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Manganese is one of the more abundant elements in the crust, and enrichments are accordingly common Most production, however, comes from a few giant deposits, particularly Nikopol in the Ukraine, which contains some 75 percent of the world’s reserves (Table 5-1). Also, note another large group of deposits in the Proterozoic, that occur at the same time as the largest iron ore accumulation. Geochemically, manganese behavior is controlled by the oxidation state of the environment. A number of Mn oxidation states are known from laboratory experiments, but only two, Mn2+ and Mn4+ are common in nature. They often occur together in the same mineral or in closely intergrown mineral aggregates giving a continuous series of net oxidation states. The geochemical properties of manganese are similar to those of iron, so that its segregation into economic deposits is largely a problem of separating it from iron.
KeywordsBlack Shale Manganese Nodule Manganese Mineral Vertical Sequence Supergene Alteration
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