Advertisement

Environmental Fate and Effects of Dicamba: A Canadian Perspective

  • P.-Y. Caux
  • R. A. Kent
  • M. Taché
  • C. Grande
  • G. T. Fan
  • D. D. MacDonald
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 133)

Abstract

Dicamba is a chlorobenzoic acid herbicide used to control a broad spectrum of woody plants and broadleaf weeds in grain crops, turf, and a variety of noncrop lands. Wide use in the prairie provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba) and Ontario has established dicamba as one of the ten most used herbicides in Canada. A review of the environmental toxicology, chemistry, and fate of dicamba in the Canadian environment is necessary to assess the potential risk of contamination of aquatic resources. In Canada, the risks to major water uses posed by numerous organic and inorganic chemicals, pesticides, heavy metals, and other water quality parameters has been assessed through the establishment of water quality guidelines. These are concentration limits intended to protect the main water uses, which include raw water for the drinking water supply, freshwater and marine life, agricultural crop irrigation and livestock watering, recreational aesthetics, and industrial waters. In addition to the toxicological review, the development of water quality guidelines requires an assessment of contamination through environmental monitoring surveys and guidelines developed in other jurisdictions. The review of the environmental fate and effects for dicamba is summarized here with the recommended Canadian Water Quality Guidelines (CWQG) for the major water uses.

Keywords

Application Rate Acceptable Daily Intake Water Quality Guideline Livestock Watering State Regulatory Agency 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agriculture Canada and Environment Canada (1988) Pesticide registrant survey 1988 report. Pesticides Directorate of Agriculture Canada and Commercial Chemicals Branch of Environment Canada, Ottawa. Confidential rept.Google Scholar
  2. Alberta Agriculture (1990) Guide to crop protection in Alberta 1990. Part 1: Chemical herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, rodenticides for maximum economic yield. Agdex 606 - 1. Crop Protection Branch, Alberta Agriculture, Edmonton, Alberta.Google Scholar
  3. Altom JD, Stritzke JF (1973) Degradation of dicamba, picloram, and four phenoxy herbicides in soils. Weed Sci 21 (6): 556–560.Google Scholar
  4. Arjmand M, Spittler TD, Mumma RO (1988) Analysis of dicamba from water using solid-phase extraction and ion-pair high performance liquid chromatography. J Agric Food Chem 36: 492–494.Google Scholar
  5. Ashton F (1982) Persistence and biodégradation of herbicides. In: Matsumura F, Krishna Murti CR (eds) Biodégradation of pesticides. Plenum Press, New York, p 117 (cited in Health and Welfare Canada 1989 ).Google Scholar
  6. Auch DE, Arnold WE (1978) Dicamba use and injury on soybeans ( Glycine max) in South Dakota. Weed Sci 26: 471–475.Google Scholar
  7. Banks PA, Kirby MA, Santelmann PW (1977) Influence of postemergence and subsurface layered herbicides on horsenettle and peanuts. Weed Sci 25(1):5–8. Behrens R, Lueschen WE (1979) Dicamba volatility. Weed Sci 27 (5): 486–493.Google Scholar
  8. Blair M (1986) Dicamba: One year dietary toxicity study in dogs. Internat Res and Develop Corp (IRDC) rept no 163-696. unpubl. study (cited in USEPA 1988a ).Google Scholar
  9. Bohmont BL (1967) Toxicity of herbicides to livestock, fish, honeybees, and wildlife. Proc 20th West Weed Control Conf 21: 25–27.Google Scholar
  10. Bond CE, Fortune JD, Young F (1965) Results of preliminary bioassays with kurosal-SL and dicamba. Prog Fish Cult 27: 49–51.Google Scholar
  11. Boutin C (1992) Canadian Wildlife Service, personal communication.Google Scholar
  12. Bovey RW (1970) Hormone-like herbicides in weed control. Proc 11th Ann Meeting of Soc for Economic Botany, Texas A & M Univ, College Station, TX.Google Scholar
