Advertisement

Calvarium (Skull)

  • Maurice M. Reeder
  • William G. BradleyJr.

Keywords

Osteogenesis Imperfecta Subdural Hematoma Fibrous Dysplasia Pediatric Radiology Skeletal Dysplasia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Cohen MM Jr: Genetic perspective on craniosynostosis and syndromes with craniosynostosis. Neurosurgery 1977; 47: 886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    David DJ, Poswillo D, Simpson D: The Craniosynostoses. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Duggan CA, Keever EB, Gay BB Jr: Secondary craniosynostosis. AJR 1970; 109: 277–293Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jones KL: Smith’s Recognizable Patterns of Human Malformation. (ed 3 ) Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1988Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Newton TH, Potts DG: Radiology of the Skull and Brain. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby, 1971, vol 1, book 1, pp 222–228Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Swischuk LE: Differential Diagnosis in Pediatric Radiology. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1984, p 350Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Taybi H, Lachman RS: Radiology of Syndromes, Metabolic Disorders, and Skeletal Dysplasias, (ed 3) Chicago: Year Book Medical Publ, 1990, p 852Google Scholar
  8. 1.
    Newton TH, Potts DG: Radiology of the Skull and Brain. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby, 1971, vol 1, book 1, p 222Google Scholar
  9. 2.
    Silverman FN (ed): Caffey’s Pediatric X-ray Diagnosis, (ed 8) Chicago: Year Book Medical Publ, 1985, pp 36–43Google Scholar
  10. 3.
    Swischuk LE: Differential Diagnosis in Pediatric Radiology. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1984, p 331Google Scholar
  11. 4.
    Swischuk LE: Imaging of the Newborn, Infant, and Young Child, (ed 3) Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1989, pp 906–913Google Scholar
  12. 1.
    Cohen MM Jr: Genetic perspective on craniosynostosis and syndromes with craniosynostosis. Neurosurgery 1977; 47: 886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 2.
    David DJ, Poswillo D, Simpson D: The Craniosynostoses. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 3.
    Jones KL: Smith’s Recognizable Patterns of Human Malformation. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1988Google Scholar
  15. 4.
    Newton TH, Potts DG: Radiology of the Skull and Brain. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby, 1971, vol 1, book 1, pp 222–228Google Scholar
  16. 5.
    Swischuk LE: Differential Diagnosis in Pediatric Radiology. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1984, p 350Google Scholar
  17. 6.
    Taybi H, Lachman RS: Radiology of Syndromes, Metabolic Disorders, and Skeletal Dysplasias, (ed 3) Chicago: Year Book Medical Publ, 1990, p 852Google Scholar
  18. 1.
    Felson B (ed): Dwarfs and other little people. Semin Roentgenol 1973: 8: 133–263Google Scholar
  19. 2.
    Newton TH, Potts DG: Radiology of the Skull and Brain. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby, 1971, vol 1, book 1, pp 151–152Google Scholar
  20. 3.
    Jones KL: Smith’s Recognizable Patterns of Human Malformation. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1988Google Scholar
  21. 4.
    Taybi H, Lachman RS: Radiology of Syndromes, Metabolic Disorders, and Skeletal Dysplasias, (ed 3) Chicago: Year Book Medical Publ, 1990, p 854Google Scholar
  22. 1.
    Harwood-Nash DC, Fitz CR: Large heads and ventricles in infants. Radiol Clin North Am 1975; 13: 119–224Google Scholar
  23. 2.
    Newton TH, Potts DG: Radiology of the Skull and Brain. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby, 1971, vol 1, book 1, pp 144–151Google Scholar
  24. 3.
    Scotti LN, Maravilla K, Hardman DR: The enlarging head — angiographic evaluation of megacephaly. American Roentgen Ray Society Scientific Exhibit, Atlanta, 1975Google Scholar
  25. 4.
    Swischuk LE: Differential Diagnosis in Pediatric Radiology. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1984, pp 329–330Google Scholar
  26. 1.
    DeMyer W: Megalencephaly in children: clinical syndromes, genetic patterns, and differential diagnoses from other causes of megalocephaly. Neurology 1972; 22: 634–643Google Scholar
  27. 2.
    Holt JF, Kuhns LR: Macrocranium and macrocephaly in neurofibromatosis. Skeletal Radiol 1976; 1: 25–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 3.
    Jones KL: Smith’s Recognizable Patterns of Human Malformation. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1988Google Scholar
  29. 4.
    Swischuk LE: Differential Diagnosis in Pediatric Radiology. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1984, p 329Google Scholar
  30. 5.
    Taybi H, Lachman RS: Radiology of Syndromes, Metabolic Disorders, and Skeletal Dysplasias, (ed 3) Chicago: Year Book Medical Publ, 1990, pp 853–854Google Scholar
  31. 1.
    Jones KL: Smith’s Recognizable Patterns of Human Malformation. (ed 3 ) Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1988Google Scholar
  32. 2.
    Swischuk LE: Differential Diagnosis in Pediatric Radiology. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1984, p 335Google Scholar
  33. 3.
    Taybi H, Lachman RS: Radiology of Syndromes, Metabolic Disorders, and Skeletal Dysplasias, (ed 3) Chicago: Year Book Medical Publ, 1990, p 853Google Scholar
  34. 1.
    Swischuk LE: Differential Diagnosis in Pediatric Radiology. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1984, p 337Google Scholar
  35. 1.
    Dolan KD: Cervicobasilar relationships. Radiol Clin North Am 1977; 15: 155–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 2.
    DuBoulay GH: Principles of X-ray Diagnosis of the Skull, (ed 2) London: Butterworths, 1980, pp 229–235Google Scholar
  37. 3.
    Epstein BS, Epstein JA: The association of cerebellar tonsillar herniation with basilar impression incident to Paget’s disease. AJR 1969; 107: 535–542Google Scholar
  38. 4.
    Taybi H, Lachman RS: Radiology of Syndromes, Metabolic Disorders, and Skeletal Dysplasias, (ed 3) Chicago: Year Book Medical Publ, 1990, pp 851–852Google Scholar
  39. 1.
    Dor st J: Personal communicationGoogle Scholar
  40. 2.
    DuBoulay GH: Principles of X-ray Diagnosis of the Skull, (ed 2) London: Butterworths, 1980, pp 237–243Google Scholar
  41. 1.
    DuBoulay GH: Principles of X-ray Diagnosis of the Skull, (ed 2) London: Butterworths, 1980, pp 113–125Google Scholar
  42. 1.
    Anderson R, et al: Thickening of the skull in surgically treated hydrocephalus. AJR 1970; 110: 96–101Google Scholar
  43. 2.
    DuBoulay GH: Principles of X-ray Diagnosis of the Skull, (ed 2) London: Butterworths, 1980, pp 98–113Google Scholar
  44. 3.
    Griscom NT, Oh KS: The contracting skull; Inward growth of the inner table as a physiologic response to diminution of intracranial content in children. AJR 1970; 110: 106–110Google Scholar
  45. 4.
    Kattan KR: Calvarial thickening after Dilantin medication. AJR 1970; 110: 102–105Google Scholar
  46. 5.
    Swischuk LE: Differential Diagnosis in Pediatric Radiology. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1984, pp 338–341Google Scholar
  47. 6.
    Taybi H, Lachman RS: Radiology of Syndromes, Metabolic Disorders, and Skeletal Dysplasias, (ed 3 ) Chicago: Year Book Medical Publ, 1990Google Scholar
  48. 7.
    Teplick JG, Haskin ME: Roentgenologic Diagnosis, (ed 3 ) Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1976Google Scholar
  49. 1.
    Kozlowski K., Beighton P.: Gamut Index of Skeletal Dysplasias. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1984Google Scholar
  50. 2.
    Swischuk LE: Differential Diagnosis in Pediatric Radiology. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1984, pp 338–341Google Scholar
  51. 3.
    Taybi H, Lachman RS: Radiology of Syndromes, Metabolic Disorders, and Skeletal Dysplasias, (ed 3 ) Chicago: Year Book Medical Publ, 1990Google Scholar
  52. 1.
    Potter GD: Sclerosis of the base of the skull as a manifestation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Radiology 1970; 94: 35–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 2.
    Tsai FY, Lisella RS, Lee KF, et al: Osteosclerosis of base of skull as a manifestation of tumor invasion. AJR 1975; 124: 256–264Google Scholar
  54. 1.
    DuBoulay GH: Principles of X-ray Diagnosis of the Skull, (ed 2 ) London: Butterworths, 1980Google Scholar
  55. 2.
    Swischuk LE: Differential Diagnosis in Pediatric Radiology. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1984, p 344Google Scholar
  56. 1.
    DuBoulay GH: Principles of X-ray Diagnosis of the Skull, (ed 2 ) London: Butterworths, 1980Google Scholar
  57. 2.
    Swischuk LE: Differential Diagnosis in Pediatric Radiology. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1984, pp 346–347Google Scholar
  58. 1.
    Newton TH, Potts DG: Radiology of the Skull and Brain. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby, 1971, p 759Google Scholar
  59. 2.
    Rosen IW, Nadel HI: Button sequestrum of the skull. Radiology 1969; 92: 969–971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 3.
    Satin R, Usher MS, Goldenberg M: More causes of button sequestrum. J Can Assoc Radiol 1976; 27: 288–289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 4.
    Sholkoff SD, Mainzer F: Button sequestrum revisited. Radiology 1971; 100: 649–652PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 5.
    Wells PO: Button sequestrum of eosinophilic granuloma of the skull. Radiology 1956; 67: 746–747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 1.
    DuBoulay GH; Principles of X-ray Diagnosis of the Skull, (ed 2) London: Butterworths, 1980, pp 57-94Google Scholar
  64. 2.
    Lane B: Erosions of the skull. Radiol Clin North Am 1974; 12: 257–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 3.
    Taveras JM, Wood EH: Diagnostic Neuroradiology, (ed 2) Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, vol 1,1976Google Scholar
  66. 1.
    Du Boulay GH: Principles of X-ray Diagnosis of the Skull, (ed 2 ) London: Butterworths, 1980Google Scholar
  67. 2.
    Jacobson HG: Personal communicationGoogle Scholar
  68. 3.
    Lane B: Erosions of the skull. Radiol Clin North Am 1974; 12: 257–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 4.
    Lo Presti JM: Personal communicationGoogle Scholar
  70. 5.
    Taveras JM, Wood EH: Diagnostic Neuroradiology, (ed 2) Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, vol 1, 1976Google Scholar
  71. 1.
    Doyle FH: Radiology of the pituitary fossa. In: Lodge T, Steiner RE (eds): Recent Advances in Radiology. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1979, vol 6, pp 121–143Google Scholar
  72. 2.
    DuBoulay GH: Principles of X-ray Diagnosis of the Skull, (ed 2 ) London: Butterworths, 1980Google Scholar
  73. 3.
    Kaufman B, Chamberlin WB Jr: The “empty” sella turcica. Acta Radiol 1970; 13: 413–425Google Scholar
  74. 4.
    Lee SH, Rao KC: Cranial Computed Tomography and MRI. (ed 2) New York: McGraw-Hill, 1987, pp 453–477Google Scholar
  75. 5.
    Newton TH, Potts DG: Radiology of the Skull and Brain. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby, 1971, vol 1, book 1, pp 372–402Google Scholar
  76. 6.
    Sage MR, Chan ESH, Reilly PL: The clinical and radiological features of the empty sella syndrome. Clin Radiol 1980; 31: 513–519PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 7.
    Swischuk LE: Differential Diagnosis in Pediatric Radiology. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1984, pp 356–357Google Scholar
  78. 8.
    Taveras JM, Wood EH: Diagnostic Neuroradiology, (ed 2) Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1976, vol 1, pp 65–89Google Scholar
  79. 9.
    Teasdale E, et al: The reliability of radiology in detecting prolactin-secreting pituitary microadenomas. Br J Radiol 1981; 54: 556–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 10.
    Tindall GT, Hoffman JC Jr: Evaluation of the abnormal sella turcica. Arch Intern Med 1980; 140: 1078–1083PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 1.
    Newton TH, Potts DG: Radiology of the Skull and Brain. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby, 1971, vol 1, book 1, pp 371–372Google Scholar
  82. 2.
    Oh KS, Ledesma-Medina J, Bender TM: Practical Gamuts and Differential Diagnosis in Pediatric Radiology. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publ, 1982, p 8Google Scholar
  83. 3.
    Taybi H, Lachman RS: Radiology of Syndromes, Metabolic Disorders, and Skeletal Dysplasias, (ed 3) Chicago: Year Book Medical Publ, 1990, p 854Google Scholar
  84. 1.
    Swischuk LE: Differential Diagnosis in Pediatric Radiology. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1984, pp 356–358Google Scholar
  85. 1.
    Crawford DB, Williams JP, Connaughton PN: Glomus jug- ulare tumors: The value of lateral tomography. American Roentgen Ray Society Scientific Exhibit, Atlanta, 1975Google Scholar
  86. 2.
    Newton TH, Hasso AN, Dillon WP: Modern Neuroradiology, vol 3. Computed Tomography of the Head and Neck. New York: Raven Press, 1988Google Scholar
  87. 1.
    DuBoulay GH: Principles of X-ray Diagnosis of the Skull, (ed 2) London: Butterworths, 1980, pp 180–186Google Scholar
  88. 2.
    Hasso A, Vignaud J, La Masters DL: Pathology of the skull base and vault. In: Newton TH, Hasso AN, Dillon WP (eds): Modern Neuroradiology, vol 3. Computed Tomography of the Head and Neck. New York: Raven Press, 1988, pp 3. 1–3. 26Google Scholar
  89. 3.
    Newton TH, Potts DG: Radiology of the Skull and Brain. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby, 1971, vol 1, book 1, pp 311–313Google Scholar
  90. 1.
    DuBoulay GH: Principles of X-ray Diagnosis of the Skull, (ed 2 ) London: Butterworths, 1980Google Scholar
  91. 2.
    Hasso A, Vignaud J, La Masters DL: Pathology of the skull base and vault. In: Newton TH, Hasso AN, Dillon WP (eds): Modern Neuroradiology, vol 3. Computed Tomography of the Head and Neck. New York: Raven Press, 1988, pp 3. 1–3. 26Google Scholar
  92. 1.
    Dubois PJ: Neuro-otology. In: Rosenberg RN (ed): The Clinical Neurosciences. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1984, vol 4, p 672Google Scholar
  93. 2.
    DuBoulay GH: Principles of X-ray Diagnosis of the Skull (ed 2) London: Butterworths, 1980, pp 186–193Google Scholar
  94. 3.
    Newton TH, Potts DG: Radiology of the Skull and Brain. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby, 1971, vol 1, book 1, pp 442–446Google Scholar
  95. 1.
    Unger JM: Handbook of Head and Neck Imaging. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1987, pp 160–161Google Scholar
  96. 1.
    Unger JM: Handbook of Head and Neck Imaging. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1987, pp 146–152Google Scholar
  97. 2.
    Valvassori GE, Buckingham RA, Carter BL, Hanafee WN, Mafee MF: Head and Neck Imaging: New York: Thieme Medical Publ, 1988, pp 120–144Google Scholar
  98. 1.
    Greenfield GB: Radiology of Bone Diseases, (ed 5 ) Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1990Google Scholar
  99. 1.
    Swischuk LE: The normal pediatric skull: Variations and artifacts. Radiol Clin North Am 1972; 10: 227–290Google Scholar
  100. 2.
    Tomsick TA: Gamut: Normal skull variant that may simulate a fracture. Semin Roentgenol 1978; 13: 3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 1.
    Allen WE, Kier EL, Rothman SLG: Pitfalls in the evaluation of skull trauma. Radiol Clin North Am 1973; 11: 479–503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 2.
    Keats TE: Atlas of Normal Roentgen Variants That May Simulate Disease, (ed 4 ) Chicago: Year Book Medical Publ, 1988Google Scholar
  103. 3.
    Swischuk LE: The normal pediatric skull: Variations and artifacts. Radiol Clin North Am 1972; 10: 277–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 4.
    Tomsick TA: Gamut: Normal skull variant that may simulate a fracture. Semin Roentgenol 1978; 13: 3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 1.
    Cremin B, Goodman H, Spranger J, et al: Wormian bones in osteogenesis imperfecta and other disorders. Skeletal Radiol 1982; 8: 35–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 2.
    Greenfield GB: Radiology of Bone Diseases, (ed 5 ) Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1990Google Scholar
  107. 3.
    Kozlowski K, Beighton P: Gamut Index of Skeletal Dysplasias. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1984, pp 35–36Google Scholar
  108. 4.
    Pryles CV, Khan AJ: Wormian bones. Am J Dis Child 1979; 133: 380–382Google Scholar
  109. 5.
    Taybi H, Lachman RS: Radiology of Syndromes, Metabolic Disorders, and Skeletal Dysplasias, (ed 3) Chicago: Year Book Medical Publ, 1990, p 855Google Scholar
  110. 1.
    Dorst JP: Personal communicationGoogle Scholar
  111. 1.
    Swischuk LE: Differential Diagnosis in Pediatric Radiology. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1984, p 362Google Scholar
  112. 1.
    Dorst J: Radiological Society of North America Scientific Exhibit, 1972Google Scholar
  113. 2.
    Felson B (ed): Dwarfs and other little people. Semin Roentgenol 1973; 8: 133–263Google Scholar
  114. 3.
    Jones KL: Smith’s Recognizable Patterns of Human Malformation. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1988Google Scholar
  115. 4.
    Swischuk LE: Differential Diagnosis in Pediatric Radiology. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1984, p 362Google Scholar
  116. 5.
    Taybi H, Lachman RS: Radiology of Syndromes, Metabolic Disorders, and Skeletal Dysplasias, (ed 3) Chicago: Year Book Medical Publ, 1990, p 853Google Scholar
  117. 1.
    Newton TH, Potts DG: Radiology of the Skull and Brain. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby, 1971, vol 1, book 1, pp 232–236Google Scholar
  118. 2.
    Taybi H, Lachman RS: Radiology of Syndromes, Metabolic Disorders, and Skeletal Dysplasias, (ed 3) Chicago: Year Book Medical Publ, 1990, pp 854–855Google Scholar
  119. 1.
    Swischuk LE: Differential Diagnosis in Pediatric Radiology. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1984, pp 347–348Google Scholar
  120. 2.
    Swischuk LE: The growing skull. Semin Roentgenol 1974; 9: 115–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 1.
    Swischuk LE: Differential Diagnosis in Pediatric Radiology. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1984, pp 352–354Google Scholar
  122. 1.
    Swischuk LE: Differential Diagnosis in Pediatric Radiology. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1984, pp 352–354Google Scholar
  123. 1.
    Greenfield GB: Radiology of Bone Diseases, (ed 5 ) Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1990Google Scholar
  124. 2.
    Kohler A, Zimmer EA: Borderlands of the Normal and Early Pathologic in Skeletal Radiology. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1968, p 202Google Scholar
  125. 3.
    Silverman FN: Caffey’s Pediatric X-ray Diagnosis (ed 8) Chicago: Year Book Medical Publ, 1985, pp 79–85Google Scholar
  126. 4.
    Swischuk LE: Differential Diagnosis in Pediatric Radiology. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1984, pp 341–343Google Scholar
  127. 5.
    Wilson JD, et al: Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, (ed 12 ) New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maurice M. Reeder
    • 1
  • William G. BradleyJr.
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Section of Radiology, John A. Burns School of MedicineUniversity of Hawaii at ManoaHonoluluUSA
  2. 2.MRI and Radiology ResearchLong Beach Memorial Medical CenterLong BeachUSA
  3. 3.Department of Radiological SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaIrvine, OrangeUSA

Personalised recommendations