Nonlinear Damping of Limb Motion

  • Chi-haur Wu
  • James C. Houk
  • Kuu-Young Young
  • Lee E. Miller


The muscle-reflex mechanisms form a feedback system called the motor servo (Houk and Rymer, 1981; Gielen and Houk, 1987), which consists of a muscle, its spindle receptors, and the corresponding reflex pathways back to the muscle. This neuromuscular system mediates the stretch and unloading reflex of the muscle by the feedback. Motivated by a desire to understand the capabilities of biological arms, many researchers have studied limb movements (Asatryan and Feldman, 1965; Feldman, 1966; Freund and Budingen, 1978; Gottlieb et al., 1989a,b; Hasan, 1983,, 1985,, 1986; Hogan, 1984a,b; Polit and Bizzi, 1979; Stein, 1982) and findings have been applied to arm control and task planning (Atkeson and Hollerbach, 1985; Bizzi et al., 1978,, 1982,, 1984; Flash, 1987; Flash and Hogan, 1985; Hogan, 1985; Hollerbach, 1982; Hollerbach and Flash, 1982; Mussa-Ivaldi et al., 1985,, 1988; Uno et al., 1989).


Product Model Motor Servo Neuromuscular System Step Force Step Disturbance 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chi-haur Wu
  • James C. Houk
  • Kuu-Young Young
  • Lee E. Miller

There are no affiliations available

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