Advertisement

Social Learning Theory: A Contextualist Account of Cognitive Functioning

  • Barry J. Zimmerman
Part of the Springer Series in Cognitive Development book series (SSCOG)

Abstract

Social learning theory grew out of the efforts of Bandura and Walters (1959, 1963) to explain how children acquired information and behavior by observing people in natural settings. Initially they investigated youngsters’ simple imitation of common responses, such as aggression, by a model. Favorable results of this research prompted study of more complex classes of social learning, such as the development of emotional reactions (attraction and avoidance), cognitive and linguistic rules, self-regulating responses, personal standards, expectations, and self-efficacy judgments. This social interactionist approach to development revealed a distinctive but widely underestimated feature of children’s knowledge: At all levels of complexity, it remained highly dependent on the social environmental context from which it sprang. This property of thought also became evident to other theorists as they began to study cognitive functioning in naturalistic settings. Several of these theorists have discussed the implications of their research on the basis of a general epistemology termed “contextualism.”

Keywords

Social Learning Rule Learning Language Acquisition Outcome Expectation Apply Behavior Analysis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adorno, T. W. Sociology and psychology. New Left Review, November-December 1967, 67–80.Google Scholar
  2. Adorno, T. W. Introduction. In T. W. Adorno, H. Albert, R. Dahrendorf, J. Habermas, H. Pilot, & K. R. Popper (Eds.), The positivist dispute in German sociology. New York: Harper & Row, 1976.Google Scholar
  3. Allen, K. E., Henke, L. B., Harris, F. R., Baer, D. M., & Reynolds, N. J. Control of hyperactivity by social reinforcement of attending behavior. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1967, 58, 231–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arem, C. A., & Zimmerman, B. J. Vicarious effects on the creative behavior on retarded and nonretarded children. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1976, 81, 289–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Atkinson, R. C., & Shiffrin, R. M. Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In K. W. Spence & J. T. Spence (Eds.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 2). New York: Academic Press, 1968.Google Scholar
  6. Baltes, P. B., & Labouvie, G. V. Adult development of intellectual performance: Description, explanation, and modification. In D. Eisdorfer & M. P. Lawton (Eds.), The psychology of adult development and aging. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 1973.Google Scholar
  7. Bandura, A. Social learning through imitation. In M. R. Jones (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (Vol. 10). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1962.Google Scholar
  8. Bandura, A. Influence of a model’s reinforcement contingencies on the acquisition of imitative responses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1965, 11, 587–595.Google Scholar
  9. Bandura, A. Principles of behavior modification. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1969.Google Scholar
  10. Bandura, A. Psychological mo deling-Conflicting theories. Chicago: Atherton/Aldine, 1971.Google Scholar
  11. Bandura, A. Effecting change through participant modeling. In J. D. Krumboltz & C. E. Thoresen (Eds.), Counseling method. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1976.Google Scholar
  12. Bandura, A. Self efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 1977, 84, 191–215. (a)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bandura, A. Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1977. (b)Google Scholar
  14. Bandura, A. On paradigms and recycled ideologies. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1978, 2, 79–103. (a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bandura, A. The self system in reciprocal determinism. American Psychologist, 1978, 33, 344–358. (b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bandura, A. The self and mechanisms of agency. In J. Suls (Ed.), Social psychological perspectives on the self. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1980.Google Scholar
  17. Bandura, A. Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 1982, 37, 122–147. (a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bandura, A. The psychology of chance encounters and life paths. American Psychologist, 1982, 37, 747–755. (b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bandura, A., Blanchard, E. B., & Ritter, B. The relative efficacy of desensitization and modeling approaches for inducing behavioral, affective, and attitudinal changes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1969, 13, 173–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bandura, A., Grusec, J. E., & Menlove, F. L. Some social determinants of self-monitoring reinforcement systems. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1967, 5, 449–455. (a)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bandura, A., Grusec, J. E., & Menlove, F. L. Vicarious extinction of avoidance behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1967, 5, 16–23. (b)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bandura, A., & Harris, M. B. Modification of syntactic style. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1966, 4, 341–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bandura, A., & Jeffery, R. W. Role of symbolic coding and rehearsal processes in observational learning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1973, 26, 122–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bandura, A., Jeffery, R. W., & Bachicha, D. L. Analysis of memory codes and cumulative rehearsal in observational learning. Journal of Research in Personality, 1974, 7, 295–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bandura, A., & Kupers, C. J. The transmission of patterns of self reinforcement through modeling. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1964, 69, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bandura, A., & McDonald, F. J. Influences of social reinforcement and the behavior of models in shaping children’s moral judgments. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1963, 67, 274–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bandura, A., & Perloff, B. Relative efficacy of self-monitored and externally imposed reinforcement systems. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1967, 7, 111–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bandura, A., & Rosenthal, T. L. Vicarious classical conditioning as a function of arousal level. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1966, 3, 54–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bandura, A., Ross, D., & Ross, S. A. Imitation of film mediated aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1963, 66, 3–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bandura, A., & Schunk, D. Cultivating competence, self efficacy, and intrinsic interest through proximal self motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1981, 41, 586–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bandura, A., & Walters, R. H. Adolescent aggression. New York: Ronald Press, 1959.Google Scholar
  32. Bandura, A., & Walters, R. Social learning and personality development. New York: Holt, 1963.Google Scholar
  33. Beilin, H. Piaget and the new functionalism. Paper presented at the 11th symposium of the Jean Piaget Society, Philadelphia, May 1981.Google Scholar
  34. Belcher, T. L. Modeling original divergent responses: An initial investigation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1975, 67, 351–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Bengtson, V. L. The social psychology of aging. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1973.Google Scholar
  36. Berger, P. L., & Luckman, T. The social construction of reality. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1966.Google Scholar
  37. Berlyne, D. E. Conflict, arousal, and curiosity. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Berlyne, D. E. Children’s reasoning and thinking. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Carmichael’s manual of child psychology (3d ed.). New York: Wiley, 1970.Google Scholar
  39. Berzonsky, M. D. Interdependence of Inhelder and Piaget’s model of logical thinking. Developmental Psychology, 1971, 4, 469–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Bijou, S., & Baer, D. Behavioral analysis of child development. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1978.Google Scholar
  41. Black, A. H. The extinction of avoidance responses under curare. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1958, 51, 519–524.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Bloom, L. Language development: Form and function in emerging grammars. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  43. Bloom, L. Talking, understanding, and thinking. In R. L. Schiefelbusch and L. L. Lloyd (Eds.), Language perspectives-Acquisition, retardation, and intervention. Baltimore: University Park Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  44. Bloom, L. Language development review. In F. D. Horowitz (Ed.), Review of child development research (Vol. 4). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  45. Botwinick, J. Aging and behavior. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1973.Google Scholar
  46. Bower, T. G. R. The visual world of infants. Scientific American, 1966, 215, 80–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Bowers, K. S. Situationism in psychology: An analysis and a critique. Psychological Review, 1973, 80, 307–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Brainerd, C. J. Cognitive development and concept learning: An interpretive review. Psychological Bulletin, 1977, 84, 919–939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Brainerd, C. J. Learning, research, and Piagetian theory. In L. S. Siegel & C. J. Brainerd (Eds.), Alternatives to Piaget. New York: Academic Press, 1978. (a)Google Scholar
  50. Brainerd, C.J. The stage question in cognitive-developmental theory. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1978, 2, 173–213. (b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Brofenbrenner, U. The ecology of human development. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  52. Brown, A. L., Smiley, S. S., Days, J. D. Townsend, M. A., & Lawton, S. C. Intrusion of a thematic idea in children’s comprehension and retention of stories. Child Development, 1977, 48, 1454–1466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Brown, I., Jr. Role of referent concreteness in the acquisition of passive sentence comprehension through abstract modeling. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1976, 22, 185–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Brown, I., Jr., & Inouye, D. K. Learned helplessness through modeling: The role of perceived similarity in competence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1978, 36, 900–908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Brown, R. Development of the first language in the human species. American Psychologist, 1913, 28, 97–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Bruner, J. S., Olver, R. R., & Greenfield, P. B. Studies in cognitive growth. New York: Wiley, 1966.Google Scholar
  57. Buck-Morss, S. Socio-economic bias in Piaget’s theory and its implication for cross-culture studies. Human Development, 1975, 18, 35–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Campbell, D. T. On conflicts between biological and social evolution and between psychology and moral tradition. American Psychologist, 1975, 30, 1103–1126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Carroll, W. R., Rosenthal, T. L., & Brysh, C. G. Social transmission of grammatical parameters. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1972, 63, 589–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Chandler, M. Social cognition and life-span approaches to the study of cognitive development. In H. W. Reese (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 11). New York: Academic Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  61. Chatterjee, B. B., & Ericson, C. W. Cognitive factors in heart rate conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1962, 64, 272–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Chi, M. T. Knowledge structures and memory development. In R. S. Siegler (Ed.), Children’s thinking: What develops? Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1978.Google Scholar
  63. Clark, H. B., & Sherman, J. A. Teaching generative use of sentence answers to three forms of questions. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1975, 8, 321–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Clark, H. H., & Brownell, H. H. Judging up and down. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1975, 1, 339–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Coates, T. J., & Thoresen, C. E. Behavioral self-control and educational practice or do we really need self control? In D. Berliner (Ed.), Review of research in education. Washington, D.C.: American Educational Research Association, 1979.Google Scholar
  66. Cole, M., & Bruner, J. S. Cultural differences and inferences about psychological processes. American Psychologist, 1971, 26, 867–876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Cole, M., Gay, J., Glick, J., & Sharp, D. The cultural context of learning and thinking. New York: Basic Books, 1971.Google Scholar
  68. Cole, M., & Scribner, S. Culture and thought: A psychological introduction. New York: Wiley, 1974.Google Scholar
  69. Dannhauser, W. J. A review of the philosophy of moral development. (Moral stages and the idea of justice, Vol. 1: Essays on moral development by L. Kohlberg). New York Times Book Review, 1981, 8 (August 9), 11.Google Scholar
  70. Datan, N., & Ginsberg, L. H. (Eds.). Life span developmental psychology: Normative life crises. New York: Academic Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  71. Davidson, H. R., & Lang, G. Children’s perceptions of their teachers’ feelings toward them related to self-perception, school achievement, and behavior. Journal of Experimental Education, 1960, 29, 107–188.Google Scholar
  72. Debus, R. L. Effects of brief observation and model behavior on conceptual tempo of impulsive children. Developmental Psychology, 1970, 2, 22–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Debus, R. L. Observational learning of reflective strategies by impulsive children. Paper presented at the Congrès International de Psychologie, Paris 1976.Google Scholar
  74. Dember, W. N., & Earl, R. W. Analysis of exploratory, manipulatory, and curiosity behaviors. Psychological Review, 1957, 64, 91–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Dulaney, D. E. Awareness, rules, and propositional control: A confrontation with S-R behavior theory. In T. R. Dixon and D. L. Horton (Eds.), Verbal behavior and general behavior theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1968.Google Scholar
  76. Erikson, E. Childhood and society (2nd ed.). New York: Norton, 1963.Google Scholar
  77. Flanders, N. A. Teacher influence, pupil attitudes, and achievement. Cooperative Research Monograph, 1965 (No. 12). U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Office of Education, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  78. Flavell, J. H. The developmental psychology of Jean Piaget. Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand-Reinhold, 1963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Flavell, J. H. Cognitive changes in adulthood. In P. B. Baltes & L. R. Goulet (Eds.), Life span developmental psychology. New York: Academic Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  80. Flavell, J. H., & Wellman, H. M. Metamemory. In R. V. Vail & J. H. Hagen (Eds.), Perspectives on the development of memory and cognition. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1977.Google Scholar
  81. Ford, M. E. The construct validity of egocentrism. Psychological Bulletin, 1979, 86, 1169–1188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Freud, S. The basic writings of Sigmund Freud (F. A. Brill, Ed.). New York: Modern Library, 1938.Google Scholar
  83. Gagne, R. M. Contributions of learning to human development. Psychological Review, 1968, 75, 177–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Garbarino, J., & Brofenbrenner, U. The socialization of moral judgment and behavior in cross-cultural perspective. In T. Lickona (Ed.), Moral development and behavior. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1976.Google Scholar
  85. Gergen, K. J. Social psychology as history. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1973, 26, 309–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Gergen, K. J. Toward generative theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1978, 36, 1344–1360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Gerst, M. S. Symbolic coding operations in observational learning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1971, 19, 7–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Gibb, J. C. The meaning of ecologically oriented inquiry in contemporary psychology. American Psychologist, 1979, 34, 127–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Gibson, J. J. An ecological approach to visual perception. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1979.Google Scholar
  90. Glick, J. Cognitive development in cross-cultural perspective. In F. D. Horowitz (Ed.), Review of child development research (Vol. 4). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  91. Glynn, E. L. Classroom applications of self determined reinforcement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1970, 3, 123–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Goodnow, J.J. The nature of intelligent behavior: Questions raised by cross-cultural studies. In L. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1976.Google Scholar
  93. Guess, D., Sailor, W., Rutherford, G., & Baer, D. M. An experimental analysis of linguistic development: The productive use of the plural morpheme. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1968, 1, 297–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Habermas, J. Knowledge and human interests. Boston: Beacon Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  95. Harris, M. B., & Evans, R. C. Models and creativity. Psychological Reports, 1973, 33, 163–169.Google Scholar
  96. Harris, M. B., & Fisher, J. L. Modeling and flexibility in problem solving. Psychological Reports, 1913, 33, 19–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Harris, M. B., & Hassemer, W. G. Some factors affecting the complexity of children’s sentences: The effects of modeling, age, sex, and bilingualism. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1972, 13, 447–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Harris, M. B., & Siebel, C. E. Effects of sex, occupation, and confidence of model and sex and grade of subject on imitation of language behaviors. Developmental Psychology, 1976, 12, 89–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Hebb, D. O. The organization of behavior. New York: Wiley, 1949.Google Scholar
  100. Henderson, R. W., Swanson, R., & Zimmerman, B. J. Inquiry response induction of preschool children through televised modeling. Developmental Psychology, 1974, 11, 523–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Henderson, R. W., Swanson, R., & Zimmerman, B. J. Training seriation responses in young children through televised modeling of hierarchically sequenced rule components. American Educational Research Journal, 1975, 12, 474–489.Google Scholar
  102. Henderson, R. W., Zimmerman, B. J., Swanson, R., & Bergan, J. R. Televised cognitive skill instruction for Papago native American children. Tucson: Arizona Center for Education Research and Development, 1974.Google Scholar
  103. Hood, L., & Bloom, L. What, when, and how about why: A longitudinal study of early expressions of causality. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 1979, 44 (6, Serial No. 181).Google Scholar
  104. Hyde, T. S., & Jenkins, J. J. Differential effects of incidental tasks on the organization of recall of a list of highly associated words. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1969, 82, 412–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. James, W. The principles of psychology. New York: Holt, 1890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Jenkins, J. J. Remember that old theory of memory? Well, forget it! American Psychologist, 1974, 29, 785–795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Kaufman, A., Baron, A., & Kopp, R. E. Some effects of instructions on human operant behavior. Psychonomic Monograph Supplements, 1966, 1, 243–250.Google Scholar
  108. Kohlberg, L. Stage and sequence: The cognitive-developmental approach to socialization. In D. H. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1968.Google Scholar
  109. Kohlberg, L. From is to ought: How to commit the naturalistic fallacy and get away with it in the study of moral development. In T. Mischel (Ed.), Cognitive development and epistomology. New York: Academic Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  110. Kohn, M. Class and conformity: A study in values. Homewood, Ill: Dorsey Press, 1969.Google Scholar
  111. Kuhn, T. S. The structure of scientific revolutions (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  112. Labouvie-Vief, G., & Chandler, M. J. Cognitive development: Idealism vs. contextualism. In P. B. Baltes (Ed.), Life span development and behavior. New York: Academic Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  113. Lamal, P. A. Imitative learning of information-processing. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1971, 12, 223–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Laughlin, P. R., Moss, I. L., & Miller, S. M. Information processing in children as a function of adult model, stimulus display, school grade, and sex. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1969, 60, 188–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Liebert, R. M. Moral development: A theoretical and empirical analysis. In G. J. Whitehurst & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Functions of language and cognition. New York: Academic Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  116. Liebert, R. M., & Morris, L. W. Cognitive and emotional components of text anxiety: A distinction and some initial data. Psychological Reports, 1967, 20, 975–978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Liebert, R. M., Odom, R. D., Hill, J. H., & Huff, R. L. The effects of age and rule familiarity on the production of modeled language constructions. Developmental Psychology, 1969, 1, 108–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Liebert, R. M., & Swenson, S. A. Abstraction, inferences, and the process of imitative learning. Developmental Psychology, 1971, 5, 500–504. (a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Liebert, R. M., & Swenson, S. A. Association and abstraction as mechanisms of imitative learning. Developmental Psychology, 1971, 4, 289–294. (b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Lindsley, O. R. Geriatric behavioral prosthetics. In R. Kastenbaum (Ed.), New thoughts on old age. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1964.Google Scholar
  121. Lukacs, G. History and class consciousness. New York: Random House, 1971.Google Scholar
  122. MacNamara, J. Cognitive basis of language learning in infants. Psychological Review, 1972, 7, 195–203.Google Scholar
  123. Mahoney, M. J. Cognition and behavior modification. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger, 1974.Google Scholar
  124. Mandler, G. Organization and memory. In K. W. Spence & J. T. Spence (Eds.), The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory (Vol. 1). New York: Academic Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  125. Mann, M. E., & Van Wagenen, R. K. Alteration of joint mother-child linguistic styles, involving procedures of extension, elaboration and reinforcement. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Denver, April 1975.Google Scholar
  126. McClelland, D. C. Testing for competence rather than “intelligence.” American Psychologist, 1973, 25, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. McClelland, D. C., Atkinson, J. W., Clark, R. W., & Lowell, E. L. The achievement motive. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. McNeill, D. The acquisition of language: The study of developmental psycholinguistics. New York: Harper & Row, 1970.Google Scholar
  129. Miller, N. E., & Dollard, J. Social learning and imitation. New Haven: Institute of Human Relations, Yale University Press, 1941.Google Scholar
  130. Mischel, W. Personality and assessment. New York: Wiley, 1968.Google Scholar
  131. Mischel, W. Toward a cognitive social learning reconceptualization of personality. Psychological Review, 1973, 80, 252–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Mischel, W. The interaction of person and situation. In D. Magnusson & N. S. Endler (Eds.), Personality at the cross roads: Current issues in interactional psychology. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1977.Google Scholar
  133. Mischel, W. On the interface of cognition and personality: Beyond the person-situation debate. American Psychologist, 1979, 34, 740–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Mischel, W., & Liebert, R. M. Effects of discrepancies between observed and imposed reward criteria on their acquisition and transmission. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1966, 5, 45–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Moerk, E. L. Processes of language teaching and language learning in the interaction of mother-child dyads. Child Development, 1976, 47, 1064–1078.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Morgulas, S. The effect of information about sentence referents on children’s observational learning of a syntactic rule. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Graduate School of the City University of New York, 1982.Google Scholar
  137. Mogulas, S., & Zimmerman, B. J. The role of comprehension in children’s observational learning of a syntactic rule. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1979, 28, 455–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Morris, L. W., & Liebert, R. M. Relationship of cognitive and emotional components of test anxiety to physiology arousal and academic performance. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1970, 35, 332–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Murray, F. B. Acquisition of conservation through social interaction. Developmental Pyschology, 1972, 6, 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Mussen, P. H. Foreward. In R. Vasta (Ed.), Strategies and techniques of child study. New York: Academic Press, 1982.Google Scholar
  141. Myers, N. A., & Perlmutter, M. Memory in the years two to five. In P. H. Ornstein (Ed.), Memory development in children. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1978.Google Scholar
  142. Neisser, U. Cognitive psychology. New York: Applet on-Century-Crofts, 1967.Google Scholar
  143. Neisser, U. Cognition and reality. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1976.Google Scholar
  144. Nelson, K. Some evidence for the cognitive primacy of categorization and its functional basis. Merrill Palmer Quarterly, 1973, 19, 21–39. (a)Google Scholar
  145. Nelson, K. Structure and strategy in learning to talk. Monograph of the Society for Research in Child Development, 1973, 38(1–2, Serial No. 149). (b)Google Scholar
  146. Nelson, K. Concept, word, and sentence: Interrelations in acquisition and development. Psychological Review, 1974, 81, 267–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Nelson, K. How children represent knowledge of their world in and out of language: A preliminary report. In R. S. Siegler (Ed.), Children’s thinking: What develops? Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1978.Google Scholar
  148. Nesselroade, J. R., Schaie, K. W., & Baltes, P. B. Ontogenetic and generational components of structural and quantitative change in adult cognitive behavior. Journal of Gerontology, 1972, 27, 222–228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Neugarten, B. L., & Datan, N. Sociological perspectives on the life cycle. In P. B. Baltes & K. W. Schaie (Eds.), Life span developmental psychology: Personality and socialization. New York: Academic Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  150. Odom, R. D., Liebert, R. M., & Hill, J. H. The effects of modeling cues, rewards, and attention set on the properties of grammatical and ungrammatical syntactic constructions. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1968, 6, 131–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Pepper, S. C. World hypotheses. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  152. Phillips, J. R. Syntax and vocabulary of mother’s speech to young children. Child Development, 1913, 44, 182–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Piaget, J. The moral judgment of the child. Glencoe, Ill: Free Press, 1948.Google Scholar
  154. Piaget, J. The psychology of intelligence. New York: Harcourt and Brace, 1950.Google Scholar
  155. Piaget, J. The origins of intelligence in children. New York: International Universities Press, 1952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Piaget, J. The construction of reality in the child (M. Cook, trans.). New York: Basic Books, 1954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Piaget, J. Piaget’s theory. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Carmichael’s manual of child psychology. New York: Wiley, 1970.Google Scholar
  158. Piaget, J. Intellectual evolution from adolescence to adulthood. Human Development, 1912, 15, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Proshansky, H. M. Environmental psychology and the real world. Psychologist, 1976, 31, 303–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Rachman, S. J., & Hodgson, R. I. Synchrony and desynchrony in fear and avoidance. Behavior Research and Therapy, 1974, 12, 311–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Ridberg, E. H., Parke, R. D., & Hetherington, E. M. Modification of impulsive and reflective cognitive style through observation of film-mediated models. Developmental Psychology, 1971, 5, 185–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Riegel, K. F. Adult life crises: A dialectical interpretation of development. In N. Datan and L. H. Ginsburg (Eds.), Life span developmental psychology. New York: Academic Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  163. Riegel, K. F. From traits and equilibrium toward developmental dialectics. In W. J. Arnold (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (Vol.23). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  164. Rosenbaum, M. E., & Schultz, L. J. The effects of extraneous response requirements on learning by performers and observers. Psychonomic Science, 1961, 8, 51–52.Google Scholar
  165. Rosenthal, R. Experimenter effects in behavioral research. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1966.Google Scholar
  166. Rosenthal, T. L., Alford, G. S., & Rasp, L. M. Concept attainment, generalization, and retention through observation and verbal coding. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1972, 13, 183–194. (a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Rosenthal, T. L., & Bandura, A. Psychological modeling: Theory and practice. In S. L. Garfield & A. E. Bergan (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley, 1978.Google Scholar
  168. Rosenthal, T. L., & Carroll, W. R. Factors in vicarious modification of complex grammatical parameters. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1972, 63, 174–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Rosenthal, T. L., & Whitebook, J. S. Incentives versus instructions in transmitting grammatical parameters with experimenter as model. Behavior Research and Therapy, 1970, 5, 187–196.Google Scholar
  170. Rosenthal, T. L., Zimmerman, B. J., & Durning, K. Observationally-induced changes in children’s interrogative classes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1970, 16, 681–688.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Rosenthal, T. L., & Zimmerman, B.J. Instructional specificity and outcome expectation in observationally induced question formulation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1972, 63, 500–504. (a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Rosenthal, T. L., & Zimmerman, B. J. Modeling by exemplification and instruction in training conservation. Developmental Psychology, 1972, 6, 392–401. (b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Rosenthal, T. L., & Zimmerman, B.J. Organization, observation and guided practice in concept attainment and generalization. Child Development, 1913, 44, 606–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Rosenthal, T. L., & Zimmerman, B. J. Organization and stability of transfer in vicarious concept attainment. Child Development, 1976, 47, 110–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Rosenthal, T. L., & Zimmerman, B. J. Social learning and cognition. New York: Academic Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  176. Russell, J. Nonconservation of area: Do children succeed where adults fail? Developmental Psychology, 1976, 12, 467–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Salomon, G. Television is “easy” and print is “tough”: The differential investment of mental effort in learning as a function of perceptions and attributions. Journal of Educational Psychology, in press.Google Scholar
