Ethical Obligations and Social Research

  • Sandra Wexler

Abstract

Since the times of our earliest ancestors, people have tried to understand the world in which they live. While we no longer seek explanations from gods, as did our Athenian relatives, or metaphysics, as did our alchemist forefathers, our curiosity about and desire to gain mastery over our world remains strong. In contemporary society, research methods provide us with the principles and techniques to generate knowledge. Social science research allows us to go beyond our own experiences and gain insight into those different from ourselves as well as the factors that shape beliefs and behavior.

Keywords

Income Assure Posit Lution Tated 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Anthropological Association. (1971). Principles of professional responsibility. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychological Association. (1981). Ethical principles of psychologists. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. American Sociological Association. (1981). Code of ethics. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  4. Babbie, E.R. (1986). The practice of social research ( 4th ed. ). Belmont, CA.: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  5. Becker, G., Bakal, D.A. (1970). Subject anonymity and motivational distortion in self-report data. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 26, 207–209.Google Scholar
  6. Becker, H.S. (1970). Practitioners of vice and crime. In R.W. Habenstein (Ed.), Pathways to data (pp. 30–49 ). Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  7. Becker, H.S. (1973). Outsiders: Studies in the sociology of deviance. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  8. Belmont Report. (1979). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, National Institutes of Health.Google Scholar
  9. Ben-Yehuda, N. (1985). Deviance and moral boundaries (Chap. 5, pp. 168–207 ). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  10. Binder, A., Geis, G. (1983). Methods of research in criminology and criminal justice. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  11. Blumberg, H.H., Fuller, C., Hare, A.P. (1974). Anticipating informed consent: An empirical approach. American Psychologist, 28, 913–925.Google Scholar
  12. Bradburn, N.M., Sudman, S., Associates; (1979). Improving interview method and questionnaire design. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  13. Broad, W., Wade, N. (1983). Betrayers of the truth: Fraud and deceit in the halls of science. New York: Simon Schuster.Google Scholar
  14. Brodsky, S.L. (1980). Ethical issues for psychologists in corrections. In J. Monahan (Ed.), Who is the client: The ethics of psychological intervention in the criminal justice system. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  15. Campbell, D.T., Fiske, D.W. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 81–105.Google Scholar
  16. Casal, J. (1980). Ethical principles for conducting fieldwork. American Anthropologist, 82, 28–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Code of Federal Regulations. Title 45-Public Welfare. Part 46-Protection of Human Subjects. (1987 ed.). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health.Google Scholar
  18. Diener, E., Crandall, R. (1978). Ethics in social and behavioral research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  19. Erikson, K. (1968). On the ethics of disguised observation-A reply to Denzin. Social Problems, 27, 505–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Federal Property and Adminstrative Services Act of 1949. 288 U.S. C. 63 Stat. 377.Google Scholar
  21. Ferguson, L.R. (1978). The competence and freedom of children to make choices regarding participation in research: A statement. Journal of Social Issues, 34, 114–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Finkelhor, D. (1979). Sexually victimized children. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  23. Fox, J.A., Tracy, P.E. (1986). Randomized response: A method for sensitive surveys. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  24. Frankel, M.S. (1978). Social, legal, and political responses to ethical issues in the use of children as experimental subjects. Journal of Social Issues, 34, 101–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Freedom of Information Act of 1966 (PL 89–554) U.S. C. 1982, Title 5, § 552.Google Scholar
  26. Fuller, C. (1974). Effect of anonymity on return rate and response bias in a mail survey. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59, 292–296.Google Scholar
  27. Gelles, R.J. (1978). Methods for studying sensitive family topics. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 48, 408–424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gilchrist, I. (Ed.). 1974. Medical experimentation on prisoners must stop: Documents generated during the course of a struggle. College Park, MD: Urban Information Interpreters._Google Scholar
  29. Gillespie, D. (1987). Ethical issues in research. In Encyclopedia of social work (18th ed., pp. 503–512 ). Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers.Google Scholar
  30. Gray, B.H., (1979). The regulatory context of social research: The work of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects. In C.B. Klockars F.W. O’Connor (Eds.), Deviance and decency: The ethics of research with human subjects (pp. 197–223 ). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  31. Haney, C., Banks, W.C., Zimbardo, P. (1973). Interpersonal dynamics in asimulated prison. International Journal of Criminology and Penology, 1, 69–73.Google Scholar
  32. Hauck, M., Cox, M. (1974). Locating a sample by random digit dialing. PublicOpinion Quarterly, 38, 253–256.Google Scholar
  33. Hilbert, R.A. (1980). Covert participant observation. Urban Life, 9, 51–78. Horowitz, I. (Ed.). (1967). The rise and fall of Project Camelot: Studies in the relationship between social science and practical politics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  34. Humphreys, L. (1975). The tearoom trade: Impersonal sex in public places (enl. ed. with retrospect on ethical issues). Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  35. Jones, H.H. (1981). Bad blood: The Tuskegee syphilis experiment-A tragedy of race and medicine. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  36. Kearney, K.A., Hopkins, R.H., Mauss, A.L., Weisheit, R.A. (1983). Sample bias resulting from a requirement for written parental consent. Public Opinion quarterly, 47, 96–102.Google Scholar
  37. Kidder, L.H., Judd, C.M. (1986). Research methods in social relations ( 5th ed. ). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  38. Kimmel, A.J. (1988). Ethics and values in applied social research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  39. Kinard, E.M. (1985). Ethical issues in research with abused children. Child Abuse and Neglect, 9, 301–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. King, F.W. (1970). Anonymous versus identifiable questionnaires in drug usage surveys. American Psychologist, 25, 982–985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kinsey, A., Pomeroy, W., Martin, C. (1948). Sexual behavior in the human male. Philadelphia: Saunders.Google Scholar
  42. Kinsey, A., Pomeroy, W., Martin, C., Gebhard, D. (1953). Sexual behavior in the human female. Philadelphia: Saunders.Google Scholar
  43. Klockars, C.B. (1979). Dirty hands and deviant subjects. In C.B. Klockars F.W. O’Connor (Eds.), Deviance and decency: The ethics of research with human subjects (pp. 261–282 ). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  44. LaRossa, R., Bennett, L.A., Gelles, R.J. (1981). Ethical dilemmas in qualitative family research. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 43, 303–313.Google Scholar
  45. Lasch, C. (1977). Haven in a heartless world: The family besieged. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  46. Lueptow, L., Mueller, S.A., Hammes, R.R., Master, L. (1977). The impact of informed consent regulations on response rate and response bias. Sociological Methods and Research, 6, 183–204.Google Scholar
  47. Merton, R.K. (1982). Social research and the practicing professions. Cambridge, MA: Abt.Google Scholar
  48. Milgram, S. (1969). Obedience to authority. New York: Harper Colophon.Google Scholar
  49. Mills, M., Morris, N. (9174). Prisoners as laboratory animals. Society, 11(5),60–65.Google Scholar
  50. National Association of Social Workers. (1979). Code of ethics. Silver Spring, MD: Author.Google Scholar
  51. National Research Service Award Act of 1974 (PL 93–348). U.S. C. 1982. Title 42, §§ 241, 242a, 282, 286a, 286b, 287a, 287b, 287d, 288a, 289c, 289c-1, 289k, 289L, 289L-1, 289L-2, 289d.Google Scholar
  52. Nuremberg Code, The. (1949). Trials of war criminals before the Nuremberg military tribunals under control council law no. 10 (Vol. 2, Appendix 3, pp. 181182 ). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  53. O’Connor, F.W. (1979). The ethical demands of the Belmont Report. In C.B. Klockars F.W. O’Connor (Eds.), Deviance and decency: The ethics of research with human subjects (pp. 225–258 ). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  54. Orwin, R.G., Boruch, R.F. (1982). RRT meets RDD: Statistical strategies for assuring response privacy in telephone surveys. Public Opinion Quarterly, 46, 560–571.Google Scholar
  55. Pomeroy, W.B. (1966). Human sexual behavior. In N.L. Faberow (Ed.), Taboo topics (pp. 22–32 ). New York: Atheling.Google Scholar
  56. Reamer, F.G. (1979). Protecting research subjects and unintended consequences: The effect of guarantees of confidentiality. Public Opinion Quarterly, 43, 497–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Reynolds, P.D. (1982). Ethics and social science research. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  58. Russell, D.E.H. (1986). The secret trauma: Incest in the lives of girls and women. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  59. Sherman, L.W. (1982). Ethics in criminal justice education. Hastings-on-Hudson, NY: The Hastings Center.Google Scholar
  60. Singer, E. (1978). Informed consent: Consequences for response rate and responseGoogle Scholar
  61. quality in social surveys. American Sociological Review, 43, 144–162.Google Scholar
  62. Singer, E., Frankel, M.R. (1982). Informed consent procedures in telephoneGoogle Scholar
  63. interviews. American Sociological Review,47, 416–427.Google Scholar
  64. Sobal, J. (1982). Disclosing information in interview introductions: Methodological consequences of informed consent. Sociology and Social Research, 66, 348–361.Google Scholar
  65. Strain, L.A., Chappell, N.L. (1982). Problems and strategies Ethical concerns in survey research with the elderly. The Gerontologist, 22, 526–531.Google Scholar
  66. Straus, M.A., Gelles, R.J., Steinmetz, S.K. (1980). Behind closed doors: Violence in the American family. Garden City, NY: Anchor.Google Scholar
  67. Sudman, S., Bradburn, N.M. (1982). Asking questions: A practical guide to questionnaire design. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  68. Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California, 17 Cal. 3d 425, 131 Cal. Rptr. 14, 551 P. 2d 334 (1976).Google Scholar
  69. Thompson, T.L. (1984). A comparison of methods of increasing parental consent rates in social research. Public Opinion Quarterly, 48, 779–787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Trend, M.G. (1980). Applied social research and the government: Notes on the limits of confidentiality. Social Problems, 27, 330–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wax, M.L. (1980). Paradoxes of “consent” to the practice of fieldwork. Social Problems 27, 272–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Whyte, W.F. (1979). On making the most of participant observation. The American Sociologist, 14, 56–66.Google Scholar
  73. Wolfgang, M.E. (1982). Ethics and research. In F. Elliston N. Bowie (Eds.)Google Scholar
  74. Ethics, public policy, and criminal justice(pp. 391–418). Cambridge, MA: Oelgeschlager, Gunn Hain.Google Scholar
  75. Yelaja, S.A. (1982). Human subjects for research and experimentation. In S.A. Yelaja (Ed.), Ethical issues in social work (pp. 312–337 ). Springfield, IL: Thomas.Google Scholar
  76. Zimbardo, P. (1973). On the ethics of intervention in human psychological research: With special reference to the Stanford prison study. Cognition, 22, 243–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sandra Wexler

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations