Malformations of the Vertebrae

  • Shizuo Oi
Part of the Principles of Pediatric Neurosurgery book series (PRINCPEDIATR)

Abstract

Development of the vertebrae and spinal column begins in the third embryonic week and is completed at around 20 years of age. Development occurs by the processes of membrane formation, chondrification (both in the embryonal period), and ossification (in the fetal and postnatal periods). Teratologically speaking, because the embryonic cellular and tissue organization proceed in an exact sequential manner, a congenital malformation is induced in the upper (cephalic site of) vertebrae with early exposure to teratogenic factors, and in the lower (caudal) parts in late exposure (cephalocaudal sequence).1 Exposure to an effective teratogenic factor causes predictable types of spinal anomalies specific to each temporal period: (1) disorders of the notochord, (2) disorders of the unsegmented paraxial mesoderm, (3) disorders of segmentation, and (4) disorders of sclerotome differentiation.

Keywords

Migration Arthritis Germinal Assimilation Neurol 

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© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1989

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  • Shizuo Oi

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