  178. Sampson, E. E. Psychology and the American ideal. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1911, 35, 767–782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Sampson, E. E. Scientific paradigms and social values: Wanted — A scientific revolution. Journal of Personality and Social Personality, 1978, 36, 1332–1343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Sampson, E. E. Cognitive psychology as ideology. American Psychologist, 1981, 36, 730–743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Schaie, K. W., Labouvie, G. V., & Buech, B. U. Generational and cohort-specific differences in adult cognitive functioning: A fourteen-year study of independent samples. Developmental Psychology, 1973, 9, 151–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Schaie, K. W., & Labouvie-Vief, G. Generational versus ontogenetic components of change in adult cognitive behavior: A fourteen-year cross-sequential study. Developmental Psychology, 1914, 10, 305–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Schaie, K. W., & Strother, C. R. A cross-sectional study of age changes in cognitive behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 1968, 70, 671–680. (a)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Schaie, K. W., & Strother, C. R. The effects of time and cohort differences on the interpretation of age changes in cognitive behavior. Multivariate Behavior Research, 1968, 3, 259–294. (b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Schumaker, J., & Sherman, J. A. Training generative verb usage by imitation and reinforcement procedures. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1970, 3, 273–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Schunk, D. H. Modeling and attribution effects on children’s achievement: A self-efficacy analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1981, 73, 93–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Seligman, M. E. P. Helplessness. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1975.Google Scholar
  188. Shatz, M., & Gelman, R. The development of communication skill modification in the speech of young children as a function of listener. Monograph of the Society for Research in Child Development, 1973, 38(5, Serial No. 152).Google Scholar
  189. Skinner, B. F. Science and human behavior. New York: Macmillan, 1953.Google Scholar
  190. Smedslund, J. The acquisition of conservation of substance and weight in children, II: External reinforcement of conservation of weight and operations of addition and subtraction. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 1961, 2, 71–84. (a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Smedslund, J. The acquisition of conservation of substance and weight in children. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 1961, 3, 153–155. (b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Smedslund, J. Bandura’s theory of self-efficacy: A set of common sense theorems. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 1978, 19, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Snow, C. E. Mother’s speech to children learning language. Child Development, 1972, 43, 549–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Strohner, H., & Nelson, K. The young child’s development of sentence comprehension: Influence of event probability, non-verbal context, syntactic form, and strategies. Child Development, 1914, 45, 189–193.Google Scholar
  195. Taub, E., Bacon, R. C., & Berman, A. J. Acquisition of a trace-conditioned avoidance response after deafferentation of the responding limb. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1965, 59, 275–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Thoresen, C. E., & Mahoney, M. J. Behavioral self-control. New York: Holt, 1974.Google Scholar
  197. Thorndike, E. L. Educational psychology, Vol. 1: The original nature of man. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1913.Google Scholar
  198. Tobias, S. Achievement treatment interactions. Review of Educational Research, 1916, 46, 61–14.Google Scholar
  199. Tulving, E. Subjective organization in free recall of related words. Psychological Review, 1962, 69, 344–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Vasta, R., & Liebert, R. M. Auditory discrimination of novel prepositional constructions as a function of age and syntactic background. Developmental Psychology, 1973, 9, 79–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Wagner, D. A. Memories of Morocco: The influence of age, schooling, and environment on memory. Cognitive Psychology, 1978, 10, 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Watson, R. I. The great psychologists. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1963.Google Scholar
  203. Weir, M. W. Developmental changes in problem solving strategies. Psychological Review, 1964, 71, 473–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Whitehurst, G. J., Ironsmith, M., & Goldfein, M. Selective imitation of the passive construction through modeling. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1914, 17, 288–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Whitehurst, G. J., & Novak, G. Modeling, imitation training, and the acquisition of sentence phrase. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1973, 16, 332–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Willems, E. P. Behavioral technology and behavioral ecology. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1974, 7, 151–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Wohlwill, J. F. Un essai d Apprentissage dans le domaine de la conservation due nombre. Estudes d’Epistémologie Génétique, 1959, 9, 125–135.Google Scholar
  208. Wohlwill, J. F. The study of behavioral development. New York: Academic Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  209. Wohlwill, J. F., & Lowe, R. C. An experimental analysis of the conservation of number. Child Development, 1962, 33, 153–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Yussen, S. R. Determinants of visual attention and recall in observational learning by preschoolers and second graders. Developmental Psychology, 1974, 10, 93–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Zimmerman, B.J. Modification of young children’s grouping strategies: Effects of modeling, verbalization, incentive, and age. Child Development, 1974, 45, 1032–1041.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Zimmerman, B. J. Modeling. In H. Horn & P. Robinson (Eds.), Psychological processes in children’s early education. New York: Academic Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  213. Zimmerman, B. J. A social learning explanation for age-related changes in children’s conceptual behavior. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 1978, 3, 11–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Zimmerman, B. J. Concepts and classification. In G. J. Whitehurst & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Functions of language and cognition. New York: Academic Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  215. Zimmerman, B. J. Operativity: A critic’s view of the construct and related research. Paper presented at the sixth biennial meeting of the Southeastern Conference on Human Development, Alexandria, Va., April 1980.Google Scholar
  216. Zimmerman, B.J. Social learning theory and cognitive constructivism. In I. E. Sigel, D. M. Brodzinsky, & R. M. Golinkoff (Eds.), New directions in Piagetian theory and practice. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1981.Google Scholar
  217. Zimmerman, B. J., & Bell, J. A. Observer verbalization and abstraction in vicarious rule learning, generalization, and retention. Developmental Psychology, 1972, 7, 227–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Zimmerman, B. J., & Blom, D. E. Cognitive conflict and learning: An empirical test of the construct. Development Review, 1983, in press.Google Scholar
  219. Zimmerman, B. J., & Dialessi, F. Modeling influences on children’s creative behavior. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1973, 65, 127–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Zimmerman, B. J., & Jaffe, A. Teaching through demonstration: The effects of structuring, imitation, and age. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1977, 69, 773–778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Zimmerman, B. J., & Kinsler, K. The effects of exposure to a punished model and verbal prohibitions in children’s toy play. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1979, 71, 388–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Zimmerman, B. J., & Kleefeld, C. F. Toward a theory of teaching: A social learning view. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 1977, 2, 158–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Zimmerman, B. J., & Koussa, R. Sex factors in children’s observational learning of value judgments of toys. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 1975, 1, 121–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Zimmerman, B. J., & Koussa, R. Social influences on children’s toy preferences: Effects of model rewardingness and affect. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 1979, 4, 55–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Zimmerman, B. J., & Lanaro, P. Acquiring and retaining conservation of length through modeling and reversibility cues. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1974, 20, 145–161.Google Scholar
  226. Zimmerman, B. J., & Pike, E. O. Effects of modeling and reinforcement on the acquisition and generalization of question asking behavior. Child Development, 1972, 45, 892–907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Zimmerman, B. J., & Ringle, J. Effects of model persistence and statements of confidence on children’s self efficacy and problem solving. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1981, 75, 485–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Zimmerman, B. J., & Rosenthal, T. L. Concept attainment, transfer, and retention through observation and rule provision. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1972, 14, 139–150. (a)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Zimmerman, B. J., & Rosenthal, T. L. Observation repetition and ethnic background in concept attainment and generalization. Child Development, 1972, 43, 605–613. (b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Zimmerman, B. J., & Rosenthal, T. L. Conserving and retaining equalities and inequalities through observation and correction. Developmental Psychology, 1974, 10, 260–268. (a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Zimmerman, B. J., & Rosenthal, T. L. Observational learning of rule governed behavior by children. Psychological Bulletin, 1974, 81, 29–42. (b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Zimmerman, B. J., & Whitehurst, G. J. Structure and function: A comparison of two views of the development of language and cognition. In G. J. Whitehurst and B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), The functions of language and cognition. New York: Academic Press, 1979.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag, New York, Inc. 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry J. Zimmerman

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations