A Heuristic Search Approach to Planning and Scheduling Software Manufacturing Projects

  • Ali Safavi
  • Stephen F. Smith


In today’s highly competitive and constantly growing market for software products, planning and scheduling of software projects has become a bottleneck to increasing software production productivity [20]. There are several reasons why software manufacturing planning/scheduling is hard:
  1. 1.

    Even idealized formulations of the problem are NP-hard in the general case [8].

  2. 2.

    It involves face-to-face human negotiation between multiple agents to resolve the scheduling conflicts (i.e. unsatisfiable resource requests) that arise due to differences in goals, technical judgements, etc [6].

  3. 3.

    There is typically considerable uncertainty in budget (i.e. resource requirement) estimates and other project planning/scheduling constraints that must be accounted for [3, 11].

  4. 4.

    Software project planning and scheduling is not a static problem. Schedules must be continually revised over the course of the project as changes in planning/scheduling assumptions become known [7].



Process Plan Search Operator Project Schedule Software Project Operator Selection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Kent Bimson and Linda Bums. “Assisting Managers in Project Definitions”. IEEE Expert, 2 (1989).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    B.W. Beohm. Software Engineering Economics. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1981.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    B.W. Boehm. Software Risk Management Tutorial. TRW, 1988.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mark Fox. Constraint-Directed Search: A case study of job-shop scheduling. Ph.D. Th., Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, 1983.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mark Fox and Stephen F. Smith. “ISIS - A Knowledge Based System for Factory Scheduling”. Expert Systems 1, 1 (July 1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Les Gasser. “The Integration of Computing and Routine Work”. ACM Transactions on Office Information Systems (July 1986), 205–225.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Abdel-Hamid Tarek. Project Management Modeling. Ph.D. Th., MIT, School of Business Management, 1984.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Garey and D. Johnson. Computers and Interactibility. Freeman, New York, 1979.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Richard Jullig, Wolfgang Polak, Peter Ladkin and Li-Mei Gilham. KBSA Project Management Assistant. Tech. Rept. RADC-TR-8 7–78, Kestrel Institute, 1987.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    H. Kerzner. Project Managment: A systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling and Executing. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1984.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    K. McKay, J. Buzacott, F. Safayeni. The Scheduler’s Knowledge of Uncertainty: The Missing Link. Proceedings of IFIP Conference on Knowledge Based Production Management Systems, August, 1988.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Moder, C. Philips, and K. Davis. Project Management with CPM, PERT & Precedence Diagramming. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, 1983.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Peng Si Ow, Stephen F. Smith, and Alfred Thiriez. Reactive Plan Revision. Proceedings of American Association of Artificial Intelligence, Saint Paul, 1988, pp. 77–82.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Safavi. Scheduling and Planning of Large-Scale Software Manufacturing Projects. Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, in preparation, 1990.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. Salavi and Stephen F. Smith. A Heuristic Model to Compare Alternative Commitments During Machine-Based Manufacturing Planning/Scheduling. International Conference on Expert Planning Systems, London, Jun, 1990.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    A. Sathi, T. Morton, and S. Roth. “Callisto: An Intelligent Project Management System”. AI Magazine, Winter (1986).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Sathi. Cooperation Through Constraint Directed Negotiation: Study of Resource Reallocation Problems. Ph.D. Th., Carnegie Mellon University, 1988.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Walt Scacchi. “Software Engineering: A Social Analysis Study”. IEEE Transacations on Software Engineering (Jan. 1984), 45–60.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stephen F. Smith. A Constraint-Based Framework for Reactive Management of Factory Schedules. In Intelligent Manufacturing, M. Oliff, Ed., Benjamin Cummings Publishers, 1987.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nam P. Suh. “The Future of the Factory”. Robotics and Computer Integrated Manufacturing 1, 1 (1984), 39–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    David Wilkins. Practical Planning: Extending the Classical Al Planning Paradigm. Morgan Kaufmann, 1988.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ali Safavi
    • 1
  • Stephen F. Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Computer ScienceCarnegie Mellon UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations