The Role of Hematopoietic Growth Factors in Nuclear and Radiation Accidents
Exposure to total body radiation results in dose dependent suppression of hematopoiesis (reviewed in 1–3). Variables influencing the extent of bone marrow suppression include total dose, dose rate, schedule, shielding, dose uniformity, as well as source-term parameters. Single-dose total body radiation at doses ≥ 1 Gy and dose rates ≥ 1 cGy per minute produce granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. Doses > 2 Gy can cause death from infection and bleeding. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) in humans is presumed to be 4–5 Gy based on data in animals. Higher radiation doses carry an increasing risk of death from bone marrow suppression; survival is unlikely after doses > 8–10 Gy. Doses > 15–20 Gy results in death from toxicity to other tissues such as the gastrointestinal tract or central nervous system.
KeywordsHematopoietic Stem Cell Total Body Radiation Bone Marrow Suppression Bone Marrow Failure Nuclear Accident
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