Electrophysiology and Aging: Slowing, Inhibition, and Aerobic Fitness

  • Robert E. Dustman
  • Rita Y. Emmerson
  • Donald E. Shearer

Abstract

Just as gray hair and wrinkles are the physical hallmarks of aging, certain behavioral characteristics distinguish the old from the young. In general, elderly people are slower, have poorer memory, and are less able to solve complex or novel problems. These age-related changes are typically attributed to degenerative processes in the central nervous system (CNS) and are reflected in the brain’s electrical activity. The electroencephalogram (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used extensively to study changes in brain function throughout development and adult aging. In this chapter, literature describing age differences in EEG and ERPs are reviewed and the hypothesis that these electrophysiological measures reflect slowing and a relative inflexibility of function within the CNS are developed. It is proposed that some age differences in EEG and ERPs are the result of reduced CNS functioning and that changes in inhibitory strength may underlie age-related decline in cognitive abilities, particularly those that require “mental flexibility.” Also reviewed and discussed are recent and exciting findings indicating that variability of some behavioral and electrophysiological measures may be related to individual differences in frequency and intensity of physical activity and resulting cardiovascular fitness.

Keywords

Dopamine Dementia Schizophrenia Serotonin Histamine 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agrawal, H.C., & Himwich, W.A. (1970). Amino acids, proteins and monoamines of developing brain. In W.A. Himwich (Ed.), Developmental neurobiology (pp. 287–310). Springfield, IL: C.C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  2. Allison, T., Hume, A.L., Wood, C.C., & Goff, W.R. (1984). Developmental and aging changes in somatosensory, auditory and visual evoked potentials. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 58, 14–24.Google Scholar
  3. Allison, T., Wood, C.C., & Goff, W.R. (1983). Brain stem auditory, pattern-reversal visual, and short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials: Latencies in relation to age, sex, and brain and body size. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 55, 619–636.Google Scholar
  4. American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) (1986). Guidelines for graded exercise testing and exercise prescription. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.Google Scholar
  5. Asselman, P., Chadwick, D.W., & Marsden, C.D. (1975). Visual evoked responses in the diagnosis and management of patients suspected of multiple sclerosis. Brain, 98, 261–282.Google Scholar
  6. Barbeau, A. (1980). Biochemical aging in Parkinson’s disease. In L. Amaducci, A.N. Davison, & P. Antuono (Eds.), Aging of the brain and dementia (pp. 275–285). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  7. Barnet, A.B., & Lodge, A. (1967). Click evoked EEG responses in normal and developmentally retarded infants. Nature, 214, 252–255.Google Scholar
  8. Barnet, A.B., Ohlrich, E.S., & Shanks, B.L. (1971). EEG evoked responses to repetitive auditory stimulation in normal and Down’s syndrome infants. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 13, 321–329.Google Scholar
  9. Beasley, B.A.L., & Ford, D.H. (1976). Aging and the extrapyramidal system. Medical Clinics of North America, 60, 1315–1324.Google Scholar
  10. Beck, C.H.M. (1978). Functional implications of changes in the senescent brain: A review. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, 5, 417–424.Google Scholar
  11. Beck, E.C. (1975). Electrophysiology and behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 26, 233–262.Google Scholar
  12. Beck, E.C., & Dustman, R.E. (1975). Changes in evoked responses during maturation and aging in man and macaque. In N. Burch & H.L. Altshuler (Eds.), Behavior and brain electrical activity (pp. 431–472). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  13. Beck, E.C., Swanson, C., & Dustman, R.E. (1980). Long latency components of the visually evoked potential in man: Effects of aging. Experimental Aging Research, 6, 523–545.Google Scholar
  14. Benda, C.E. (1969). Down’s syndrome. New York: Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar
  15. Berger, H. (1929). Uber das Elektrenkephalogramm des Menschen. Archiv fur Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten, 87, 527–570.Google Scholar
  16. Bigum, H.B., Dustman, R.E., & Beck, E.C. (1970). Visual and somatosensory evoked responses from mongoloid and normal children. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 28, 576–585.Google Scholar
  17. Birren, J.E., Woods, A.M., & Williams, M.V. (1979). Speed of behavior as an indicator of age changes and the integrity of the nervous system. In F. Hoffmeister & C. Muller (Eds.), Brain function in old age (pp. 10–44). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  18. Blackburn, H. (1983). Physical activity and coronary heart disease: A brief update and population view (Part I). Journal of Cardiac Rehabilitation, 3, 101–111.Google Scholar