  13. Bruns VF, Hodgson JM, Arle HF (1972) Response of several crops to six herbicides in irrigation water. Tech Bull no 1461, U. S. Dept of Agric, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  14. Buckley W (1992) Agriculture Canada, Agassiz Research Station, personal communication.Google Scholar
  15. Burnside OC, Lavy TL (1966) Dissipation of dicamba. Weed Sci 14: 211–214.Google Scholar
  16. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) (1991) A protocol for the derivation of water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. In CCREM ( 1987 ), Canadian water quality guidelines, Appendix IX.Google Scholar
  17. CCME (1993) A proposed protocol for the derivation of water quality guidelines for the protection of agricultural water uses. Unpub doc available from Eco-Health Branch, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.Google Scholar
  18. Canadian Council of Resource and Environment Ministers (CCREM) (1987) Canadian water quality guidelines. Prepared by the Task Force on Water Quality Guidelines of the Canadian Council of Resource and Environment Ministers.Google Scholar
  19. Chang FY, Vanden Born WH (1971) Translocation of dicamba in Canada thistle. Weed Sci 16: 176–181.Google Scholar
  20. Chau ASY, Thompson K (1978) Investigations of the integrity of seven herbicide acids in water samples. J Assoc Offic Anal Chem 61: 1481–1485.Google Scholar
  21. Cope OB (1965) Sport fishery investigations. In: The effects of pesticides on fish and wildlife. Circular no 226, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Columbia, MO.Google Scholar
  22. Cullimore DR (1975) The in vitro sensitivity of some species of Chlorophyceae to a selected range of herbicides. Weed Res 15: 401–406.Google Scholar
  23. Davis RK, Jolley WP, Sterner KL (1962) The feeding for two years of the herbicide 2-methoxy-3,6-dichlorobenzoic acid to rats and dogs. Unpub study (cited in USEPA 1988a ).Google Scholar
  24. Derksen DA (1989) Dicamba, chlorsulfuron, and clopyalid as sprayer contaminants on sunflower (Helianthus annuus), mustard (Brassica juncea), and lentil (Lens culinaris), respectively. Weed Sci 37: 616–621.Google Scholar
  25. Edson EF, Sanderson DM (1965) Toxicity of the herbicides 2-methoxy-3,6- dichlorobenzoic acid (dicamba) and 2-methoxy-3,5,6-trichlorobenzoic acid (tri- camba). Food Cosmet Toxicol 3: 299–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Eisenreich SJ, Looney BB, Thorton JD (1981) Airborne organic contaminants in the Great Lakes system. Environ Sci Technol 15 (1): 30–38.Google Scholar
  27. Ensminger ME (1980) Dairy cattle science. Interstate Printers and Publishers, Danville, IL.Google Scholar
  28. Environment Canada (1990) NAQUADAT computer database. Water Quality Branch, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  29. Fletcher JS, Johnson FL, McFarlane JC (1990) Influence of greenhouse versus field testing and taxonomic differences on plant sensitivity to chemical treatment. Environ Toxicol Chem 9: 769–776.Google Scholar
  30. Frank R, Sirons GJ (1980) Chlorophenoxy and chlorobenzoic acid herbicides: Their use in eleven agricultural watersheds and their loss to stream waters in southern Ontario, Canada, 1975-1977. Sci Total Environ 15: 149–167.Google Scholar
  31. Frank R, Braun HE, Van Holdrinet M, Sirons GJ, Ripley BD (1982) Agriculture and water quality in the Canadian Great Lakes basin: V. Pesticide use in 11 agricultural watersheds and presence in stream water, 1975-1977. J Environ Qual ll(3): 497–505.Google Scholar
  32. Frank R (1986) Rural water quality and pesticides. Highlights Agric Res Ont 9 (3): 20–25.Google Scholar
  33. Frank R, Clegg BS, Ripley BD, Braun HE (1987) Investigations of pesticide contaminations in rural wells, 1979-1984. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 16: 9–22.Google Scholar
  34. Frank R, Logan L (1988) Pesticide and industrial chemical residues at the mouth of the Grand, Saugeen, and Thames rivers, Ontario, Canada, 1981-1985. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 17: 741–754.Google Scholar
  35. Frank R, Braun HE, Ripley BD, Clegg BS (1990) Contamination of rural ponds with pesticide, 1975-85, Ontario, Canada. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 44: 401–409.Google Scholar
  36. Frear DS (1976) The benzoic acid herbicides. In: Kearney PC, Kaufman DD (eds) Herbicides: Chemistry, degradation, and mode of action. 2nd ed, Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 541–607.Google Scholar
  37. Gaines TB, Linder RE (1986) Acute toxicity of pesticides in adult and weanling rats. Fund Appl Toxicol 7: 299–308.Google Scholar
  38. Ghassemi M, Fargo L, Painter P, Quinlivan S, Scofield R, Takata A (1981) Environmental fates and impacts of major forest use pesticides. EPA contract 68-02- 3174, TRW Environ Div, Redondo, CA.Google Scholar
  39. Gold AJ, Morton TG, Sullivan WM, McClory J (1988) Leaching of 2,4-D and dicamba from home lawns. Water Air Soil Pollut 37: 121–129.Google Scholar
  40. Griffin JL, Watson VH, Knight WE, Cole AW (1984) Forage legume response to dicamba and 2,4-D applications. Agron J 76: 487–490.Google Scholar
  41. Grover R, Smith AE (1974) Adsorption studies with the acid and dimethylamine forms of 2,4-D and dicamba. Can J Soil Sei 54: 179–186.Google Scholar
  42. Grover R (1977) Mobility of dicamba, picloram and 2,4-D in soil columns. Weed Sei 25 (2): 159–162.Google Scholar
  43. Gustafson DI (1989) Groundwater ubiquity score: A simple method for assessing pesticide leachability. Environ Toxicol Chem 8: 339–357.Google Scholar
  44. Hahn RR, Burnside OC, Lavy TL (1969) Dissipation and phytotoxicity of dicamba. Weed Sei 17: 3–8.Google Scholar
  45. Häkkinen VMA, Grob K, Burki C (1989) Analysis of dicamba in tobacco by on-line coupled liquid chromatography-gas chromatography. J Chromatogr 473: 352–358.Google Scholar
  46. Hamaker JW, Thompson JM (1972) Adsorption. In: Goring CAI, Hamaker JW (eds) Organic chemicals in the soil environment. Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  47. Hamilton KC, Arle HF (1979) Response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) to di-camba. Weed Sei 27 (6): 604–607.Google Scholar
  48. Hansch C (1985) Medchem Project. Issue 26, Pomona College, Claremont, CA.Google Scholar
  49. Harger TR (1975) Dissipation of dicamba and VEL-4207. PhD diss, Univ Kentucky, Lexington.Google Scholar
  50. Hashimoto Y, Nishiuchi Y (1981) Establishment of bioassay methods for the evaluation of acute toxicity of pesticides to aquatic organisms. J Pestic Sei 6 (2): 257–264.Google Scholar
  51. Hayes WJ (1982) Pesticides studied in man. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.Google Scholar
  52. Health and Welfare Canada (1989) Guidelines for Canadian drinking water quality—Supporting documentation. Federal-Provincial Subcommittee on Drinking Water, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  53. Helling CS (1971) Pesticide motility in soils III: Influence of soil properties. Proc Soil Sei Soc Am 35: 743–748.Google Scholar
  54. Hiebsch SC (1988) The occurrence of thirty-five pesticides in Canadian drinking water and surface water. Environmental Health Directorate, Health and Welfare Canada, Ottawa, unpub rept.Google Scholar
  55. Hill EF, Camardese MB (1986) Lethal dietary toxicities of environmental contaminants and pesticides to Coturnix. Fish and Wildlife tech Rept no 2. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  56. Hotzman FW, Mitchell WH (1977) Leaching of dicamba and VEL-4207 in modified soil. Dept of Plant Science, Univ Delaware, Newark.Google Scholar
  57. Hughes JS, Davis JT (1962) Comparative toxicity to bluegill sunfish of granular and liquid herbicides. Proc Conf Southeast Assoc Game Fish 16: 319–323.Google Scholar
  58. Hulbert SH (1975) Secondary effects of pesticides on aquatic ecosystems. Residue Rev 57: 81–148.Google Scholar
  59. Inkpen W (1990) 2,4-D and dicamba residues in two Alberta creeks. Paper presented at 32nd Meeting of Canadian Assoc of Pesticide Control Officers, Fredericton.Google Scholar
  60. Ivany JA, Nass HG (1984) Effect of herbicides on seedling growth, head deformation and grain yield of spring wheat cultivars. Can J Plant Sci 64: 25–30.Google Scholar
  61. Johnson BJ (1985) Toxicity of turfgrass herbicides to woody ornamentals. Res rept 489, Georgia Agric Experiment Stations, College of Agric, Univ of Georgia, Athens.Google Scholar
  62. Johnson CR (1976) Herbicide toxicities in some Australian anurans and the affect of subacute dosages on temperature tolerance. Zool J Linn Soc 59 (1): 79–83.Google Scholar
  63. Johnson CR (1978) Herbicide toxicities in the mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis. Proc Res Soc Queensl 89: 25–27.Google Scholar
  64. Johnson WW, Finley MT (1980) Handbook of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish and aquatic invertebrates. Resource publ 137, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  65. Keating S (1992) Agriculture Canada, personal communication.Google Scholar
  66. Kirkland K, Fryer JD (1972) Degradation of several herbicides in a soil previously treated with MCPA. Weed Res 12: 90–95.Google Scholar
  67. Krueger JP, Butz RG, Atallah YH, Cork DJ (1989) Isolation and identification of microorganisms for the degradation of dicamba. J Agric Food Chem 37: 534–538.Google Scholar
  68. Krueger JP, Butz RG, Cork DJ (1991) Aerobic and anaerobic soil metabolism of dicamba. J Agric Food Chem 39: 995–999.Google Scholar
  69. Kurinnyi AI, Pilinskaya MA, German IV, L’Vova TS (1982) Implementation of a program of cytogenic study of pesticides: Preliminary evaluation of cytogenic activity and potential mutagenic hazard of 24 pesticides. Tsitol Genet 16: 45–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Lauren DR, Taylor HJ, Rahman A (1988) Analysis of the herbicides dicamba, clopyralid, and bromacil in asparagus by high performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr 439: 470–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Laveglia J, Rajasekaran D, Brewer L (1981) Thirteen-week dietary toxicity study in rats with dicamba. IRDC no 163-671, unpub study (cited in USEPA 1988a ).Google Scholar
  72. Lee HB, Stokker Y, Chau ASY (1986) Chemical derivatization analysis of pesticide residues. X. Analysis of ten acid herbicides in natural waters. J Assoc Offic Anal Chem 69 (3): 557–560.Google Scholar
  73. Lehman A J (1959) Appraisal of the safety of chemicals in food, drugs, and cosmetics. Association of Food and Drug Officials (cited in USEPA 1988a ).Google Scholar
  74. Lopez-Avila V, Hirata P, Kraska S, Taylor JH (1986) Determination of dicamba and 2,4-D in water and soil by isotope dilution GC/MS. J Agric Food Chem 34: 530–535.Google Scholar
  75. Lorz HW, Glenn SW, Williams RH, Kunkel CM, Norris LA, Loper BR (1979) Effects of selected herbicides on smolting of coho salmon. Ecological Res Series, EPA-600/3-79-071, Corvallis Environ Res Lab, USEPA, Corvallis, OR.Google Scholar
  76. Maathuis H, Wasiuta V, Nicholaichuk W, Grover R (1988) Study of herbicides in shallow groundwater beneath three irrigated sites in Outlook Irrigation District, Saskatchewan: Results of 1987 field investigations. SRC publ no R-844-13-E-88, Saskatchewan Res Council, Regina.Google Scholar
  77. Magnusson MU, Wyse DL (1987) Tolerance of soybean (Glycine max) and sunflower ( Helianthus annuus) to fall-applied dicamba. Weed Sci 35: 846–852.Google Scholar
  78. Makary MH, Street JC, Sharma RP (1986a) Toxicokinetics of dicamba (2-methoxy- 3,6-dichlorobenzoic acid) and its 3,5-dichloro isomer following intravenous administration to rats. Pestic Biochem Physiol 25: 98–104.Google Scholar
  79. Makary MH, Street JC, Sharma RP (1986b) Pharmacokinetics of dicamba isomers applied dermally to rats. Pestic Biochem Physiol 25: 258–263.Google Scholar
  80. Manitoba Agriculture (1989) Agriculture statistics: Herbicides used for agricultural weed control in western Canada, 1986 - 1988. Economics Branch, Winnipeg.Google Scholar
  81. McRae B (1991) The characterization and identification of potentially leachable pesticides and areas vulnerable to groundwater contamination by pesticides in Canada. Backgrounder 91 - 01, Issues, Planning and Priorities Division, Pesticides Directorate, Agriculture Canada.Google Scholar
  82. McRae B (1992) Agriculture Canada, personal communication.Google Scholar
  83. Mercia LS (1990) Raising poultry the modern way. Storey Communications, Pownal, VT.Google Scholar
  84. Merck Index (1989) An encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs, and biologicals. 11th ed., Merck and Company, Rahway, NJ.Google Scholar
  85. Ministère de l’Environnement du Québec (MENVIQ) (1990) Critères de Qualité de Peau, Paramètre: dicamba. EMA 88-09, Québec.Google Scholar
  86. Minotti PL, Hughes BJ, Sweet RD, Warholic DT (1980) Sweet corn and weed response to differently timed post emergence applications of atrazine, 2,4-D, dicamba, and metolachlor. Vegetable Crops Dept, Cornell Univ, Ithaca, NY.Google Scholar
  87. Moriya M, Ohta T, Watanabe K, Kato K, Shirasu Y (1983) Further mutagenicity studies on pesticides in bacterial reversion assay systems. Mutat Res 116: 185–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Morton HL, Robinson ED, Meyer RE (1967) Persistence of 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, and dicamba in range forage grasses. Weeds 15: 268–271.Google Scholar
  89. Muir DCG, Grift NP (1987) Herbicide levels in rivers draining two prairie agricultural watersheds (1984). J Environ Sci Hlth B22 (3): 259–284.Google Scholar
  90. Murray MR, Hall JK (1989) Sorption-desorption of dicamba and 3,6-dichlorosali- cylic acid in soils. J Environ Qual 18: 51–57.Google Scholar
  91. Nash RG (1989) Volatilization and dissipation of acidic herbicides from soil under controlled conditions. Chemosphere 18 (11/12): 2363–2373.Google Scholar
  92. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) (1977) Drinking water and health, vol 1. Safe Drinking Water Committee, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  93. Neely D, Crowley WR (1974) Toxicity of soil-applied herbicides to shade trees. Hort Sci 9 (2): 147–149.Google Scholar
  94. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) (1991) Water quality regulations for surface waters and groundwaters. 6NYCRR, Parts 700–705, Albany, NY.Google Scholar
  95. Norris LA, Montgomery MM (1975) Dicamba residues in streams after forest spraying. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 13 (1): 1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Oehler DD, Ivie GW (1980) Metabolic fate of the herbicide dicamba in a lactating cow. J Agric Food Chem 28 (4): 685–689.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food (OMAF) (1988) Survey of pesticide use in Ontario, 1988. rept no 89 - 08, Economics and Policy Co-Ordination Branch, Toronto.Google Scholar
  98. OMAF (1989) 1990 Guide to weed control. Publ 75, ISSN 0836-1045, Queen’s Printer for Ontario.Google Scholar
  99. OMAF (1991) Water use by agriculture: Summary report for water efficient Ontario. Resources Management Branch, Guelph, Ontario.Google Scholar
  100. Ontario Ministry of the Environment (OMOE) (1984) Water management: Goals, policies, objectives and implementation procedures of the Ministry of the Environment. Water Resources Branch, Toronto.Google Scholar
  101. O’Sullivan PA, Kossatz VC (1984) Canada thistle suppression and rapeseed tolerance with dicamba and picloram. Can J Plant Sci 64: 917–977.Google Scholar
  102. Palmer JS, Radeleff RD (1969) The toxicity of some organic herbicides in cattle, sheep, and chickens. Prod res rept 106, U.S. Dept Agric, U.S. Gov Printing Office, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  103. Pimentai D (1971) Ecological effects of pesticides on non-target species. Executive Office of the President, Office of Science and Technology, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  104. Pionke HB, Glotfelty DE (1989) Nature and extent of groundwater contamination by pesticides in an agricultural watershed. Water Res 23 (8): 1031–1037.Google Scholar
  105. Rao PSC, Davidson JM (1980) Estimation of pesticide retention and transformation parameters required in non-point source pollution models. In: Overcash MR, Davidson JM (eds) Environ impact of non-point source pollution. Ann Arbor Sci Publ, Ann Arbor, MI.Google Scholar
  106. Ritter WF, Chirnside AE, Scarborough RW (1989) Pesticide movement in a coastal plain soil under irrigation. In: Proceedings of Pan-American Regional Conference of the International Committee on Irrigation and Drainage, Ottawa, Canada, pp 389–400.Google Scholar
  107. Rodrigues C (1991) Environment Canada, personal communication.Google Scholar
  108. Rumack BH, Spoerke DS (1990) Poisondex information system. Micromedex, Denver, CO.Google Scholar
  109. Sanders HO, Cope OB (1966) Toxicities of several pesticides to two species of cladocerans. Trans Am Fish Soc 95: 165–169.Google Scholar
  110. Sanders HO (1969) Toxicity of pesticides to the crustacean Gammarus lacustris. USDI tech paper 25, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Columbia, MO.Google Scholar
  111. Sanders HO (1970) Toxicities of some herbicides to six species of freshwater crustaceans. J Water Pollut Control Fed 24 (8): 1544–1550.Google Scholar
  112. Saskatchewan Environment and Public Safety (SEPS) (1990) ESQUADAT computer printout. Water Quality Branch, Regina, Saskatchewan.Google Scholar
  113. Scifres CJ, Allen TJ (1973) Dissipation of dicamba from grassland soils of Texas. Weed Sci 21 (5): 393–396.Google Scholar
  114. Scifres CJ, Allen TJ, Leinweber CL, Pearson KH (1973) Dissipation and phytotoxicity of dicamba residues in water. J Environ Qual 2: 306–309.Google Scholar
  115. Sims HP (1991) Alberta Environment, personal communication.Google Scholar
  116. Sirons GJ, Anderson GW, Frank R, Ripley BD (1982) Persistence of hormone- type herbicide residue in tissue of susceptible crop plants. Weed Sci 30: 572–578.Google Scholar
  117. Smith AE (1973) Degradation of dicamba in prairie soils. Weed Res 13: 373–378.Google Scholar
  118. Smith AE (1974) Breakdown of the herbicide dicamba and its degradation product 3,6-dichlorosalicylic acid in prairie soils. J Agric Food Chem 22: 601–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Smith AE, Hay den BJ (1976) Field persistence studies with eight herbicides commonly used in Saskatchewan. Can J Plant Sci 56: 769–771.Google Scholar
  120. Smith AE (1984) Soil persistence studies with bromomoxynil, propanil, and di-camba in herbicidal mixtures. Weed Res 24: 291–295.Google Scholar
  121. Smith SH, O’Loughlin CK, Salamon CM (1981) Teratology study in albino rats with technical dicamba. Toxigenetics study no 450-0460, unpub study (cited in USEPA 1988a ).Google Scholar
  122. Stewart DKR, Gaul SO (1977) Persistence of 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T and dicamba in a dykeland soil. Contribution no 1573, Res Station, Agriculture Canada, Kentville, Nova Scotia.Google Scholar
  123. St. John LE, Lisk DJ (1969) Metabolism of Banvel-D herbicide in a dairy cow. J Dairy Sci 52 (3): 392–393.Google Scholar
  124. STORET (1988) STORET water quality file. Office of Water, USEPA, data file search conducted in May 1988, (cited in USEPA 1988a).Google Scholar
  125. Suntio LR, Shiu WY, MacKay D, Seiber JN, Glotfelty D (1988) Critical review of Henry’s Law constants for pesticides. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 103: 1–59.Google Scholar
  126. Therrien-Richards S, Williamson DA (1987) Contamination by pesticides of the LaSalle and Assiniboine rivers, Manitoba, Canada. Environment Canada, Western and Northern Region, W & NR 87/88-CP(EP)-l.Google Scholar
  127. Thompson L, Slack CH, Augenstein RD, Herron JW (1973) Action and fate of 2,4-D and dicamba in trumpetcreeper. Weed Sci 21 (5): 429–432.Google Scholar
  128. Torstensson L (1988) Microbial decomposition of herbicides in the soil. Outlook Agric 17: 120–124.Google Scholar
  129. Trichell DW, Morton HL, Merkle MG (1968) Loss of herbicides in runoff water. Weed Sci 16: 447–449Google Scholar
  130. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) (1986) Herbicide background statements: Dicamba. Pacific Northwest Region, USDA Forest Service, Portland, OR.Google Scholar
  131. U.S. Department of Energy (USDE) (1983) Final environmental impact statement transmission facilities vegetation management program. DOE/EIS-0097. Bonneville Power Administration, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  132. U.S. Environ Protection Agency (USEPA) (1975) Initial scientific and mini- economic review of dicamba. Office of Pesticide Programs, Washington, DC. (cited in NAS 1977 ).Google Scholar
  133. USEPA (1987) Agric, chemicals in groundwater: Proposed pesticide strategy. Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  134. USEPA (1988a) Health advisories for 50 pesticides. PB88-245931/REB, Office of Drinking Water, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  135. USEPA (1988b) Recommendations for and documentation of biological values for use in risk assessment. PB88 179874, EPA/600/6-87/008, Cincinnati, OH.Google Scholar
  136. Waite DT, Grover R, Westcott N, Sommerstad H, Kerr L (1992) Pesticides in groundwater, surface water, and spring run-off in a small Saskatchewan watershed. Environ Toxicol Chem 11: 741–748.Google Scholar
  137. Wauchope RD, Buttler TM, Hornsby AG, Augustijn-Beckers PWM, Burt JP (1992) The SCS/ARS/CES pesticide properties database for environmental decisionmaking. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 123: 1–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Wazeter FX, Goldenthal EI, Jessup DC, et al. (1977) Pilot teratology studies in rabbits. IRDC no 163–436, confidential business information submitted to the Office of Pesticide Programs, unpub study MRID 00025373 (cited in USEPA 1988).Google Scholar
  139. Weed Science Society of America (WSSA) (1989) Herbicide handbook of the Weed Science Society of America. 6th ed, Champaign, IL.Google Scholar
  140. Williamson DA (1984) A preliminary investigation into the presence of agricultural pesticides in the LaSalle and Assiniboine rivers, Manitoba, Canada. Water Standards and Studies rept 84 - 5, Environ Management Services Branch, Manitoba Dept of Environment and Workplace Safety and Health.Google Scholar
  141. Witherup S, Stemmer KL, Roell M (1966) The effects exerted upon the fertility of rats and upon their viability of their offspring by the introduction of Banvel D into their diets. Unpub study (cited in USEPA 1988 ).Google Scholar
  142. Woodward DF (1982) Acute toxicity of mixtures of range management herbicides to cutthroat trout. J Range Mgt 35 (4): 539–540.Google Scholar
  143. Worthing CR, Hance RJ (eds) (1991) The pesticide manual: A world compendium. 9th ed, British Crop Protection Council. Farnham, Surrey, UK.Google Scholar
  144. Yu CC, Hansen DJ, Booth GM (1975) Fate of dicamba in a model ecosystem. Illinois Natural History Survey and Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station, Urbana, IL.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • P.-Y. Caux
    • 1
  • R. A. Kent
    • 1
  • M. Taché
    • 1
  • C. Grande
    • 1
  • G. T. Fan
    • 1
  • D. D. MacDonald
    • 2
  1. 1.Eco-Health Branch, Ecosystem Sciences and Evaluation DirectorateEnvironment CanadaOttawaCanada
  2. 2.MacDonald Environmental Sciences Ltd.LadysmithCanada

Personalised recommendations