The Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF) System in Human Ovary and Its Relevance to Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

  • Linda C. Giudice
  • H. J. H. M. van Dessel
  • Nicholas A. Cataldo
  • Yasmin A. Chandrasekher
  • O. W. Stephanie Yap
  • Bart C. J. M. Fauser
Part of the Serono Symposia USA book series (SERONOSYMP)

Abstract

Follicular development within the ovary (Fig. 15.1) is independent of gonadotropin action until the early antral stage. after which growth and steroidogenesis are dependent upon the presence of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) (1, 2). During the luteal-follicular transition and under FSH action, follicular recruitment occurs. In the early follicular phase, as FSH levels increase, follicles grow to about the 4- to 6-mm stage, and, in the mid-follicular phase as FSH levels fall, one follicle gains dominance and the remainder of the cohort begins to undergo atresia (2, 3). It has been suggested that production of estradiol (E2) in sufficient amounts is essential for further follicle development and the prevention of atresia (4), and only in the follicle that has gained dominance is a substantial increase in granulosa aromatase gene expression and estradiol production observed (5). Enhancement of FSH action by local growth modulators is believed to be crucial for the major increase in aromatase activity in the follicle gaining dominance and for its growth, during declining serum levels of FSH. Mechanisms underlying follicular selection remain unknown, although atresia of the remaining cohort is effected by apoptotic mechanisms, which may also be under the control of growth factors and related peptides (3). In polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), a disorder of anovulation, the initial stages of follicular development (i.e., recruitment and growth to the small antral stage) are not impaired, although selection of a dominant preovulatory follicle does not occur (Fig. 15.1).

Keywords

Cholesterol Estrogen Adenosine Enzymatic Degradation Progesterone 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Linda C. Giudice
  • H. J. H. M. van Dessel
  • Nicholas A. Cataldo
  • Yasmin A. Chandrasekher
  • O. W. Stephanie Yap
  • Bart C. J. M. Fauser

There are no affiliations available

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