Experimental Methods and Results in Unsteady Aerodynamics and Aeroelasticity

  • H. E. Gallus
Conference paper


In spite of the great progress in the field of computational fluid dynamics in the last decade, experimental research is still a major development tool in the design process of modern turbomachines. There are a number of different over-all objectives, which include the analysis of data to validate and calibrate advanced numerical calculation schemes, the improvement of the physical understanding of the flow phenomena, and investigations of new concepts to direct theoretical approaches modelling the flow effects.

The unsteady flow in turbomachines is of renewed interest. The traditional working fields on unsteady flows are concerned with the investigation of the aerodynamic stability of machines, the aeroelastic stability of cascade and single stage flows, the noise generation, and the influence of unsteady effects on the effiency. Advances in the experimental methods enabled the experimentalists to investigate the time-dependent, three-dimensional flow in turbomachine stages. A large number of experimental results in this field was published, which underline the necessity to include the unsteady effects in the design process to achieve further improvements of machine performance and reliability.

In this paper, the state of the art concerning unsteady measurements in a turbomachine environment is reviewed. Different techniques as LDV and L2F systems, tracer methods, hot-wire anemometry and subminiature pressure transducers are presented emphasis given to the dominating problems of stator-rotor interaction. An attempt is made to give an overview of the applicability, accuracy and specific limitations of the methods. Special emphasis is laid on the discussion of future needs and development directions.


Unsteady Flow Rotor Blade Suction Side Leakage Flow Stator Wake 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    AGARD-Conference Proceedings No. 468 “Unsteady Aerodynamic Phenomena in Turbomachines”, 1989, Luxembourg.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Binder, A., Förster, W., Kruse, H., and Rogge, H.: “An Experimental Investigation into the Effect of Wakes on the Unsteady Turbine Rotor Flow”, Trans. ASME, 1985a, Vol. 107.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Binder, A., Rogge, H., Kaurnatschke, W.: “Sekundärströmungen im Laufrad einer Turbine”, VDI-Berichte 527.2, 1985b.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Binder, A.: “Turbulence Production due to Secondary Vortex Cutting a Turbine Rotor”, J. of Eng. for Gas Turbines and Power, Vol. 107, 1985c.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bölcs, A. and T.H. Fransson: “Aeroelasticity in Turbomachines — Comparison on Theoretical and Experimental Cascade Results”, Communication du Laboratoire de Thermique Appliquée et de Turbomachines, No. 13, Lausanne, EPFL 1986.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dring, R.P., Joslyn, H.D., Harding, L.W. and Wagner, J.H.: “Turbine Rotor-Stator Interaction”, ASME-Paper 82-GT-3, 1982.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fleeter, S. and R.L. Jay: “Unsteady Aerodynamic Measurements in Flutter Research”, Vol. 1 in AGARD-AG-298, 1987.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gallus, H.E.: “Unsteady Aerodynamic Measurements on Rotors”, Vol. 1 in AGARD-AG-298.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gallus, H.E. and S. Servaty, editors: “Unsteady Aerodynamics and Aeroelasticity of Turbomachines and Propellers”, Proceedings 4. International Symposium, Aachen 1987, MitteilungNr. 88–1, Institut für Strahlantriebe und Turboarbeitsmaschinen, RWTH Aachen, 1988Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gallus, H.E., Bohn, D. and Broichhausen, K.D.: “Measurements of Quasi-steady and Unsteady Flow Effects in a Supersonic Compressor Stage”, Trans. ASME, J. of Eng. for Power, Vol. 99, 1977.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hodson, H.P.: “Measurements of Wake-Generated Unsteadiness in the Rotor-Passages of Axial-Flow Turbines”, J. Power, Vol. 107, 1985.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hodson, H.P. and J.S. Addision: “Wake-Boundary Layer Interactions in an Axial-Flow Turbine Rotor at Off-Design Conditions”., ASMEPaper 88-GT-233, 1988.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jay, R.L. and S. Fleeter: “Unsteady Aerodynamic Measurements in Forced Vibration Research”, Vol. 1, AGARD-AG-298, 1987.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Larguier, R.: “Experimental Analysis Methods for Unsteady Flows in Turbomachines”, ASME Paper No. 80-GT-71, 1980.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mayer, R.X.: “The Effects of Wakes on the Transient Pressure and Velocity Distribution in Turbomachines”, Trans. J. of Basic Engineering, 1958Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Platzer, M.F. and F.O. Carta, editors: AGARD manual on “Aeroelasticity in Axial-Flow Turbomachines”, Vol. 1 “Unsteady Turbomachinery Aerodynamics”, AGARD-AG-298, 1987.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Poensgen, Ch. and H.E. Gallus: “Three-Dimensional Wake Decay Inside of a Compressor Cascade and its Influence on the Downstream Unsteady Flow Field”, Part I and II, Trans. J. of. Turbomachinery, Vol. 113, 1991.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Schulz, H.D., Gallus, H.E., and Lakshminarayana, B.: “Three-Dimensional Separated Flow Field in the Endwall Region of an Annular Compressor Cascade in the Presence of Rotor-Stator Interaction”, Part 1 and 2, J. of Turbomachinery, Vol. 112, 1990.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Schulz, H.D. and Gallus, H.E.: “Experimental Investigations of the Three-Dimensional Flow in an Annular Compressor Cascade”, ASME J. of Turbomachinery, Vol. 110, 1988.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Szechenyi, E.: “Unsteady Fan Blade Flutter through Linear Cascade Aerodynamic Testing”, Vol. 1, AGARD-AG-298, 1987.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wisler, D.C., Bauer, R.C. and T.H. Okiishi: “Secondary Flow, Turbulent Diffusion and Mixing in Axial-Flow Compressor”, ASME-Paper 87-GT-16, 1987.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yamamoto, A.: “Instantaneous Three-Dimensional Flows due to Rotor-Stator Interaction in a Low-Speed Axial-Flow Turbine”, European Conference on Turbomachinery, London 1991, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineering, IMechE 1991–3.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zeschky, J. and H.E. Gallus: “Effects of Stator Wakes and Spanwise Nonuniform Inlet Conditions on the Rotor Flow of an Axial Turbine Stage”, ASME-Paper 91-GT-93, 1991.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zeschky, J.: “Exprimentelle Untersuchung der dreidimensionalen insationären Rotorströmung einer axialen Kaltluftturbine”, Dr. Thesis, RWTH Aachen, 1991.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. E. Gallus
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut fur Strahlantriebe und TurboarbeitsmaschinenRWTHAachenGermany

Personalised recommendations