Muscle Pathology in Clubfoot and Lower Motor Neuron Lesions

  • J. E. Handelsman
  • R. Glasser
Conference paper


Physicians have disagreed about the fundamental cause and pathogenesis of clubfoot since the time of Hippocrates. More recently, Bohm 3 suggested that the deformity was an arrest of embryonic development. Gardner et al.13 however, could find no clubfoot-like stages of development. Intrauterine crowding was proposed by Browne.6 This still popular theory is indeed a factor in foot deformities that are mobile at birth, but true rigid clubfoot is already present when the developing fetus is so small that crowding would not be a factor. Aberrations of tendon attachments have been evoked by several authors.10,12,24,25,27 Described anomalies, however, have been seen by one of us (J.H.) in 66 otherwise normal feet in cadaveric dissections, suggesting that these are not fundamental to the pathology.14


Cerebral Palsy Down Syndrome Lower Motor Neuron Muscle Pathology Fiber Grouping 
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© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. E. Handelsman
  • R. Glasser

There are no affiliations available

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