  19. Bloom, F.E., Lazerson, A., & Hofstadter, L. (1985). Brain, mind, and behavior. New York: W.H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  20. Bodis-Wollner, I., Onofrj, M.C., Marx, M.S., & Mylin, L.H. (1986). Visual evoked potentials in Parkinson’s disease: Spatial frequency, temporal rate, contrast, and the effect of dopaminergic drugs. In R.Q. Cracco & I. Bodis-Wollner (Eds.), Evoked potentials (pp. 307–319). New York: Alan R. Liss.Google Scholar
  21. Bondareff, W. (1977). The neural basis of aging. In J.E. Birren & K.W. Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of aging (pp. 157–176). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  22. Bortz, W.M. (1982). Disuse and aging. Journal of the American Medical Association, 248, 1203–1208.Google Scholar
  23. Bortz, W.M. (1985). Physical exercise as an evolutionary force. Journal of Human Evolution, 14, 145–155.Google Scholar
  24. Botwinick, J. (1973). Aging and behavior. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  25. Brizzee, K.R. (1981). Structural correlates of the aging process in the brain. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 17, 43–52.Google Scholar
  26. Brody, H. (1973). Aging of the vertebrate brain. In M. Rockstein (Ed.), Development and aging in the nervous system (pp. 121–133). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  27. Brown, B.S., Payne, T., Kim, C., Moore, G., Krebs, P., & Martin, W. (1979). Chronic response of rat brain norepinephrine and serotonin levels to endurance training. Journal of Applied Physiology, 46, 19–23.Google Scholar
  28. Brown, B.S., & Van Huss, W. (1973). Exercise and rat brain catecholamines. Journal of Applied Physiology, 34, 664–669.Google Scholar
  29. Brown, W.S., Marsh, J.T., & LaRue, A. (1983). Exponential electrophysiological aging: P3 latency. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 55, 277–285.Google Scholar
  30. Bruneau, N., Barthelemy, C., Jouve, J., & Lelord, G. (1986). Frontal auditory-evoked potential augmenting-reducing and urinary homovanillic acid. Neuropsychobiology, 16, 78–84.Google Scholar
  31. Buchsbaum, M. (1976). Self-regulation of stimulus intensity: Augmenting/reducing and the average evoked response. In G.E. Schwartz & D. Shapiro (Eds.), Consciousness and self-regulation (pp. 101–135). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  32. Buchsbaum, M.S., & Silverman, J. (1968). Stimulus intensity control and the cortical evoked response. Psychosomatic Medicine, 30, 12–22.Google Scholar
  33. Bulens, C., Meerwaldt, J.D., van der Wildt, G.J., & Keemink, C.J. (1986). Contrast sensitivity in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology, 36, 1121–1125.Google Scholar
  34. Callner, D.A., Dustman, R.E., Madsen, J.A., Schenkenberg, T., & Beck, E.C. (1978). Life span changes in the averaged evoked responses of Down’s syndrome and nonretarded persons. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 82, 398–405.Google Scholar
  35. Campbell, B.A., Lytle, L.D., & Fibiger, G.C. (1969). Ontogeny of adrenergic arousal and cholinergic inhibitory mechanisms in the rat. Science, 166, 635–637.Google Scholar
  36. Carlson, N.R. (1977). Physiology of behavior. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  37. Caspersen, C.J., Christenson, G.M., & Pollard, R.A. (1986). Status of the 1990 physical fitness and exercise objectives—evidence from NHIS 1985. Public Health Reports, 101, 587–592.Google Scholar
  38. Celesia, G.G., & Daly, R.F. (1977). Effects of aging on visual evoked responses. Archives of Neurology, 34, 403–407.Google Scholar
  39. Chotas, H.G., Bourne, J.R., & Teschan, P.E. (1979). Heuristic techniques in the quantification of the electroencephalogram in renal failure. Computers in Biomedical Research, 12, 299–312.Google Scholar
  40. Chu, N-S. (1985). Age-related latency changes in the brain-stem auditory evoked potentials. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 62, 431–436.Google Scholar
  41. Clarkson, P.M., & Kroll, W. (1978). Practice effects on fractionated response time related to age and activity level. Journal of Motor Behavior, 10, 257–286.Google Scholar
  42. Coben, L.A., Danziger, W.L., & Hughes, C.P. (1983). Visual evoked potentials in mild senile dementia of Alzheimer type. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 55, 121–130.Google Scholar
  43. Coleman, M., & Mahanand, D. (1973). Baseline serotonin levels in Down’s syndrome patients. In M. Coleman (Ed.), Serotonin in Down’s syndrome (pp. 5–24). New York: American Elsevier.Google Scholar
  44. Cooper, K.H. (1977). The aerobics way. New York: Evans.Google Scholar
  45. Cosi, V., Vitelli, E., Gozzoli, L., Corona, A., Ceroni, M., & Callieco, R. (1982). Visual evoked potentials in aging of the brain. In J. Courjon, F. Mauguiere, & M. Revol (Eds.), Clinical applications of evoked potentials in neurology (pp. 109–115). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  46. Courville, C.B. (1955). Effects of alcohol on the nervous system of man. Los Angeles: San Lucas.Google Scholar
  47. Creasey, H., & Rapoport, S.I. (1985). The aging human brain. Annals of Neurology, 17, 2–10.Google Scholar
  48. Davis, J.N., Carlsson, A., MacMillan, V., & Siesjo, B.K. (1973). Brain tryptophan hydroxylation: Dependence on arterial oxygen tension. Science, 182, 72–74.Google Scholar
  49. Davis, J.N., Giron, L.T., Stanton, E., & Maury, W. (1979). The effects of hypoxia on brain neurotransmitter systems. In S. Fahn, J.N. Davis, & L.P. Rowland (Eds.), Cerebral hypoxia and its consequences (Advances in neurology, Vol. 26, pp. 219–223). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  50. DeCastro, J.M., & Duncan, G. (1985). Operantly conditioned running: Effects on brain catecholamine concentrations and receptor densities in the rat. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 23, 495–500.Google Scholar
  51. DeVries, H.A. (1975). Physiology of exercise and aging. In D.S. Woodruff & J.E. Birren (Eds.), Aging (pp. 257–276). New York: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  52. Diamond, S., Balvin, R.S., & Diamond, F.R. (1963). Inhibition and choice. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  53. Donchin, E., Ritter, W., & McCallum, W.C. (1978). Cognitive psychophysiology: The endogenous components of the ERP. In E. Callaway, P. Tueting & S.H. Koslow (Eds.), Event-related brain potentials in man (pp. 349–411). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  54. Dorfman, L.J., & Bosley, T.M. (1979). Age-related changes in peripheral and central nerve conduction in man. Neurology, 29, 38–44.Google Scholar
  55. Douglas, W.W. (1975). Histamine and antihistamines: 5-hydroxytryptamine and antagonists. In L.S. Goodman & A. Gilman (Eds.), The pharmacological basis of therapeutics (pp. 590–629). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  56. Drechsler, F. (1975). Sensory action potentials of the median and ulnar nerves in aged persons. In K. Kunze & J.E. Desmedí (Eds.), Studies on neuromuscular diseases (pp. 232–235). Basel: Karger.Google Scholar
  57. Drechsler, F. (1978). Quantitative analysis of neurophysiological processes of the aging CNS. Journal of Neurology, 218, 197–213.Google Scholar
  58. Dustman, R.E., & Beck, E.C. (1969). The effects of maturation and aging on the wave form of visually evoked potentials. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 26, 2–11.Google Scholar
  59. Dustman, R.E., & Caliner, D.A. (1979). Cortical evoked responses and response decrement in nonretarded and Down’s syndrome individuals. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 83, 391–397.Google Scholar
  60. Dustman, R.E., Emmerson, R.Y., Ruhling, R.O., Shearer, D.E., Steinhaus, L.A., Johnson, S.C., Bonekat, W.H., & Shigeoka, J.W. (in press). Age and fitness effects on EEG, ERPs, visual sensitivity and cognition. Neurobiology of Aging. Google Scholar
  61. Dustman, R.E., LaMarche, J.A., Cohn, N.B., Shearer, D.E., & Talone, J.M. (1985). Power spectral analysis and cortical coupling of EEG for young and old normal adults. Neurobiology of Aging, 6, 193–198.Google Scholar
  62. Dustman, R.E., & Ruhling, R.O. (1986). Brain function of old and young athletes and nonathletes. The Gerontologist, 26, A115.Google Scholar
  63. Dustman, R.E., Ruhling, R.O., Russell, E.M., Shearer, D.E., Bonekat, H.W., Shigeoka, J.W., Wood, J.S., & Bradford, D.C. (1984). Aerobic exercise training and improved neuropsychological function of older individuals. Neurobiology of Aging, 5, 35–42.Google Scholar
  64. Dustman, R.E., & Shearer, D.E. (1987). Electrophysiological evidence for central inhibitory deficits in old age. In R.J. Ellingson, N.M.F. Murray, & A.M. Halliday (Eds.), The London symposia, (EEG Suppl. 39, pp. 408–412). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  65. Dustman, R.E., Shearer, D.E., & Snyder, E.W. (1982). Age differences in augmenting/reducing of occipital visually evoked potentials. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 54, 99–110.Google Scholar
  66. Dustman, R.E., & Snyder, E.W. (1981). Life-span changes in visually evoked potentials at central scalp. Neurobiology of Aging, 2, 303–308.Google Scholar
  67. Dustman, R.E., Snyder, E.W., & Schlehuber, C.J. (1981). Life-span alterations in visually evoked potentials and inhibitory function. Neurobiology of Aging, 2, 187–192.Google Scholar
  68. Dyer, R.S., Howell, W.E., & MacPhail, R.C. (1981). Dopamine depletion slows retinal transmission. Experimental Neurology, 71, 326–340.Google Scholar
  69. Elsayed, M., Ismail, A.H., & Young, R.J. (1980). Intellectual differences of adult men related to age and physical fitness before and after an exercise program. Journal of Gerontology, 35, 383–387.Google Scholar
  70. Emmerson, R.Y., Dustman, R.E., Ruhling, R.O., Shearer, D.E., Steinhaus, L.A., & Chamberlin, H.M. (1986). Aerobic fitness and event-related potentials. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 64, 79P.Google Scholar
  71. Emmerson, R.Y., Dustman, R.E., Shearer, D.E., & Turner, C.W. (in press). P3 latency and symbol digit performance correlation in aging. Experimental Aging Research. Google Scholar
  72. Feldman, M.L. (1976). Aging changes in the morphology of cortical dendrites. In R.D. Terry & S. Gershon (Eds.), Neurobiology of aging (pp. 211–227). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  73. Fishbein, H.D. (1976). Evolution, development and children’s learning. Pacific Palisades, CA: Goodyear.Google Scholar
  74. Folsom, R.C., Widen, J.E., & Wilson, W.R. (1983). Auditory brain-stem responses in infants with Down’s syndrome. Archives of Otolaryngology, 109, 607–610.Google Scholar
  75. Frager, J., Barnet, A., Weiss, I., & Coleman, M. (1985). A double blind study of vitamin B6 in Down’s syndrome infants. Part 2—cortical auditory evoked potentials. Journal of Mental Deficiency Research, 29, 241–246.Google Scholar
  76. Gaches, J. (1960). Etude statistique sur les traces “alpha largement developpe” en fonction de l’age. La Presse Medicale, 68, 1620–1622.Google Scholar
  77. Galbraith, G.C., Squires, N., Altair, D., & Gliddon, J.B. (1979). Electrophysiological assessments in mentally retarded individuals: From brainstem to cortex. In H. Begleiter (Ed.), Evoked brain potentials and behavior (pp. 229–245). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  78. Ghilardi, M.F., Onofrj, M., Bodis-Wollner, I., Marx, M.S., & Glover, A. (1988). Stimulus-specific action of dopamine in the visual system of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients and MPTP-treated monkeys. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 69, 32P.Google Scholar
  79. Gibson, G.E., & Peterson, C. (1982). Biochemical and behavioral parallels in aging and hypoxia. In E. Giacobini, G. Filogamo, G. Giacobini, & A. Vernadakis (Eds.), Cellular and molecular mechanisms of aging in the nervous system (pp. 107–122). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  80. Gibson, G.E., Peterson, C., & Jenden, D.J. (1981). Brain acetylcholine synthesis declines with senescence. Science, 213, 674–676.Google Scholar
  81. Gibson, G.E., Pulsinelli, W., Blass, J.P., & Duffy, T.E. (1981). Brain dysfunction in mild to moderate hypoxia. American Journal of Medicine, 70, 1247–1254.Google Scholar
  82. Gilliam, P.E., Spirduso, W.W., Martin, T.P., Walters, T.J., Wilcox, R.E., & Farrar, R.P. (1984). The effects of exercise training on [3H]-spiperone binding in rat striatum. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 20, 863–867.Google Scholar
  83. Glaser, G.H. (1963). The normal electroencephalogram and its reactivity. In G.H. Glaser (Ed.), EEG and behavior (pp. 3–23). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  84. Gliddon, J.B., Busk, J., & Galbraith, G.C. (1975). Visual evoked responses as a function of light intensity in Down’s syndrome and nonretarded subjects. Psychophysiology, 12, 416–422.Google Scholar
  85. Goldman, P.S., & Alexander, G.E. (1977). Maturation of prefrontal cortex in the monkey revealed by local reversible cryogenic depression. Nature, 267, 613–615.Google Scholar
  86. Goodin, D.S., & Aminoff, M.J. (1986). Electrophysiological differences between subtypes of dementia. Brain, 109, 1103–1113.Google Scholar
  87. Goodin, D.S., Squires, K.C., Henderson, B.H., & Starr, A. (1978). Age-related variations in evoked potentials to auditory stimuli in normal human subjects. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 44, 447–458.Google Scholar
  88. Gotham, A.M., Brown, R.G., & Marsden, C.D. (1988). ‘Frontal’ cognitive function in patients with Parkinson’s disease on and off levodopa. Brain, 111, 299–321.Google Scholar
  89. Gottfries, C.G., Knorring, L. von, & Perris, C. (1976). Neurophysiological measures related to levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, homovanillic acid and tryptophan in cerebrospinal fluid of psychiatric patients. Neuropsychobiology, 2, 1–8.Google Scholar
  90. Gross, P.M., Marcus, M.L., & Heistad, D.D. (1980). Regional distribution of cerebral blood flow during exercise in dogs. Journal of Applied Physiology, 48, 213–217.Google Scholar
  91. Hansch, E.C., Syndulko, K., Cohen, S.N., Goldberg, Z.I., Potvin, A.R., & Tourtellotte, W.W. (1982). Cognition in Parkinson’s disease: An event-related potential perspective. Annals of Neurology, 11, 599–607.Google Scholar
  92. Harding, G.F.A., Wright, C.E., & Orwin, A. (1985). Primary presenile dementia: The use of the visual evoked potential as a diagnostic indicator. British Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 532–539.Google Scholar
  93. Harkins, S.W. (1981). Effects of presenile dementia of the Alzheimer’s type on brainstem transmission time. International Journal of Neuroscience, 15, 165–170.Google Scholar
  94. Harter, M.R. (1971). Visually evoked cortical responses to the on- and off-set of patterned light in humans. Vision Research, 11, 685–695.Google Scholar
  95. Henderson, G., Tomlinson, B.E., & Gibson, P.H. (1980). Cell counts in human cerebral cortex in normal adults throughout life using an image analysing computer. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 46, 113–136.Google Scholar
  96. Heston, L.L. (1982). Alzheimer’s dementia and Down’s syndrome: Genetic evidence suggesting an association. In F.M. Sinex & CR. Merril (Eds.), Alzheimer’s disease, Down’s syndrome, and aging (pp. 29–37). New York: The New York Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  97. Hornykiewicz, O. (1985). Brain dopamine and ageing. Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology, 19, 143–155.Google Scholar
  98. Hoyer, W.J., & Plude, D.J. (1980). Attentional and perceptual processes in the study of cognitive aging. In L.W. Poon (Ed.), Aging in the 1980s (pp. 227–238). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  99. Hubel, D.H., & Wiesel, T.N. (1962). Functional architecture of macaque monkey visual cortex. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B 198, 1–59.Google Scholar
  100. Ingvar, D.H. (1978). Clinical neurophysiology of the cerebral circulation. In W.A. Cobb & H. van Duijn (Eds.), Contemporary clinical neurophysiology, (EEG Suppl. 34, pp. 71–81). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  101. Ismail, A.H., & El-Naggar, A.M. (1981). Effect of exercise on cognitive processing in adult men. Journal of Human Ergology, 10, 83–91.Google Scholar
  102. Jakubczak, L.F. (1967). Psychophysiological aging. Gerontologist, 7, 67–72.Google Scholar
  103. Katz, R.I., & Harner, R.N. (1984). Electroencephalography in aging. In M.L. Albert (Ed.), Clinical neurology of aging (pp. 114–138). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  104. Kelly-Ballweber, D., & Dobie, R.A. (1984). Binaural interaction measured behaviorally and electrophysiologically in young and old adults. Audiology, 23, 181–194.Google Scholar
  105. Kjaer, M. (1980). Recognizability of brain stem auditory evoked potential components. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 62, 20–33.Google Scholar
  106. Klorman, R., Thompson, L.W., & Ellingson, R.J. (1978). Event related brain potentials across the life span. In E. Callaway, P. Tueting, & S.H. Koslow (Eds.), Event-related brain potentials in man (pp. 511–570). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  107. Knorring, L. von (1976). Visual averaged evoked responses in patients suffering from alcoholism. Neuropsychobiology, 2, 233–238.Google Scholar
  108. Knorring, L. von, Monakhov, K., & Perris, C. (1978). Augmenting/reducing: An adaptive switch mechanism to cope with incoming signals in healthy subjects and psychiatric patients. Neuropsychobiology, 4, 150–179.Google Scholar
  109. Knorring, L. von, & Oreland, L. (1978). Visual averaged evoked responses and platelet monoamine oxidase activity as an aid to identify a risk group for alcoholic abuse. A preliminary study. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology, 2, 385–392.Google Scholar
  110. Kraiuhin, C., Gordon, E., Stanfield, P., Meares, R., & Howson, A. (1986). P300 and the effects of aging: Relevance to the diagnosis of dementia. Experimental Aging Research, 12, 187–192.Google Scholar
  111. Kraus, H., & Raub, W. (1961). Hypokinetic disease. Springfield, IL: C.C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  112. Lake, C.R., Ziegler, M.G., Coleman, M., & Kopin, I.J. (1979). Evaluation of the sympathetic nervous system in trisomy-21 (Down’s syndrome). Journal of Psychiatric Research, 15, 1–6.Google Scholar
  113. Laurian, S., Gaillard, J.-M., & Wertheimer, J. (1982). Evoked potentials in the assessment of brain function in senile dementia. In J. Courjon, F. Mauguiere, & M. Revol (Eds.), Clinical applications of evoked potentials in neurology (pp. 287–293). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  114. Lezak, M.D. (1983). Neuropsychological assessment (2nd Ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  115. Liberson, W.T. (1976). Scalp distribution of somato-sensory evoked potentials and aging. Electromyography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 16, 221–224.Google Scholar
  116. Lincoln, A.J., Courchesne, E., Kilman, B.A., & Galambos, R. (1985). Neuropsychological correlates of information-processing by children with Down syndrome. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 89, 403–414.Google Scholar
  117. Lott, I.T. (1982). Down’s syndrome, aging, and Alzheimer’s disease: A clinical review. In F.M. Sinex & CR. Merril (Eds.), Alzheimer’s disease, Down’s syndrome, and aging (pp. 15–27). New York: The New York Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  118. Luders, H. (1970). The effects of aging on the wave form of the somatosensory cortical evoked potential. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 29, 450–460.Google Scholar
  119. Lukas, J.H., & Siegel, J. (1977). Cortical mechanisms that augment or reduce evoked potentials in cats. Science, 198, 73–75.Google Scholar
  120. MacRae, P.G., Spirduso, W.W., Walters, T.J., Farrar, R.P., & Wilcox, R.E. (1987). Endurance training effects on striatal D2 dopamine receptor binding and striatal dopamine metabolites in presenescent older rats. Psychopharmacology, 92, 236–240.Google Scholar
  121. Man’kovskii, N.B., Belonog, R.P., & Gorbach, L.N. (1978). Evoked potentials to light during aging. Human Physiology, 4, 499–506.Google Scholar
  122. McFarland, R.A. (1963). Experimental evidence of the relationship between ageing and oxygen want: In search of a theory of aging. Ergonomics, 6, 339–366.Google Scholar
  123. McGeer, E.G., & McGeer, P.L. (1976). Neurotransmitter metabolism in the aging brain. In R.D. Terry & S. Gershon (Eds.), Aging (Vol. 3, pp. 389–403). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  124. McGeer, P.L., Eccles, J.C., & McGeer, E.G. (1978). Molecular neurobiology of the mammalian brain. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  125. McGeer, P.L., & McGeer, E.G. (1980). Chemistry of mood and emotion. Annual Review of Psychology, 31, 273–307.Google Scholar
  126. Mervis, R. (1978). Structural alterations in neurons of aged canine neocortex: A Golgi study. Experimental Neurology, 62, 417–432.Google Scholar
  127. Michalewski, H.J., Rosenberg, C., & Starr, A. (1986). Event-related potentials in dementia. In R.Q. Cracco & I. Bodis-Wollner (Eds.), Evoked potentials (pp. 521–528). New York: Alan R. Liss.Google Scholar
  128. Mohr, E., Fabbrini, G., Ruggieri, S., Fedio, P., & Chase, T.N. (1987). Cognitive concomitants of dopamine system stimulation in Parkinsonian patients. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 50, 1192–1196.Google Scholar
  129. Newman, R.P., LeWitt, P.A., Jaffe, M., Calne, D.B., & Larsen, T.A. (1985). Motor function in the normal aging population: Treatment with levodopa. Neurology, 35, 571–573.Google Scholar
  130. Nightingale, S., Mitchell, K.W., & Howe, J.W. (1986). Visual evoked cortical potentials and pattern electroretinograms in Parkinson’s disease and control subjects. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 49, 1280–1287.Google Scholar
  131. Norstrand, I.F. (1981). Neurobiology of aging. New York State Journal of Medicine, 81, 956–964. Google Scholar
  132. Obrist, W.D. (1976). Problems of aging. In G.E. Chatrian & G.C. Lairy (Eds.), Handbook of electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology (Vol. 6, part A, pp. 275–292). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  133. Parnavelas, J.G., Globus, A., & Kaups, P. (1973). Continuous illumination from birth affects spine density of neurons in the visual cortex of the rat. Experimental Neurology, 40, 742–747.Google Scholar
  134. Petajan, J.H., & Jarcho, L.W. (1975). Motor unit control in Parkinson’s disease and the influence of levodopa. Neurology, 25, 866–869.Google Scholar
  135. Petrie, A. (1967). Individuality in pain and suffering. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  136. Pfefferbaum, A., Wenegrat, B.G., Ford, J.M., Roth, W.T., & Kopell, B.S. (1984). Clinical application of the P3 component of event-related potentials. II. Dementia, depression and schizophrenia. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 59, 104–124.Google Scholar
  137. Picton, T.W., Stapells, D.R., Perrault, N., Baribeau-Braun, J., & Stuss, D.T. (1984). Human event-related potentials: Current perspectives. In R.H. Nodar & C. Barber (Eds.), Evoked potentials II (pp. 3–16). Boston: Butterworth.Google Scholar
  138. Picton, T.W., Stuss, D.T., Champagne, S.C., & Nelson, R.F. (1984). The effects of age on human event-related potentials. Psychophysiology, 21, 312–325.Google Scholar
  139. Polich, J., Howard, L., & Starr, A. (1985). Effects of age on the P300 component of the event-related potential from auditory stimuli: Peak identification, variation, and measurement. Journal of Gerontology, 40, 721–726.Google Scholar
  140. Powell, R.R. (1974). Psychological effects of exercise therapy upon institutionalized geriatric mental patients. Journal of Gerontology, 29, 157–161.Google Scholar
  141. Powell, R.R., & Pohndorf, R.H. (1971). Comparison of adult exercisers and nonexercisers on fluid intelligence and selected physiological variables. The Research Quarterly, 42, 70–77.Google Scholar
  142. Pradhan, S.N. (1980). Central neurotransmitters and aging. Life Sciences, 26, 1643–1656.Google Scholar
  143. Price, D.L., Whitehouse, P.J., Struble, R.G., Coyle, J.T., Clark, A.W., Delong, M.R., Cork, L.C., & Hedreen, J.C. (1982). Alzheimer’s disease and Down’s syndrome. In F.M. Sinex & C.R. Merril (Eds.), Alzheimer’s disease, Down’s syndrome, and aging (pp. 145–164). New York: The New York Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  144. Prinz, P.N. (1976). EEG during sleep and waking states. In M.F. Elias, B.E. Eleftheriou, & P.K. Elias (Eds.), Experimental aging research (pp. 135–163). Bar Harbor, ME: EAR, Inc.Google Scholar
  145. Psatta, D.M. (1981). Visual evoked potential habituation in mental deficiency. Biological Psychiatry, 16, 729–740.Google Scholar
  146. Pullman, S.L., Watts, R.L., Juncos, J.L., Chase, T.N., & Sanes, J.N. (1988). Dopaminergic effects on simple and choice reaction time performance in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology, 38, 249–254.Google Scholar
  147. Regan, D. (1972). Evoked potentials in psychology, sensory physiology and clinical medicine. London: Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
  148. Retzlaff, E., & Fontaine, J. (1965). Functional and structural changes in motor neurons with age. In A.T. Welford & J.E. Birren (Eds.), Behavior, aging, and the nervous system (pp. 340–352). Springfield, IL: C.C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  149. Roberts, E. (1972). Coordination between excitation and inhibition: Development of the GABA system. In C.D. Clemente, D.P. Purpura, & F.E. Mayer (Eds.), Sleep and the maturing nervous system (pp. 79–98). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  150. Rutledge, L.T., Wright, C., & Duncan, J. (1974). Morphological changes in pyramidal cells of mammalian neocortex associated with increased use. Experimental Neurology, 44, 209–228.Google Scholar
  151. Scatton, B., Javoy-Agid, F., Rouquier, L., Dubois, B., & Agid, Y. (1983). Reduction of cortical dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin and their metabolites in Parkinson’s disease. Brain Research, 275, 321–328.Google Scholar
  152. Schafer, E.W.P., & McKean, CM. (1975). Evidence that monoamines influence human evoked potentials. Brain Research, 99, 49–58.Google Scholar
  153. Schafer, E.W.P., & Peeke, H.V.S. (1982). Down syndrome individuals fail to habituate cortical evoked potentials. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 87, 332–337.Google Scholar
  154. Schaie, K.W. (1958). Rigidity-flexibility and intelligence: A cross-sectional study of the adult life span from 20 to 70 years. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 72, 1–26.Google Scholar
  155. Scheibel, A.B. (1979). The hippocampus; Organizational patterns in health and senescence. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, 9, 89–102.Google Scholar
  156. Scheibel, M.E., & Scheibel, A.B. (1975). Structural changes in the aging brain. In H. Brody, D. Harman, & J.M. Ordy (Eds.), Clinical, morphologic, and neurochemical aspects in the aging central nervous system (Aging, Vol. 1, pp. 11–37). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  157. Schenkenberg, T. (1970). Visual, auditory and somatosensory evoked responses of normal subjects from childhood to senescence. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Utah.Google Scholar
  158. Shagass, C. (1972). Evoked brain potentials in Psychiatry. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  159. Shagass, C., & Schwartz, M. (1965). Age, personality, and somatosensory cerebral evoked responses. Science, 148, 1359–1361.Google Scholar
  160. Shaw, N.A. (1984). Changes in the cortical components of the visual evoked potential with age in man. Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science, 62, 771–778.Google Scholar
  161. Shearer, D.E., & Dustman, R.E. (1980). The pattern reversal evoked potential: The need for laboratory norms. American Journal of EEG Technology, 20, 185–200.Google Scholar
  162. Shearer, D.E., Emmerson, R.Y., & Dustman, R.E. (1989). EEG relationships to neural aging in the elderly: Overview and bibliography. American Journal of EEG Technology, 29, 43–63.Google Scholar
  163. Shephard, R.J. (1987). Physical activity and aging (2nd ed.). Rockville, MD: Aspen.Google Scholar
  164. Sherwood, D.E., & Selder, D.J. (1979). Cardiorespiratory health, reaction time and aging. Medicine and Science in Sports, 11, 186–189.Google Scholar
  165. Siegel, S. (1956). Nonparametric statistics for the behavioral sciences. New York: McGraw-Hill.MATHGoogle Scholar
  166. Simpson, D.M., & Erwin, C.W. (1983). Evoked potential latency change with age suggests differential aging of primary somatosensory cortex. Neurobiology of Aging, 4, 59–63.Google Scholar
  167. Skinner, J.E. & Yingling, C.D. (1977). Central gating mechanisms that regulate event-related potentials and behavior. A neural model for attention. In J.E. Desmedí (Ed.), Progress in clinical neurophysiology (Vol. 1, pp. 28–68). Basel: S. Karger.Google Scholar
  168. Smith, A. (1968). Symbol Digit Modalities Test: A neuropsychologic test for economic screening of learning and other cerebral disorders. Learning Disorders, 3, 83–91.Google Scholar
  169. Smith, D.B.D., Thompson, L.W., & Michalewski, H.J. (1980). Averaged evoked potential research in adult aging—status and prospects. In L.W. Poon (Ed.), Aging in the 1980s (pp. 135–151). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  170. Snyder, S.H. (1986). Drugs and the brain. New York: Scientific American Library.Google Scholar
  171. Spehlmann, R. (1985). Evoked potential primer. Boston: Butterworth.Google Scholar
  172. Spilker, B., & Callaway, E. (1969). Effects of drugs on “augmenting and reducing” in averaged visual evoked responses in man. Psychopharmacologia, 15, 116–124.Google Scholar
  173. Spirduso, W.W. (1983). Exercise and the aging brain. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 54, 208–218.Google Scholar
  174. Spirduso, W.W., & Clifford, P. (1978). Replication of age and physical activity effects on reaction and movement time. Journal of Gerontology, 33, 26–30.Google Scholar
  175. Spirduso, W.W., & Farrar, R.P. (1981). Effects of aerobic training on reactive capacity: An animal model. Journal of Gerontology, 36, 654–662.Google Scholar
  176. Spirduso, W.W., MacRae, H.H., MacRae, P.G., Prewitt, J., & Osborne, L. (1988). Exercise effects on aged motor function. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 515, 363–375.Google Scholar
  177. Squires, K.C., Chippendale, T.J., Wrege, K.S., Goodin, D.S., & Starr, A. (1980). Electrophysiological assessment of mental function in aging and dementia. In L.W. Poon (Ed.), Aging in the 1980s (pp. 125–134). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  178. Squires, N., Aine, C., Buchwald, J., Norman, R., & Galbraith, G. (1980). Auditory brain stem response abnormalities in severely and profoundly retarded adults. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 50, 172–185.Google Scholar
  179. Steinhaus, L.A., Dustman, R.E., Ruhling, R.O., Emmerson, R.Y., Johnson, S.C., Shearer, D.E., Latin, R.W., Shigeoka, J.W., & Bonekat, W.H. (in press). Aerobic capacity of older adults: A training study. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. Google Scholar
  180. Sternberg, S. (1969). The discovery of processing stages: Extensions of Donders’ method. Acta Psychologica, 30, 276–315.Google Scholar
  181. Stockard, J.J., Hughes, J.F., and Sharbrough, F.W. (1979). Visually evoked potentials to electronic pattern reversal: Latency variations with gender, age, and technical factors. American Journal of EEG Technology, 19, 171–204.Google Scholar
  182. Straumanis, J.J., Shagass, C., & Overton, D.A. (1973a). Auditory evoked responses in young adults with Down’s syndrome and idiopathic mental retardation. Biological Psychiatry, 6, 75–79.Google Scholar
  183. Straumanis, J.J., Shagass, C., & Overton, D.A. (1973b). Somatosensory evoked responses in Down syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 29, 544–549.Google Scholar
  184. Straumanis, J.J., Shagass, C., & Schwartz, M. (1965). Visually evoked cerebral response changes associated with chronic brain syndromes and aging. Journal of Gerontology, 20, 498–506.Google Scholar
  185. Strenge, H., & Hedderich, J. (1982). Age-dependent changes in central somatosensory conduction time. European Neurology, 21, 270–276.Google Scholar
  186. Strommen, E.A. (1973). Verbal self-regulation in a children’s game: Impulsive errors on “Simon says.” Child Development, 44, 849–853.Google Scholar
  187. Syndulko, K., Hansch, E.C., Cohen, S.N., Pearce, J.W., Goldberg, Z., Montan, B., Tourtellotte, W.W., & Potvin, A.R. (1982). Long-latency event-related potentials in normal aging and dementia. In J. Courjon, F. Mauguiere, & M. Revol (Eds.), Clinical applications of evoked potentials in neurology (pp. 279–285). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  188. Taylor, A.E., Saint Cyr, J.A., & Lang, A.E. (1986). Frontal lobe dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease. The cortical focus of neostriatal outflow. Brain, 109, 845–883.Google Scholar
  189. Terry, R., & Katzman, R. (1983). Senile dementia of the Alzheimer type: Defining a disease. In R. Katzman & R.D. Terry (Eds.), The neurology of aging (pp. 51–84). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.Google Scholar
  190. Thompson, R.F. (1985). The brain. New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  191. Turner, O.A. (1950). Some data concerning the growth and development of the cerebral cortex in man. II. Postnatal growth changes in the cortical surface area. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 64, 378–384.Google Scholar
  192. Visser, S.L., Stam, F.C., Van Tilburg, W., Op Den Velde, W., Blom, J.L., & De Rijke, W. (1976). Visual evoked response in senile and presenile dementia. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 40, 385–392.Google Scholar
  193. Vogt, C., & Vogt, O. (1946). Aging of nerve cells. Nature, 158, 304.Google Scholar
  194. Walford, R.L. (1982). Immunological studies of Down’s syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease. In F.M. Sinex & C.R. Merril (Eds.), Alzheimer’s disease, Down’s syndrome, and aging (pp. 95–106). New York: New York Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  195. Wayner, M.J., & Emmers, R. (1958). Spinal synaptic delay in young and aged rats. American Journal of Physiology, 194, 403–405.Google Scholar
  196. White, S.H. (1965). Evidence for a hierarchical arrangement of learning processes. In L.P. Lipsitt & C.C. Spiker (Eds.), Advances in child development and behavior, (pp. 187–220). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  197. Woodruff, D.S. (1985). Arousal, sleep, and aging. In J.E. Birren & K.W. Share (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of aging (2nd ed.; pp. 261–294). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  198. Woodruff-Pak, D.S., Lavond, D.G., Logan, CG., & Thompson, R.F. (1987). Classical conditioning in 3-, 30-, and 45-month old rabbits: Behavioral learning and hippocampal unit activity. Neurobiology of Aging, 8, 101–108.Google Scholar
  199. Woodruff-Pak, D.S., & Thompson, R.F. (in press). Classical conditioning of the eyeblink response in the delay paradigm in adults aged 18–83 years. Psychology and Aging. Google Scholar
  200. Woods, D.L., & Clayworth, C.C. (1986). Age-related changes in human middle latency auditory evoked potentials. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 65, 297–303.Google Scholar
  201. Wright, C.E., & Furlong, P.L. (1988). Visual evoked potentials in elderly patients with primary or multi-infarct dementia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 679–682.Google Scholar
  202. Yagi, A., Bali, L., & Callaway, E. (1976). Optimum parameters for the measurement of cortical coupling. Physiological Psychology, 4, 33–38.Google Scholar
  203. Yahr, M.D. (1984). Parkinsonism. In L.P. Rowland (Ed.), Merritt’s textbook of neurology (pp. 526–534). Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.Google Scholar
  204. Yakovlev, P.L, & Lecours, A.R. (1967). The myelogenetic cycles of regional maturation of the brain. In A. Minkowski (Ed.), Regional development of the brain in early life (pp. 3–70). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.Google Scholar
  205. Yellin, A.M., Lodwig, A.K., & Jerison, H.J. (1979). Effects of rate of repetitive stimulus presentation on the visual evoked brain potentials of young adults with Down’s syndrome. Biological Psychiatry, 14, 913–924.Google Scholar
  206. Yellin, A.M., Lodwig, A.K., & Jerison, H.J. (1980). Auditory evoked brain potentials as a function of interstimulus interval in adults with Down’s syndrome. Audiology, 19, 255–262.Google Scholar
  207. Zemon, V., Kaplan, E., & Ratliff, F. (1986). The role of GABA-mediated intracortical inhibition in the generation of visual evoked potentials. In R.Q. Cracco & I. Bodis-Wollner (Eds.), Evoked potentials (pp. 287–295). New York: Alan R. Liss.Google Scholar
  208. Zuckerman, M., Murtaugh, T., & Siegel, J. (1974). Sensation seeking and cortical augmenting-reducing. Psychophysiology, 11, 535–542.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert E. Dustman
  • Rita Y. Emmerson
  • Donald E. Shearer

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations