Malformations of the Vertebrae

  • Shizuo Oi
Part of the Principles of Pediatric Neurosurgery book series (PRINCPEDIATR)


Development of the vertebrae and spinal column begins in the third embryonic week and is completed at around 20 years of age. Development occurs by the processes of membrane formation, chondrification (both in the embryonal period), and ossification (in the fetal and postnatal periods). Teratologically speaking, because the embryonic cellular and tissue organization proceed in an exact sequential manner, a congenital malformation is induced in the upper (cephalic site of) vertebrae with early exposure to teratogenic factors, and in the lower (caudal) parts in late exposure (cephalocaudal sequence).1 Exposure to an effective teratogenic factor causes predictable types of spinal anomalies specific to each temporal period: (1) disorders of the notochord, (2) disorders of the unsegmented paraxial mesoderm, (3) disorders of segmentation, and (4) disorders of sclerotome differentiation.


Posterior Arch Odontoid Process Neural Arch Congenital Scoliosis Vertebral Anomaly 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Tanimura T: Relationship of dosage and time of administration to teratogenic effects of thio-TEPA in mice. Okajimas Fol Anat Jpn 44:203–253, 1968.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tsou PM, Yau A, Hodgson AR: Embryogenesis and prenatal development of congenital vertebral anomalies and their classification. In: Urist MR (ed): Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research, Vol. 152, Section II. Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1980, pp 211–231.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Furukawa C: Clinicopathoanatomical study of congenital vertebral anomalies. Nisseikaishi 37:485–510, 1963.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Page GT, Yock DH Jr: Total aplasia of the posterior arch of the atlas. Minn Med: 666–668, 1981.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Geipel P: Zur Kenntnis der Spaltbildung des Atlas und Epistropheus. Fortschr Pontgenstr 52:533–570, 1935.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Greenberg AD: Atlanto-axial dislocations. Brain 91:655–684, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hensinger RN, Fielding JW, Hawkins RJ: Congenital anomalies of the odontoid process. Orthop Clin North Am 9:901–912, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rowland LP, Shapiro JH, Jacobson HG: Neurological syndromes associated with congenital absence of the odontoid process. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 80:286–291, 1958.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nagashima C: Atlanto-axial dislocation due to the os odontoideum and the odontoid agenesis. Report of five cases with comments on pathophysiology and the occipitovertebral fixation with acrylic plastic (N. Dott) as a surgical treatment. No to Shinkei (JPN) 20:881–896, 1968.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nordt JC, Stauffer ES: Sequelae of atlantoaxial stabilization in two patients with Down’s syndrome. Spine 6:437–440, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hensinger RN, MacEwen GD: Congenital Abnormalities of the spine. In: Rathman, RH, Simeone FA (eds): The Spine. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, 1982, pp 216–233.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fardon DF, Fielding JW: Defects of the pedicle and spondylolysthesis of the second cervical vertebra. J Bone Joint Surg 63:526–528, 1981.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Prioleau GR, Wilson CB: Cervical spondylolysis with spondylolisthesis. J Neurosurg 43:750–753, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gunderson CH, Greenspan RH, Glaser GH, Lubs HA: The Klippel-Feil syndrome: genetic and clinical réévaluation of cervical fusion. Medicine 46:491–522,.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Eisemann ML, Sharma GK: The Wildervanck syndrome: cervico-oculo-acoustic dysplasia. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 87:892–897, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wildervanck LS, Hoekseman PE, Pennings L: Radiological examination of the inner ear of deafmutes presenting the cervico-oculo-acousticus syndrome. Acta Otolaryngol 61:445–453, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Adam MS, and Niswander JD: Health of the American Indian: congenital defects. Eugen Quart 15:227–234, 1968.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Carter CO, Roberts JAF: The risk of recurrence after two children with central nervous system malformations. Lancet i:306–308, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ingalls TH, Pugh TF, MacMahon B: Incidence of anencephalus, spina bifida, and hydrocephalus related to birth rank and maternal age. Br J Prevent Soc Med 8:17–23, 1954.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Goldstein LA, Waugh TR: Classification and terminology of scoliosis. Clin Orthop 93:22, 1973.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lauy NW, Palmer CG, Merritt AD: A syndrome of bizarre vertebral anomalies. J Pediatr 60:1121–1125, 1966.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pochaczeusky R, Ratner H, Perles D, et al.: Spondylothoracic dysplasia. Radiology 98:53–58, 1971.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Slabaugh PB, Winter RB, Lonstein JE, Moe JH: Lumbosacral hemivertebrae—a review of twenty-four patients, with excision in eight. Spine 5:234–244, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Uinke TH, White EH: Congenital narrowing of the lumbosacral space. Surg Gynecol Obstet 76:551, 1943.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shizuo Oi

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations