Clonidine in the Management of Nicotine Dependence

  • Karen Lea Sees


For many years, physicians have been concerned about how to best facilitate patients in smoking cessation and, until recently, have had few tools other than advice. However, cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco consumption are now acknowledged as causing nicotine dependence,1,2 and with that recognition comes the acceptance of treating the use of tobacco products, not merely as a bad habit, or a nasty vice, but as the disease of nicotine addiction. This new recognition—that the use of tobacco products causes nicotine addiction—helps remove the long-accepted idea that it takes only willpower to stop smoking, and thereby brings all treatment modalities normally used in treating other chemical dependencies into the treatment arena for nicotine addiction.3


Smoking Cessation Withdrawal Symptom Nicotine Dependence Nicotine Withdrawal Smoking Abstinence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 3rd ed, rev. Washington, DC: Author, 1987.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The health consequences of smoking: Nicotine addiction (a report of the Surgeon General). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1988.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sees KL. Cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence and treatment. West J of Med 1990; 152(5): 578–584.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fielding JE. Smoking: Health effects and control. Pt 2. New Engl J of Med 1985; 313: 555–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pechacek TF. Modification of smoking behavior. In: Smoking and health (a report of the Surgeon General). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1979.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hughes JR. Clonidine, depression, and smoking cessation. JAMA 1988; 259: 2901–2902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hughes JR, Gust SW, Pechacek TF. Prevalence of tobacco dependence and withdrawal. Am J of Psychi 1987; 144: 205–208.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Prignot J. Pharmacologic approach to smoking cessation. Eur Respir J 1989; 2: 550–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jarvik ME, Henningfield JE. Pharmacological treatment of tobacco dependence. Pharmacol Biochem & Behav 1988; 30: 279–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Baumgartner GR, Rowen RC. Clonidine vs. chlordiazepoxide in the management of acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Arch of Internal Med 1987; 147: 1223–1226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Clark HW, Longmuir N. Clonidine transdermal patches: A recovery oriented treatment of opiate withdrawal. Cal Soc for the Treatment of Alcoholism and Other Drug Dependencies News 1986; 13: 1–2.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mahem P, Nilsson LH, Moberg A, Wadstein J, Hokfelt B. Alcohol withdrawal: Effects of clonidine treatment on sympathetic activity, the reninaldosterone system, and clinical symptoms. Alcoholism: Clin and Exper Res 1985; 9: 238–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Walinder J, Balldin J, Bokstrom K, Karlsson L, Lundstrom B. Clonidine suppression of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 1981; 8: 345–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gold MS, Pottash AC, Sweeney DR, Kleber HD. Opiate withdrawal using clonidine. JAMA 1980; 243: 343–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gold MS, Redmond DE, Kleber HD. Clonidine in opiate withdrawal. Lancet 1978; 1: 929–930.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Glassman AH, Jackson WK, Walsh BT, Roose SP. Cigarette craving, smoking withdrawal, and clonidine. Science 1984; 226: 864–866.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Glassman AH, Stetner F, Walsh T, Raizman PS, Fleiss JL, Cooper TB, Covey LS. Heavy smokers, smoking cessation, and clonidine. JAMA 1988; 259: 2863–2866.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Appel D. Clonidine helps smokers stop smoking. Am Rev of Respir Disease (Suppl) 1987; 135: A354.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ornish SA, Zisook S, McAdams LA. Effects of transdermal clonidine treatment on withdrawal symptoms associated with smoking cessation. Arch of Internal Med 1988; 148: 2027–2031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wei H, Young D. Effect of clonidine on cigarette cessation and in the alleviation of withdrawal symptoms. Brit J of Addict 1988; 83: 1221–1226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pearce KI. Clonidine and smoking. Lancet 1986; 2: 810.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pearce KI. Personal communication; April 1988.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Drug therapy for the withdrawal syndrome—Another study confirms benefits of clonidine. Peer to Peer, A Clinical Digest of the 83rd Annual Scientific Assembly 1990, Washington, DC: 9–10.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shiffman SM. The tobacco withdrawal syndrome. In: Cigarette smoking as a dependence process. NIDA Research Monograph Series No. 23. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1979.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sees KL, Clark HW. Clonidine use in nicotine withdrawal. J of Psychoactive Drugs 1988; 20: 263–268.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Franks R, Harp J, Bell B. Randomized, controlled trial of clonidine for smoking cessation in a primary care setting. JAMA 1989; 262: 3011–3013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hollifield J. Clinical acceptability of transdermal clonidine: A large-scale evaluation by practitioners. Am Heart J 1986; 112: 900–906.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Weber MA. Clinical experience with transdermal antihypertensive therapy. Practical Cardiol 1986; 12: 104–120.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Burris JF, Mroczek WJ. Transdermal administration of clonidine: A new approach to antihypertensive therapy. Pharmacotherapy 1986; 6: 30–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Josse S, Danays T, Lafferre M, Fillastre JP. Substitution of oral clonidine with transdermal clonidine in hypertensive patients. Current Therapeutic Res 1987; 42: 579–584.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lowenthal DT, Saris S, Paran E, Cristal N, Sharif K, Bies C, Fagan T. Efficacy of clonidine as transdermal therapeutic system: The international clinical trial experience. Am Heart J 1985; 112: 893–900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Metz S, Klein C, Morton N. Rebound hypertension after discontinuation of transdermal clonidine therapy. Am J of Med 1987; 82: 17–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Physicians’ desk reference. 44th ed. Oradell, NJ: Medical Economics. 1990.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hamblin JE. Transdermal patch poisoning. Pediatrics 1987; 79: 161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Reed MT, Hamburg EL. Person-to-person transfer of transdermal drug-delivery systems: A case report. New Engl J of Med 1986; 314: 1120–1121.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sees KL, Stalcup SA. Combining clonidine and Nicorette® for treatment of nicotine withdrawal. J of Psychoactive Drugs 1989; 21: 355–359.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The health consequences of smoking: Chronic obstructive lung disease (a report of the Surgeon General). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Officer, 1984.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karen Lea Sees

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations