No Man Is an Island...

  • Miriam Cherkes-Julkowski
  • Nancy Gertner
Part of the Disorders of Human Learning, Behavior, and Communication book series (HUMAN LEARNING)


In our review of strategic behavior as well as in discussing the importance of error production in the development of cognition, we have touched on the topic that will be the major focus of this chapter. It has become clear that cognitive processes do not develop in a vacuum, but evolve, starting in infancy, through interaction with both physical and social environments. The infant explores with all senses, gaining knowledge of the physical world and, to some extent, acquiring cognitive skills. The failure of an environment lacking in human contacts to provide for the complete development of human potential is seen in the extreme cases of children brought up in isolation or by animals, such as Kamala the wolfgirl (Gesell, 1940).


Disable Learner Oral Reading Cognitive Conflict Proximal Development Retarded Child 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miriam Cherkes-Julkowski
    • 1
  • Nancy Gertner
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Education, Department of Educational PsychologyThe University of ConnecticutStorrsUSA
  2. 2.Gesell InstituteNew HavenUSA
  3. 3.Guilford Public SchoolsGuilfordUSA

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