During the past three decades rigid internal fixation has become an accepted modality in the operative treatment of fractures. The AO/ASIF (Swiss Association for the Study of Internal Fixation), founded in 1958 by Maurice E. Müller, Martin Allgöwer, Hans Willinegger, and Robert Schneider has successfully disseminated information concerning basic research and operative techniques throughout the world in a coherent and responsible manner with publications, fellowships, and the organization of hands-on practical courses.1 There has been a natural evolution of AO/ASIF rigid internal fixation technique from its beginnings in orthopedic surgery to its application in the craniomaxillofacial skeleton, which was facilitated largely through the initial efforts of Bernd Spiessl.2 With the development of hardware specifically designed for the requirements of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton, many of the inadequacies of traditional treatment methods now have modalities for their solution.


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  1. 1.
    Müller M, et al.: Manual of Internal Fixation. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1991.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Spiessl B (ed): New Concepts in Maxillofacial Bone Surgery. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1976.Google Scholar

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© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1993

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  • Alex M. Greenberg

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