, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Block KJ: Heterogeneity in biologic functions of antibodies: Implications for immunologic tumor enhancement. Fed Proc 24: 1030, 1965.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Bubenik J, Koldovsky P: Factors influencing the induction of enhancement and resistance to methylcholanthrene-induced tumors in a syngeneic system. Folia Biol (Prague) 11: 258, 1965.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Bubenik J, Adameova B, Koldovsky P: The dual effect of antibodies against sex-linked histocompatibility antigen. Folia Biol (Prague) 12: 11, 1966.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Chutna J, Rychlikova M: A study of the biological effectiveness of antibodies in the development and prevention of experimental autoimmune aspermatogenesis. Folia Biol (Prague) 10: 188, 1964.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Linna TJ: Effects of early cyclophosphamide treatment on the development of lymphoid organs and immunological functions in the chicken. Intern Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 42: 20, 1972.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Thompson KD, Linna TJ: Bursa-dependent and thymus-dependent “surveillance” of a virus-induced tumor in chicken. Nature 245: 10, 1973.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Currie GA: Effect of active immunization with irradiated tumor cells on specific serum inhibitors of cell-mediated immunity in patients with disseminated cancer. Br J Cancer 28: 25, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ikonopisou RL, Lewis MG, Hunter-Craig ID, Bodenham DC, Philips TM, Cooling CI, Proctor J, Hamilton FG, Alexander P: Autoimmunization with irradiated tumor cells in human malignant melanoma. Br Med J 2: 752, 1970.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Proctor JW, Rudenstan CM, Alexander P: Factors preventing the development of lung metastases in rats with sarcomas. Nature 242: 29, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Sjogren HO, Hellstrom I, Bansal SC, Hellstrom KE: Suggestive evidence that the “blocking antibodies” of tumor-bearing individuals may be antigen-antibodies complexes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 68: 1372, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Alexander P: Escape from immune destruction by the host through shedding of surface antigens. Is this a characteristic shared by malignant and embryonic cells? Cancer Res 34: 2077, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Katz SI, Parker D, Turk JL: B-cell suppression of delayed hypersensitivity reactions. Nature 251: 550, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Zembala M, Asherson GL, Noworolski J, Mayhew B: Contact sensitivity to picryl chloride: The occurrence of B suppressor cells in the lymph nodes and spleen of immunized mice. Cell Immunol 25: 266, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Nelson DS: Nonspecific immunoregulation by macrophages and their products. In Nelson DS (ed): Immunobiology of the Macrophage, p 235. New York: Academic Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Kirchner H, Holden T, Herberman RB: Splenic suppressor macrophages induced in mice by injection of Corynebacterium parvum. J Immunol 115: 1212, 1975.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Gershon RK: T cell control of antibody production. Contemp Topics Immunobiol 3: 1, 1974.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Waldmann TA, Broder S: Suppressor cells in the regulation of the immune response. Prog Clin Immunol 3: 155, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Tada T, Taniguchi M, Takemori T: Properties of primed suppressor T cells and their products. Transplant Rev 26: 106, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Waldmann TA, Broder S, Krakauer R, Durm M, Meade B, Goldman C: Defect in IgA secretion and in IgA specific suppressor cells in patients with selective IgA deficiency. Trans Assoc Am Physicians 89: 215, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Blaese RM, Muchmore AV, Koski IR, Dooley NJ: Infectious agammaglobulinemia: Suppressor T cells with specificity for individual classes. In Benedict A (ed): Avian Immunology, p 155. New York: Plenum, 1977.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Herzenberg LA, Okumura K, Metzler CM: Regulation of immunoglobulin and antibody production by allotype suppressor T cells in mice. Transplant Rev 27: 57, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Herzenberg LA, Okumura K, Herzenberg LA: Mechanism of allotype suppression. In Singhal SK, Sinclair NR (eds): Suppressor Cells in Immunity, p 93. London, Ontario: University of Western Ontario Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Eichmann K: Idiotype suppression. I. Influence of the dose and of the effector functions of anti-idiotype antibody on the production of an idiotype. Eur J Immunol 4: 296, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Moorhead JW: Tolerance and contact sensitivity to DNFB in mice. VI. Inhibition of afferent sensitivity by suppressor T cells in adoptive tolerance. J Immunol 117: 802, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Zembala M, Asherson GL: T cell suppression of contact sensitivity in the mouse. H. The role of soluble suppressor factor and its interaction with macrophages. Eur J Immunol 4: 799, 1974.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Asherson GL, Zembala M: T cell suppression of contact sensitivity. III. The role of macrophages and the specific triggering of nonspecific suppression. Eur J Immunol 4: 804, 1974.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Fujimoto S, Greene M, Sehon AH: Immunosuppressor T cells and their factors in tumor-bearing hosts. In Singhal SK, Sinclair NR (eds): Suppressor Cells in Immunity, p 136. London, Ontario: University of Western Ontario Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Tada T, Taniguchi M, David CS: Properties of the antigen-specific suppressive T-cell factor in the regulation of antibody response of the mouse. IV. Special subregion assignment of the gene(s) that codes for the suppressive T-cell factor in the H-2 histocompatibility complex. J Exp Med 144: 713, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Theze J, Waltenbaugh C, Dorf M, Benacerraf B: Immunosuppressive factor(s) specific for L-glutamic acid50-L-tyrosine50 (GT). II. Presence of I-J determinants on the GT-suppressive factor. J Exp Med 146: 287, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Greene MI, Pierres A, Dorf ME, Benacerraf B: The I-J subregion codes for determinants on suppressor factor(s) which limit the contact sensitivity response to picryl chloride. J Exp Med 146: 293, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Greene MI, Dorf ME, Pierres M, Benacerraf B: Reduction of syngeneic tumor growth by an anti-I-J alloantiserum. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74: 5118, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Umiel T, Trainin N. Immunological enhancement of tumour growth by syngeneic thymus-derived lymphocytes. Transplantation 18: 244, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Treves AJ, Carnaud C, Trainin N, Feldman M, Cohen IR: Enhancing T lymphocytes from tumour-bearing mice suppress host resistance to a syngeneic tumour. Eur J Immunol 4: 722, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Schechter B, Feldman M: Hydrocortisone affects tumor growth by eliminating precursors of suppressor cells. J Immunol 119: 1563, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Yu A, Watts H, Jaffee N, Parkman R: Concomitant presence of tumor-specific cytotoxic and inhibitor lymphocytes in patients with osteogenic sarcoma. N Engl J Med 297: 121, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Gorczynski RM: Immunity to murine sarcoma virus-induced tumors. II. Suppression of T-cell mediated immunity by cells from progressor animals. J Immunol 112: 1826, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Kirchner H, Chused TM, Herberman RB, Holden HT, Lavrin DH: Evidence of suppressor cell activity in spleens of mice bearing primary tumors induced by Moloney sarcoma virus. J Exp Med 139: 1473, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Paglieroni T, Mackenzie MR: Studies on the pathogenesis of an immune defect in multiple myeloma. J Clin Invest 59: 1120, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Zembala M, Mytar B, Popiela T, Asherson GL: Depressed in vitro peripheral blood lymphocyte response to mitogens in cancer patients: The role of suppressor cells. Int J Cancer 19: 605, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Tada T, Takemori T: Selective roles of thymus-derived lymphocytes in the antibody response. I. Differential suppressive effect of carrier-primed T cells on haptenspecific IgM and IgG antibody responses. J Exp Med 140: 239, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Takemori T, Tada T: Selective roles of thymus-derived lymphocytes in the antibody response. II. Preferential suppression of high-affinity antibody-forming cells by carrier-primed suppressor T cells. J Exp Med 140: 253, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Ha TY, Waksman BH, Treffers HP: The thymic suppressor cell. I. Separation of subpopulation with suppressor activity. J Exp Med 139: 13, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Raychaudhuri S, Ray PK, Bassett JG, Cooper DR: High dose antigen-induced suppressor generation in normal and tumor-bearing hosts. Fed Proc 39 (3): 696, 1980.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Ray PK: Immunosuppressor control as a modality of cancer treatment: Effect of plasma adsorption with Staphylococcus aureus Protein A. In Salinas FA, Hanna MG Jr (eds): Immune Complexes and Human Cancer. Contemporary Topics in Immunobiology, p. 147. New York, London: Plenum Press, 1985.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Barski G, Youn JK: Evolution of cell-mediated immunity in mice bearing an antigenic tumor. Influence of tumor growth and surgical removal. J Natl Cancer Inst 43: 111, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Le Francois D, Youn JK, Belehradek J Jr, Barski G: Evolution of cell-mediated immunity in mice bearing tumors produced by a mammary carcinoma cell line. Influence of tumor growth, surgical removal, and treatment with irradiated tumor cells. J Natl Cancer Inst 46: 981, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Belehradek J Jr, Barski G, Thonier M: Evolution of cell-mediated antitumor immunity in mice bearing a syngeneic chemically-induced tumor. Influence of tumor growth, surgical removal and treatment with irradiated tumor cells. Int J Cancer 9: 461, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Heppner GH: In vitro studies on cell-mediated immunity following surgery in mice sensitized to syngeneic mammary tumor. Int J Cancer 9: 119, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Saha S, Ray, PK: Effect of cyclophosphamide on the tumor enhancing activity of splenic lymphocytes generated by high dose tumor antigen. IRCS Med Sci, 13: 1186, 1985.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Gleicher N, Deppe G, Cohen CJ: Common aspect of immunologic tolerance in pregnancy and malignancy. Obstet Gynecol 54 (3): 337, 1979.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Heyner S, Brinster RL, Palm J: Effect of isoantibody on preimplantation mouse embryos. Nature 222: 783, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Searle RF, Johnson MH, Billington WD, Elson J, Clutterbuck-Jackson S: Investigation of H-2 and non-H-2 antigens on the mouse blastocyst. Transplantation 18: 136, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Billington WD, Jenkinson EJ, Searle RF, Sellens MH: Alloantigen expression during early embryogenesis and placental ontogeny in the mouse: Immunoperoxidase and mixed hemadsorption studies. Transpl Proc 9: 1371, 1977.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Morello D, Gachelin G, Dubois P, Tanigaki N, Pressman D, Jacob F: Absence of reaction of a xenogenic anti-H-2 serum with mouse embryonal carcinoma cells. Transplantation 26: 119, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Heyner S: Detection of H-2 antigens on the cells of early mouse embryos. JEmbryol Exp Morphol 33: 685, 1973.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Patthey H, Edidin M: Evidence for the time of appearance of H-2 antigens in mouse development. Transplantation 15: 211, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Searle RF, Jenkinson EJ, Johnson MH: Immunogenicity of mouse trophoblast and embryonic sac. Nature 255: 719, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Hâkansson S, Heyner S, Sundqvist KG, Bergstrom S: The presence of paternal H-antigens on hybrid mouse blastocysts during experimental delay of implantation and the disappearance of these antigens after onset of implantation. Int J Fert 20: 137, 1975.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Hakansson S, Peterson PA: Presence of beta-2 microglobulin on the implanting mouse blastocyst. Transplantation 21: 358, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Searle RF, Sellens MH, Elson J, Jenkinson EJ, Billington WD: Detection of alloantigens during preimplantation development and early trophoblast differentiation in the mouse by immunoperoxidase labeling. J Exp Med 143: 348, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Palm J, Heyner S, Brinster RL: Differential immunofluorescence of fertilized mouse eggs with H-2 and non-H-2 antibody. J Exp Med 133: 1282, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Hetherington CM, Humber DP: The effects of active immunization on the decidual cell reaction and ectopic blastocyst development in mice. J Reprod Fert 43: 333, 1975.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Muggleton-Harris AL, Johnson MH: The nature and distribution of serologically detectable alloantigens on the preimplantation mouse embryo. J Embryol Exp Morphol 35: 52, 1976.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Sherman MI: The culture of cells derived from mouse blastocysts. Cell 5: 343, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Ostrand-Rosenberg S, Hammerberg C, Edidin M, Sherman ML: Expression of histocompatibility-2 antigens on cultured cell lines derived from mouse blastocyst. Immunogenetics 4: 1278, 1977.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Faulk WP, Temple A: Distribution of 02-microglobulin and HLA in chorionic villi of human placenta. Nature 262: 799, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Faulk WP, Sanderson A, Temple A: Distribution of HLA antigens in human placenta. Transpl Proc 9: 1379, 1977.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Goodfellow PN, Barnstable CJ, Bodmer WF, Snary D, Crumpton MJ: Expression of HLA system antigens on placenta. Transplantation 22: 595, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Koren Z, Abrams G, Behrman SJ: Antigenicity of mouse placental tissue. Am J Obstet Gynecol 102: 340, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Bevans M, Seegal BC, Kaplan R: Glomerulonephritis produced in dogs by specific antisera. J Exp Med 102: 807, 1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Kirby DRS: The immunological consequences of extrauterine development of allo-genic mouse blastocysts. Transplantation 6: 1005, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Jeannet M, Werner C, Ramirez E, Vassalli P, Faulk WP: Anti-human “Ia-like” and MLC blocking activity of human placental IgG. Transpl Proc 9: 1417, 1977.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Winchester RJ, Fu SM, Werner P, Kunkel KG, DuPont B, Jersild C: Recognition by pregnancy serums of non-HLA alloantigens selectively expressed on B lymphocytes. J Exp Med 141: 924, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Herzenberg LA, Gonzales B: Appearance of H-2 agglutinins in outcrossed female mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 48: 570, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Kaliss N, Dogg MK: Immune responses engendered in mice by multiparity. Transplantation 2: 416, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Takano K, Miller JR: ABO incompatibility as a cause of spontaneous abortion: Evidence from abortuses. J Med Genet 9: 144, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Woodrow JC: Rh immunization and its prevention. Ser Haematol 3: 2, 1970.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Simmons RL: Histoincompatibility and the survival of the fetus: current controversies. Transplant Proc 1: 47, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Bardawil WA, Toy BL: The natural history of choriocarcinoma: Problems of immunity and spontaneous regression. Ann NY Acad Sci 80: 197, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Kirby DRS, Billington WD, Bradbury S, Goldstein D: Antigen barrier of the mouse placenta. Nature 204: 548, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Currie GA, Van Doorninck W, Bagshawe KD: Effect of neuraminidase on the immunogenicity of early mouse trophoblast. Nature 219: 191, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Naughton MA, Merrill DA, McManus LM, Fink LM, Berman E, White MJ, Martinez-Hernandez A: Localization of the ß chain of human chorionic gonadotropin on human tumor cells and placental cells. Cancer Res 35: 1887, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Kaye MD, Jones WR: Effect of human chorionic gonadotropin on in vitro lymphocyte transformation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 109: 1029, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Jenkins DM, Acres MG, Peters J, Riley J: Human chorionic gonadotropin and the fetal allograft. Am J Obstet Gynecol 114: 13, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Han T: Inhibitory effect of human chorionic gonadotrophin on lymphocyte blastogenic response to mitogen, antigen, and allogeneic cells. Clin Exp Immunol 18: 529, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Gleicher N, Cohen CJ, Kerenyi TD, Gusberg SB: A blocking factor in amniotic fluid causing leukocyte migration enhancement in vitro and tolerance of the products of conception. Am J Obstet Gynecol 133: 386, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Whyte A, Loke YW: Antigens of the human trophoblast plasma membrane. Clin Exp Immunol 37: 359, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Faulk WP, Yeager C, McIntyre JA, Ueda M: Oncofetal antigens of human trophoblast. Proc R Soc Lond [B] 206: 163, 1979.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Beer AF, Billingham RE, Yang SL: Further evidence concerning the autoantigenic status of the trophoblast. J Exp Med 135: 1177, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Kaneko Y, Nishimura T: Factors affecting trophoblast growth in extrauterine sites. Transplantation 25: 309, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    James DA, Yoshida SM: Antigenicity of the mouse blastocyst. Can J Zool 50: 1131, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Allen WR: Maternal recognition of pregnancy and immunological implications of trophoblast-endometrium interactions in equids. In Whelan J (ed): Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy, Ciba Found Symp, vol 64, p 323. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1979.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Breshihan B, Gregor RR, Oliver N, Newkonio RM, Lovins RE, Faulk WP, Hughes GRV: Spontaneous abortion in systemic lupus erythematosis: An association with trophoblast reactive lymphocytotoxic antibodies. Lancet 2: 1205, 1977.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Walknowska J, Conte FA, Grumbach MM: Practical and theoretical implications of fetal/maternal lymphocyte transfer. Lancet 1: 1119, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Brambell FWR: The Transmission of Passive Immunity from Mother to Young. New York: American Elsevier, 1970.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Herzenberg LA, Bianchi DW, Schroeder J, Cann HM, Iverson GM: Fetal cells in the blood of pregnant women. Detection and enrichment by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76: 1453, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Barnes RD, Holliday J: The morphologic identity of maternal cells in newborn mice. Blood 36: 480, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Timmonen T, Saksela E: Cell-mediated antiembryo cytotoxicity in human pregnancy. Clin Exp Immunol 23: 462, 1976.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Taylor PV, Growland G, Hancock KW, Scott JS: Effect of length of gestation on maternal cellular reactivity to human trophoblast antigens. Am J Obstet Gynecol 125: 528, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Hamilton MS, Hellstrom I, van Belle G: Cell-mediated immunity to embryonic antigens of syngeneically and allogeneically mated mice. Transplantation 21: 261, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Prehn RT: Specific homograft tolerance induced by successive matings, and implications concerning choriocarcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 25: 883, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Peer LA, Bernhard W, Walker JC Jr: Full-thickness skin exchanges between parents and their children. Am J Surg 95: 239, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Rogers BO, Raisbeck AP, Ballantyne DL Jr, Converse JM: The genetics of skin homografting in rats between brothers, sisters, parents and grandparents. Trans Int Soc Plastic Surgeons, 1960, p 421.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Breyere EJ, Barrett MK: “Tolerance” in postpartum female mice induced by strain-specific matings. J Natl Cancer Inst 24: 699, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Bell SC, Billington WD: Major anit-paternal alloantibody induced by murine pregnancy is non-complement fixing IgGl. Nature 288: 387, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Hellstrom KE, Hellstrom I, Brawn J: Abrogation of cellular immunity to antigenically foreign embryonic cells by a serum factor. Nature 224: 914, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Rocklin RE, Kitzmiller JL, Carpenter CB, Garovoy MR, David JR: Maternal-fetal relation: Absence of an immunologic blocking factor from the serum of women with chronic abortions. N Engl J Med 295: 1209, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Ettenger RB, Terasaki PI, Ting A, Malekzadeh MH, Pennisi AJ, Uittenbogaart C, Garrison R, Fine RN: Anti-B lymphocytotoxins in renal-allograft rejection. N Engl J Med 295: 305, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Winchester RI, Fu SM, Wernet HG, Kunkel HG, Dupont B, Jersild C: Recognition by pregnancy serum of non-HL-A alloantigens selectively expressed on B lymphocytes. J Exp Med 141: 924, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Davies DAL, Alkins BJ: What abrogates heart transplant rejection in immunological enhancement? Nature 247: 294, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Smith RT: The immunobiology of abortion (Editorial). N Engl J Med 295: 1249, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Jenkins DM, Hancock KW: Maternal unresponsiveness of paternal histocompatibility antigens in human pregnancy. Transplantation 13: 618, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Holland NH, Holland P: Immunological maturation in an infant of an agammaglobulinaemic mother. Lancet 2: 1152, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Billington WD: The placenta and the tumor: Variations on an immunological enigma. In Beaconsfield, C. Villee (eds): Placenta: A Neglected Experimental Animal, p 267. New York: Pergamon Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Tung KSK: Immune complex in the renal glomerulus during normal pregnancy. A study in the guinea pig and the mouse. J Immunol 112: 186, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Masson PL, Delire M, Cambiaso CL: Circulating immune complexes in normal human pregnancy. Nature 266: 542, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Rao VS, Bennett JA, Shen FW, Gershon RK, Mitchell MS: Antigen-antibody complexes generate Lyt 1 inducers of suppressor cells. J Immunol 125: 63, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Skowron-Cendrzak A, Ptak W: Fetal suppressor cells. Their influence on the cell-mediated immune responses. Transplantation 24: 45, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Olding LB, Bernirschke K, Oldstone MBA: Inhibition of mitosis of lymphocytes from human adults by erythrocytes from human newborns. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 3: 79, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Oldstone MBA, Tishon A, Moretta L: Active thymus-derived suppressor lymphocytes in human cord blood. Nature 269: 333, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    McMichael M, Sasazuki T: A suppressor cell in the human mixed lymphocyte reaction. J Ezp Med 146: 368, 1977.Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Chaouat G, Voisin GA: Regulatory T cell subpopulations in pregnancy. I. Evidence for suppressive activity of the early phase of MLR. J Immunol. 122: 1283, 1979.Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Chaouat G, Voisin GA: Regulatory T-cell subpopulations in pregnancy. II. Evidence for suppressive activity of the late phase of MLR. Immunology 39: 239, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Burek JD, Goldberg B, Hatchins G, Strandberg JD: The pregnant Syrian hamster as a model to study intravascular trophoblast and associated maternal blood vessel changes. Vet Pathol 16: 553, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Beer AE, Billingham RE: Transplantation in nature. Perspect Biol Med 22: 155, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Schirrmacher V: Shifts in tumor cell phenotypes induced by signals from the microenvironment. Immunobiology 157: 89, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Illmensee K, Mintz B: Totipotency and normal differentiation of single teratocarcinoma cells cloned by injection of blastocysts. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 73: 549, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Greenstein JP: Enzymes in normal and neoplastic animal tissues. In AAAS Research Conferences on Cancer (1944), 1945, p 192.Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Weinhouse S. Glycolysis, respiration, and anomalous gene expression in experimental hepatomas. G.H.A. Clowes Memorial Lecture. Cancer Res 32: 2007, 1972.Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Potter VR: Recent trends in cancer biochemistry: The importance of studies on fetal tissue. Proc Can Cancer Res Conf 8: 9, 1969.Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Knox WE: Enzyme Patterns in Fetal, Adult, and Neoplastic Rat Tissues. Basel: Karger, 1972.Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Greenblat M, Shubik P: Tumor angiogenesis: Transfilter diffusion studies in the hamster by the transparent chamber technique. J Natl Cancer Inst 41: 111, 1968.Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Folkman J: Antiangiogenesis: New concept for therapy of solid tumors. Ann Surg 175: 409, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Huehns ER, Dance N, Beaven GH, Keil JV, Hecht F, Motulsky G: Human embryonic haemoglobins. Nature 201: 1095, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Miller DR: Raised fetal haemoglobin in childhood leukaemia. Br J Haematol 17: 103, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Yang WK: Isoaccepting transfer RNAs in mammalian differentiated cells and tumor tissues. Cancer Res 31: 639, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Waalkes TP, Dinsmore SR, Mrochek JE: Urinary excretion by cancer patients on the nucleosides N2,N2-dimethylguanosine, 1-methylinosine, and pseudouridine. J Natl Cancer Inst 51: 271, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Heby O, Lewan L: Putrescine and polyamines in relation to nucleic acids in mouse liver after partial hepatectomy. Virchows Arch [B] 8: 58, 1971.Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    Raina A, Janne J, Hannonen P, Holtta E: Synthesis and accumulation of polyamines in regenerating rat liver. Ann NYAcad Sci 171: 697, 1970.Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Russel DH, Medina VJ, Snyder SH: The dynamics of synthesis and degradation of polyamines in normal and regenerating rat liver and brain. J Biol Chem 245: 6732, 1970.Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Davidson D, Anderson NG: Chromosome coiling: Abnormalities induced by polyamines. Exp Cell Res 20: 610, 1960.Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Woo J, Cater DB: A study of the cell surface in tumor, fetal and lymph-node cells by cell electrophoresis after antibody and enzymic treatment. Biochem J 128: 1273, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Burger MM, Noonan KD: Restoration of normal growth by covering of agglutinin sites on tumor cell surface. Nature 228: 512, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Moscona AA: Embryonic and neoplastic cell surfaces: Availability of receptors for concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin. Science 171: 905, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Abelev GI, Perova SD, Kramkova NI, Postnikova ZA, Irlin IS: Production of embryonal alpha-globulin by transplantable mouse hepatomas. Transplantation 1: 174, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Gitlin D, Perricelli A, Gitlin JD: The presence of serum alpha-fetoprotein in sharks and its synthesis by fetal gastrointestinal tract and liver. Comp Biochem Physiol 46B: 207, 1973.Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Hirai H, Alpert E: Opening remarks. Int. Conf. on the Biology and Chemistry of Carcinofetal Proteins. Ann NYAcad Sci 259: 5, 1975.Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Mehlman DJ, Bulkley BH, Wiernik PH: Serum alpha-l-fetoglobulin with gastric and prostatic carcinomas. N Engl J Med 285: 1060, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Ruoslahti E, Seppälä M, Pihko H, Vuopio P: Studies of carcinofetal protein. II. Biochemical comparison of alpha-fetoprotein from human fetuses and patients with hepatocellular cancer. bit J Cancer 8: 283, 1971.Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    Sell S, Becker FF: Alpha-fetoprotein. J Natl Cancer Inst 60: 19, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Abelev GI: Alpha-fetoprotein in oncogenesis and its association with malignant tumors. Adv Cancer Res 14: 295, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Endo Y, Kanai K, Oda T, Mitamura K, Iino S, Suzuki H: Clinical significance of alpha-fetoprotein in hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. Ann NYAcad Sci 269: 234, 1975.Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Nishi S, Watabe H, Hirai H: Immunological and chemical correlation between alpha-fetoproteins from human and several mammalian species. Ann NYAcad Sci 259: 109, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Ruoslahti E, Wigzell H: Breakage of tolerance to alpha-fetoprotein in monkeys. Nature 255: 716, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Uriel J, Bonillon D, Aussel C: Alpha-fetoprotein: The major high-affinity estrogen binder in rat uterine cytosols. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 73: 1452, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Attardi B, Ruoslahti E: Foetoneonatal oestradiol-binding protein in mouse brain cytosol is alpha-foetoprotein. Nature 263: 685, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Ruoslahti E, Engvall E, Kessler MJ: Chemical properties of alpha-fetoprotein. In Herberman RB, McIntire KR (eds): Immunodiagnosis of Cancer, part 1, p 101. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1979.Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    Ruoslahti E, Pihko H., Seppala M: Alpha-fetoprotein: Immunochemical purification and chemical properties. Expression in normal state and in malignant and nonmalignant liver disease. Transplant Rev 20: 38, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Gold P, Freedman SO: Specific carbinoembryonic antigens of the human digestive system. J Exp Med 122: 467, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Lo Gerfo P, Krupey J, Hansen HJ: Demonstration of an antigen common to several varieties of neoplasia. Assay using zirconyl phosphate gel. N Engl J Med 285: 138, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Alexander P: Fetal “antigens” in cancer. Nature 235: 137, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Ravry M, McIntire KR, Moertel CG, Waldmann TA, Schutt AJ, Go VLW: Carcinoembryogenic antigen and alpha-fetoprotein in the diagnosis of gastric and colonic cancer: A comparative clinical evaluation. J Natl Cancer Inst 52: 1019, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Barrelet V, Mach JP: Variations of the carcinoembryogenic antigen level in the plasma of patients with gynecologic cancers during therapy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 121: 164, 1975.Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    Gold P: Antigenic reversion in human cancer. Ann Rev Med 22: 85, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Lo Gerfo P, Herter FP, Bennett SJ: Absence of circulating antibodies to CEA in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies. Int J Cancer 9: 344, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Hakkinen IP: FSA-fetal sulphoglycoprotein antigen associated with gastric cancer. Transplant Rev 20: 61, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Gelder FB, Reese CJ, Moossa AR, Hall T, Hunter R: Purification, partial characterization, and clinical evaluation of a pancreatic oncofetal antigen. Cancer Res 38: 312, 1978.Google Scholar
  243. 243.
    Buffe D, Rimbaut C, Lemerle J, Schweisguth O, Burtin P: Presence d’une ferroproteine d’origine tissulaire, l’a2H, dans le sérum des enfants proteurs de tumeurs. Int J Cancer 5: 85, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Fritsche R, Mach JP: Identification of a new oncofetal antigen associated with several types of human carcinomas. Nature 258: 734, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Coggin JH: Amrose KR, Anderson NG: Fetal antigens capable of inducing transplantation immunity against SV 40 hamster tumor cells. J Immunol 105: 524, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Girardi AJ, Reppucci P, Dierlam P, Rutala W, Coggin JH Jr: Prevention of simian virus 40 tumors by hamster fetal tissue: Influence of parity status of donor females on immunogenicity of fetal tissues and on immune cell cytotoxicity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 70: 183, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Coggin JH Jr, Ambrose KR, Anderson NG: Immunization against tumor with fetal antigens. In Anderson NG, Coggin JH Jr (eds): Embryonic and Fetal Antigens in Cancer, vol 1, pp 185–198. Springfield, VA: US Department of Commerce, 1971.Google Scholar
  248. 248.
    Duff RJ, Rapp F: Reaction of serum from pregnant hamsters with surface of cells transformed by SV40. J Immunol 105: 521, 1974.Google Scholar
  249. 249.
    Baranska W, Koldousky I, Koprowski H: Antigen study of unfertilized mouse cells: Cross reactivity with SV40-induced antigens. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 67: 193, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Ambrose KR, Anderson NG, Coggin JH Jr: Concomitant and sinecomitant immunity to SV40 tumor in embryoma-bearing hamsters. In Anderson NG, Coggin JH Jr (eds): Embryonic and Fetal Antigens in Cancer, vol 1, p 281. Springfield, VA, US Department of Commerce, 1971.Google Scholar
  251. 251.
    Kato K: Antigenic similarity between simian virus 40-induced surface and fetal antigens in hamster cells. J Natl Cancer Inst 58: 259, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Weppner WA, Coggin JH Jr: Antigenic similarity between plasma membrane proteins of fetal hamster cells and simian virus 40 tumor surface antigens. Cancer Res 40: 1380, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Baldwin RW, Glaves D, Vose BM: Immunogenicity of embryonic antigens associated with chemically induced rat tumors. Int J Cancer 13: 135, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Hellstrom KE, Hellstrom I: Lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity and blocking serum activity to tumor antigen. Adv Immunol 18: 209, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Mehard S, Colnoghi MI, DellaPorta G: In vitro demonstration of tumor specific common antigen and embryonal antigen in murine fibrosarcoma induced by 7,12-dimethyl-benzanthracene. Cancer Res 33: 473, 1973.Google Scholar
  256. 256.
    Stonehill EH, Bindich A: Retrogenic expression. The reappearance of embryonal antigens in cancer cells. Nature 228: 370, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Chism SE, Burton RC, Warner NL: Immunogenicity of oncofetal antigens. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 11: 346, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Woodruff MF: The Interaction of Cancer and Host: Its Therapeutic Significance. New York: Grune and Stratton, Inc., 1980.Google Scholar
  259. 259.
    Constanza ME, Pinn V, Schwartz RS, Nathanson L: Carcinoembryogenic antigen-antibody complex in a patient with colonic carcinoma and nephrotic syndrome. N Engl J Med 289: 520, 1973.Google Scholar
  260. 260.
    Gold JM, Freedman SO, Gold P: Human anti-CEA antibodies detected by radioimmunoelectrophoresis. Nature 239: 60, 1972.Google Scholar
  261. 261.
    Baldwin RW, Imbleton MJ: Neoantigens on spontaneous and carcinogen-induced rat tumors defined by in vitro lymphocytotoxicity assays. Int J Cancer 13: 433, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Hellstrom I, Hellstrom KE: Cytotoxic effect of lymphocytes from pregnant mice on cultivated tumor cells. II. Blocking and unblocking of cytotoxicity. Int J Cancer 15: 30, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Lasfargues EY, Continko WG, Moore DM: Cell-mediated factors that stimulate growth of human breast carcinoma cells in tissue culture. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 15: 1974 (Abstract #266).Google Scholar
  264. 264.
    Comming DE: A general theory of carcinogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 70: 3324, 1973.Google Scholar
  265. 265.
    Schidlovsky G, Ahmed M: C-type virus particles in placentas and fetal tissues of rhesus monkeys. J Natl Cancer Inst 51: 225, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Chase DG, Piki L: Expression of A- and C-type particles in early mouse embryos. J Natl Cancer Inst 51: 1971, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Ambrose KR, Anderson NG, Coggin JH: Interruption of SV40 oncogenesis with human fetal antigen. Nature 233: 194, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Castro JE, Lance EM, Medawar PB, Zanelli J, Hunt R: Fetal antigens and cancer. Nature 243: 225, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Cooper EL: Comparative Immunology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1976.Google Scholar
  270. 270.
    Hildemann WH, Raison RL, Cheung G, et al.: Immunological specificity and memory in a scleractinian coral. Nature 270: 219, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Woodrow JC: Rh immunization and its prevention. Ser Haematol 3: 2, 1970.Google Scholar
  272. 272.
    Rocklin RE, Kitzmiller JL, Carpenter CB, Garovoy MR, David JR: Maternal-fetal relation. Absence of immunologic blocking factor from the serum of women with chronic abortions. N Engl J Med 295: 1209, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Stimson WH, Strachan AF, Shepherd A: Studies on the maternal immune response to placental antigens: Absence of a blocking factor from the blood of abortion-prone women. Br J Obstet Gynecol 86: 41, 1979.Google Scholar
  274. 274.
    Billingham RE, Brent L, Medawar PB: Quantitation studies on tissue transplantation immunity. III. Actively acquired tolerance. Proc R Soc Lond (Biol] 239: 357, 1956.Google Scholar
  275. 275.
    Billingham RE, Brent L: A simple method for inducing tolerance of skin homografts in mice. Transplant Bull 4: 67, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Simonsen M: The impact on the developing embryo and newborn animal of adult homologous cells. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand 40: 480, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Parmiani G, Della Porta G: Effect of antitumor immunity on pregnancy in the mouse. Nature 241: 26, 1973.Google Scholar
  278. 278.
    Nista A, Sezzi ML, Belle li L: Pregnancy rejection induced by neuraminidasetreated placental cells. Oncology 28: 402, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Webb CG: Decreased fertility in mice immunized with teratocarcinoma OTT6050. Biol Reprod 22: 695, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Milgrom F, Comini-Andrada E, Chaudhry AP: Fetal and neonatal fatality in rat hybrids from mothers stimulated with paternal skin. Transpl Proc 9: 1409, 1977.Google Scholar
  281. 281.
    Beer AE, Billingham RE: Maternally acquired runt disease. Immune lymphocytes from maternal blood can traverse the placenta and cause runt disease in the progeny. Science 179: 240, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Bagshawe KD: Choriocarcinoma. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1969.Google Scholar
  283. 283.
    Cole WH: Spontaneous regression of cancer: The metabolic triumph of the host? Ann NY Acad Sci 230: 111, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Sumner WC, Foraker AG: Spontaneous regression of human melanoma. Clinical and experimental studies. Cancer 13: 79, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Maurer LH, McIntyre OR, Rueckert F: Spontaneous regression of malignant melanoma. Am J Surg 127: 397, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Bulkley GB, Cohen MH, Banks PM, Char DH, Ketcham AS: Long-term spontaneous regression of malignant melanoma with visceral metastases. Cancer 36: 485, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Bodurtha AJ, Berkelhammer J, Kim YH, Laucius JF, Mastrangelo MJ: A clinical, histological, and immunologic study of a case of metastatic malignant melanoma undergoing spontaneous remission. Cancer 37: 735, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Everson TC, Cole WH: In Spontaneous Regression of Cancer,pp 11–85. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders.Google Scholar
  289. 289.
    Quisin A: Beitrag zur kenntris ber embronalen sympathome. Zentralb Allg Pathol 32: 184, 1921.Google Scholar
  290. 290.
    Cushing H, Wolbach SB: The transformation of a malignant paravertebral sympathicoblastoma into a benign ganglioneuroma. Am J Pathol 3: 203, 1927.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Bodian M. Neuroblastoma. Pediatr Clin N Am 6: 449, 1959.Google Scholar
  292. 292.
    Gross RE, Farber S, Martin LW: Neuroblastoma sympatheticum. A study and report of 217 cases. Pediatrics 23: 1179, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Koop CE, Kiesewetter WB, Horn RC: Neuroblastoma in childhood. Survival after major insult to the tumor. Surgery 38: 272, 1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Ray, PK, Seshadri, M: Effect of immunization of mice with syngeneic embryos on their ability to inhibit the growth of a challenging fibrosarcoma. Ind J Exp Biol 18 (9): 1027, 1980.Google Scholar
  295. 295.
    Ray, PK, Seshardri, M: Influence of parity status of female mice on growth of a transplantable chemically induced fibrosarcoma. Ind J Exp Biol 19: 405, 1981.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. K. Ray
  • Sandip Saha

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations