Detection and Characterization of Circulating ICAM-1
Over the past several years, the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on cells from normal and diseased tissue has been extensively studied. Almost as soon as ICAM-1 was identified, it was found to be a cell-surface adhesion molecule that was inducible in vitro with inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, TNFα, and IFNγ on a multitude of cell types. Furthermore, ICAM-1’s expression on cells from normal and diseased tissue has been and continues to be a focus of much research from many laboratories. To date, it has been reported that there is a low constitutive expression of ICAM-1 on venule endothelial cells; however, its expression is markedly increased at inflammatory sites (1). Furthermore, there is an increased ICAM-1 expression on multiple cell types including keratinocytes in inflammatory skin lesions (2,3), transplanted liver bile duct and perivenular hepatocytes during rejection (4), and in cases of primary biliary cirrhosis (5), endothelium in the brain surrounding MS plaques and EAE lesions in man and rodent, respectively (6–12), transplanted kidney glomeruli and tubules during rejection (13), as well as lung epithelial cells following antigen provocation (14). Increased ICAM-1 is also found on melanoma cells following metastasis (15,16) and recently ICAM-1 expression has been shown to be expressed on placental macrophages and decidua during pregnancy.
KeywordsPrimary Biliary Cirrhosis Acute Rejection Liver Allograft Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Venule Endothelial Cell
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