Discretionary Justice: Influences of Social Role, Personality, and Social Situation

  • George J. McCall
Part of the Springer Series in Social Psychology book series (SSSOC)

Abstract

One type of social behavior in which substantial efforts have been invested to isolate the influences of social role, personality, and social situation is discretionary decision making in the criminal justice system (Abt & Stuart, 1979; Shaver, Gilbert, & Williams, 1975). The first section of this chapter discusses the range and nature of criminal justice decision making. A conceptual framework for viewing the three types of influence as they operate in discretionary justice is developed in the second section. In the third section two major research paradigms for the study of these influences are examined and discussed. In a fourth section a number of empirical studies employing these paradigms are reviewed, and in the concluding section an attempt is made to resolve some of the conceptual and methodological difficulties confronting such efforts to identify the influences of role, personality, and social situation.

Keywords

Paral Sonal Exter Prose Cantril 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abt, L. E., & Stuart, I. R. (Eds.). Social psychology and discretionary law. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1979.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, C. N., & Knight, G. W. Situated identities and social psychological experimentation. Sociometry, 1971, 34, 65–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Backman, C. W., & Secord, P. F. The self and role selection. In C. Gordon & K. G. Gergen (Eds.), The self and social interaction. New York: Wiley, 1968.Google Scholar
  4. Banton, M. The policeman in the community. London: Tavistock, 1964.Google Scholar
  5. Black, D. J. Production of crime rates. American Sociological Review, 1970, 35, 733–748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blumberg, A. S. Criminal justice. Chicago: Quadrangle, 1967.Google Scholar
  7. Bowen, H. The explanation of judicial voting behavior from sociological characteristics of judges. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Yale University, 1965.Google Scholar
  8. Burchard, W. W. Role conflicts of military chaplains. American Sociological Review, 1954, 19, 528–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burke, P. J. The self: Measurement requirements from an interactionist perspective. Social Psychology Quarterly, 1980, 43, 18–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burke, P. J., & Turk, A. T. Factors affecting postarrest dispositions: A model for analysis. Social Problems, 1975, 22, 313–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cain, M. E. On the beat: Interactions and relations in urban and rural police forces. In S. Cohen (Ed.), Images of deviance. London: Penguin, 1971.Google Scholar
  12. Cain, M. E. Society and the policeman’s role. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1973.Google Scholar
  13. Carson, R. C. Interaction concepts of personality. Chicago: Aldine, 1969.Google Scholar
  14. Chiricos, T. G., & Waldo, G. P. Socioeconomic status and criminal sentencing: An empirical assessment of a conflict proposition. American Sociological Review, 1975, 40, 753–772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Davis, K. C. Discretionary justice. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1969.Google Scholar
  16. Eisenstein, J., & Jacob, H. Felony justice: An organizational analysis of criminal courts. Boston: Little, Brown, 1977.Google Scholar
  17. Endler, N. S., & Magnusson, D. (Eds.). Interactional psychology and personality. Washington, D.C.: Hemisphere, 1976.Google Scholar
  18. Green, E. Judicial attitudes in sentencing. London: Macmillan, 1961.Google Scholar
  19. Green, E. Inter- and intra-racial crime relative to sentencing. Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science, 1964, 55, 348–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gross, N., Mason, W. S., & McEachern, A. W. Explorations in role analysis. New York: Wiley, 1958.Google Scholar
  21. Hagan, J. Extra-legal attributes and criminal sentencing: An assessment of a sociological viewpoint. Law and Society Review, 1974, 8, 357–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hagan, J. Law, order, and sentencing: A study of attitude in action. Sociometry, 1975, 38, 374–384. (a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hagan, J. The social and legal construction of criminal justice: A study of the pre-sentencing process. Social Problems, 1975, 22, 620–637. (b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hartshorne, H., May, M. A., & Shuttleworth, F. K. Studies in the nature of character (Vol. 3). Studies in the organization of character. New York: Macmillan, 1930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hastorf, A. H., & Cantril, H. They saw a game. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1954, 49, 129–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hewitt, J. D. Individual resources, societal reaction, and sentencing disparity. Western Sociological Review, 1976, 7, 31–56.Google Scholar
  27. Hindelang, M. Equality under the law. In C. E. Reasons & J. L. Kuykendall (Eds.), Race, crime and justice. Pacific Palisades, Calif.: Goodyear, 1972.Google Scholar
  28. Hogarth, J. Sentencing as a human process. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  29. Hood, R. A study of the effectiveness of pre-sentence investigations in reducing recidivism. British Journal of Criminology, 1966, 6, 303–310.Google Scholar
  30. Hood, R., & Sparks, R. Key issues in criminology. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1970.Google Scholar
  31. Jackson, J. W. (Ed.).Role. London: Cambridge University Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  32. Jacob, H. Urban justice: Law and order in American cities. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1973.Google Scholar
  33. Jaros, D., & Mendelsohn, R. I. The judicial role and sentencing behavior. Midwestern Journal of Political Science, 1967, 11, 471–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kelley, H. E. A comparison of defense strategy and race as influences in differential sentencing. Criminology, 1976, 14, 241–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Klausner, S. Z. (Ed.). Why men take chances: Studies in stress-seeking. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday Anchor, 1968.Google Scholar
  36. Marston, W. M. Studies in testimony. Journal of American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminolozv. 1924.15. 5–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McCall, G. J. Observing the law: Field methods in the study of crime and the criminal justice system. New York: Free Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  38. McCall, G. J., & Simmons, J. L. Identities and interactions (rev. ed.). New York: Free Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  39. McCleary, R. How structural variables constrain the parole officer’s use of discretionary powers. Social Problems, 1975, 23, 209–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mileski, M. Courtroom encounters: An observation study of a lower criminal court. Law and Society Review, 1971, 5, 473–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mschel, W. Toward a cognitive social learning reconceptualization of personality. Psychological Review, 1973, 80, 252–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mohr, L. B. Organizations, decisions, and courts. Law and Society Review, 1976, 10, 621–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Nagel, S. S. Judicial backgrounds and criminal cases. Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science, 1962, 53, 333–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Neubauer, D. W. Criminal justice in Middle America. Morristown, N.J.: General Learning Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  45. Orland, L., & Tyler, H. (Eds.). Justice in sentencing. Mineola, N.Y.: Foundation Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  46. Pepinsky, H. E. Police decision-making. In D. M. Gottfredson (Ed.), Decision-making in the criminal justice system: Reviews and essays. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975.Google Scholar
  47. Pope, C. E. Sentencing of California felony offenders. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975. (a)Google Scholar
  48. Pope, C. E. The judicial processing of assault and burglary offenders in selected California counties. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975. (b)Google Scholar
  49. Preiss, J., & Ehrlich, H. An examination of role theory: The case of the state police. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1966.Google Scholar
  50. Reiss, A. J. The police and the public. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  51. Reiss, A. J. Discretionary justice. In D. Glaser (Ed.), Handbook of criminology. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1974.Google Scholar
  52. Secord, P. F., & Backman, C. W. Social psychology (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, 1974.Google Scholar
  53. Shaver, K. G., Gilbert, M. A., & Williams, M. C. Social psychology, criminal justice and the principle of discretion: A selective review. Personality and Social Psychological Bulletin, 1975, 1, 471–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sudnow, D. Normal crimes: Sociological features of the criminal code. Social Problems, 1965, 12, 255–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Suffet, F. Bail setting: A study of courtroom interaction. Crime and Delinquency, 1966, 12, 318–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sykes, R. E., & Clark, J. P. A theory of deference exchange in police-civilian encounters. American Journal of Sociology, 1975, 81, 584–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Turner, R. H. The role and the person. American Journal of Sociology, 1978, 84, 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ungs, T., & Baas, L. R. Judicial role perceptions: A Q-technique study of Ohio judges. Law and Society Review, 1972, 6, 343–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Willerman, L. The psychology of individual and group differences. San Francisco: Freeman, 1979.Google Scholar
  60. Wilson, J. Q. Varieties of police behavior: The management of law and order in eight communities. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1968.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • George J. McCall

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations