Advertisement

Interpretation of Response Time in Research on the Development of Memory and Cognition

  • Robert Kail
Part of the Springer Series in Cognitive Development book series (SSCOG)

Abstract

Human memory has traditionally been studied by examining how and when it fails—by considering the frequency and pattern of errors in recall or recognition. These errors may result from failures of learning, retention, or retrieval, and one difficulty in the traditional approach is the disentangling of these alternative sources of error.

Keywords

Response Time Rotation Rate Mental Rotation Growth Function Choice Reaction Time 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson, J. R. (1976). Language, memory, and thought. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, J. R. (1978). Arguments concerning representations for mental imagery. Psychological Review, 85 ,249–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Banks, W. P., & Atkinson, R. C. (1974). Accuracy and speed strategies in scanning active memory. Memory & Cognition, 2 ,629–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Birren, J. E. (1964). The psychology of aging. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  5. Bisanz, J., Danner, F., & Resnick, L. B. (1979). Changes with age in measures of processing efficiency. Child Development, 50 ,132–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bisanz, J., & Resnick, L. B. (1978). Changes with age in two components of visual search speed. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 25 ,129–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carter, P., Pazak, B., & Kail, R. (1983). Algorithms for processing spatial information. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 36 ,284–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cattell, R. B. (1971). Abilities: Their structure, growth, and action. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.Google Scholar
  9. Cohen, J., & Cohen, P. (1975). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  10. Cooper, L. A. (1975). Mental transformation of random two-dimensional shapes. Cognitive Psychology ,7,20–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cooper, L. A., & Shepard, R. N. (1973). Chronometric studies of the rotation of mental images. In W. G. Chase (Ed.), Visual information processing. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  12. Donders, F. C. (1969). On the speed of mental processes. Acta Psychologica, 30 ,412–431. [Translated from the original by W. G. Koster from Onderzoekingen gedaan in het Physiologisch Laboratorium der Utrechtsche Hoogeschool ,1868, Tweede reeks, II ,92-120.]PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dosher, B. A. (1981). The effects of delay and interference: A speed-accuracy study. Cognitive Psychology, 13 ,551–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Elliott, R. (1970). Simple reaction time: Effects associated with age, preparatory interval, incentive-shift, and mode of presentation. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 9 ,86–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Elliott, R. (1972). Simple reaction time in children: Effects of incentive, incentive-shift and other training variables. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 13, 540–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Estes, W. K. (1956). The problem of inference from curves based on group data. Psychological Bulletin, 53 ,134–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gitomer, D. H., Pellegrino, J. W., & Bisanz, J. (1983). Developmental change and invariance in semantic processing. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 35, 56–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Goodenough, F. L. (1935). The development of the reactive process from early childhood to maturity. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18 ,431–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Herrmann, D. J., & Landis, T. Y. (1977). Differences in the search rate of children and adults in short-term memory. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 23, 151–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kail, R. (1983). Growth functions for information-processing parameters. Presented at the annual meeting of the Psychonomic Society, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  21. Kail, R. (1984). The development of memory in children (2nd ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  22. Kail, R. (in press). Development of mental rotation: A speed-accuracy study. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology.Google Scholar
  23. Kail, R., & Bisanz, J. (1982a). Cognitive strategies. In C. R. Puff (Ed.), Handbook of research methods in human memory and cognition. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  24. Kail, R., & Bisanz, J. (1982b). Cognitive development: An information-processing perspective. In R. Vasta (Ed.), Strategies and techniques of child study. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  25. Kail, R., Pellegrino, J., & Carter, P. (1980). Developmental change in mental rotation. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 29 ,102–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Keating, D. P. (1979). Adolescent thinking. In J. Adelson (Ed.), Handbook of adolescence. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  27. Keating, D. P., & Bobbitt, B. L. (1978). Individual and developmental differences in cognitive processing components of mental ability. Child Development, 49, 155–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Keating, D. P., Keniston, A. H., Manis, F. R., & Bobbitt, B. L. (1980). Development of the search-processing parameter. Child Development, 51 ,39–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kendler, T. S. (1979a). Cross-sectional research, longitudinal theory, and a discriminative transfer ontogeny. Human Development, 22 ,235–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kendler, T. S. (1979b). The development of discrimination learning: A levels-of-functioning explanation. In H. W. Reese & L. P. Lipsitt (Eds.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 13). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  31. Kendler, T. S., & Ward, J. W. (1972). Optional reversal probability is a linear function of the log of age. Developmental Psychology ,7, 337–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Loftus, G. R. (1978). On interpretation of interactions. Memory & Cognition, 6, 312–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lohman, D. (1979). Spatial abilities: Individual differences and information processing. (Technical Report #8, Aptitude Research Project, School of Education.) Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University.Google Scholar
  34. Mazur, J., & Hastie, R. (1978). Learning as accumulation: A reexamination of the learning curve. Psychological Bulletin, 85 ,1256–1274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Naus, M. J., & Ornstein, P. A. (1977). Developmental differences in the memory search of categorized lists. Developmental Psychology, 13 ,60–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Navon, D., & Gopher, D. (1979). On the economy of the human processing system. Psychological Review, 86 ,214–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Newell, A., & Rosenbloom, P. S. (1981). Mechanisms of skill acquisition and the law of practice. In J. R. Anderson (Ed.), Cognitive skills and their acquisition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  38. Pachella, R. G. (1974). The interpretation of reaction time in information-processing research. In B. H. Kantowitz (Ed.), Human information processing: Tutorials in performance and cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  39. Pellegrino, J. W., & Kail, R. (1982). Process analyses of spatial aptitude. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Advances in the psychology of human intelligence (Vol. 1). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  40. Pew, R. W., & Rupp, G. L. (1971). Two quantitative measures of skill development. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 90 ,1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Reed, A. V. (1976). List length and the time course of recognition in immediate memory. Memory & Cognition, 4 ,16–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Richards, F. J. (1969). The quantitative analysis of growth. In F. C. Steward (Ed.), Plant physiology (Vol. 5 A). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  43. Salthouse, T. A. (1979). Adult age and the speed-accuracy trade-off. Ergonomics, 22, 811–821.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Salthouse, T. A., & Somberg, B. L. (1982). Time-accuracy relationships in young and old adults. Journal of Gerontology, 37 ,349–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Schaie, K. W. (1965). A general model for the study of developmental problems. Psychological Bulletin, 64 ,92–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Schaie, K. W., & Labouvie-Vief, G. (1974). Generational versus ontogenetic components of change in adult cognitive behavior: A fourteen-year cross-sequential study. Developmental Psychology, 10 ,305–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Schweikert, R. (1980). Critical path scheduling of mental processes in a dual task. Science, 209 ,704–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Schweikert, R. (1983). Latent network theory: Scheduling of processes in sentence verification and the Stroop effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 9 ,353–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Simon, H. A. (1972). On the development of the processor. In S. Farnham-Diggory (Ed.), Information processing in children. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  50. Sternberg, R. J., & Rifkin, B. (1979). The development of analogical reasoning processes. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 27 ,195–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sternberg, S. (1966). High speed scanning in human memory. Science, 153 ,652–654.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sternberg, S. (1975). Memory scanning: New findings and current controversies. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 27 ,1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Thurstone, L. L. (1938). Primary mental abilities. Psychometric Monographs (No. 1). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  54. Thurstone, L. L., & Thurstone, T. G. (1949). Manual for the SRA primary mental abilities. Chicago: Science Research Associates.Google Scholar
  55. Townsend, J. T. (1971). A note on the identiflability of parallel and serial processes. Perception & Psychophysics, 10 ,161–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Townsend, J. T. (1974). Issues and models concerning the processing of a finite number of inputs. In B. H. Kantowitz (Ed.), Human information processing: Tutorials in performance and cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  57. Vernon, P. E. (1961). The structure of human abilities (2nd ed.). London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  58. Wickelgren, W. A. (1977). Speed-accuracy tradeoff and information processing dynamics. Acta Psychologica, 41 ,67–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wickens, C. D., & Benel, D. C. R. (1982). The development of time-sharing skills. In J. A. S. Kelso & J. E. Clark (Eds.), The development of movement control and co ordination. London: Wiley.Google Scholar
  60. Wood, C. C, & Jennings, C. R. (1976). Speed-accuracy tradeoff function in choice reaction time: experimental designs and computation procedures. Perception & Psychophysics, 19 ,92–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Kail

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations