Introduction

  • R. J. Hobbs
  • D. A. Saunders

Abstract

Conservation and production are at odds with each other in every part of the world, and the situation will only become worse as the human population increases and pressure on natural resources grows. Land transformation by human activity is increasing worldwide (Wolman and Fournier 1987; Turner et al. 1990). In almost all cases, development has been driven by economic imperatives with little or no account taken of ecological constraints. Natural ecosystems are becoming increasingly restricted to relatively small remnant areas in an increasingly fragmented landscape (Saunders et al. 1987; Saunders et al. 1991). Landscapes are now composed of mosaics of differing land uses, many of which are mutually incompatible. Management of these landscapes is also fragmented, with many different land owners and management agencies involved in the management of the various segments of the landscape. Until recently, management of these different segments has proceeded more or less independently of what was happening in other adjacent segments. In many parts of the world, for instance, there is a strict separation between national parks and nature reserves on one hand and adjacent productive land (agricultural or forest) on the other. It has long been recognised that the legal boundaries imposed on the landscape Saunders by humans do not necessarily match the biotic boundaries (Newmark 1985). It is also apparent that the different components of the landscape do not function independently of one another, but interact with one another in numerous ways (Forman and Godron 1986; Saunders et al. 1991). Despite the arbitrary allocation of portions of the landscape to one land use or another, the different portions remain strongly inter-linked. Events in one segment are very rarely restricted to that one segment, but impact on adjacent segments too. Management of individual landscape components in isolation ignores these interactions and leads to serious environmental problems (Myers 1983; Hales 1989).

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© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. J. Hobbs
  • D. A. Saunders

There are no affiliations available

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