Advertisement

Uranium in the Environment: Occurrence, Transfer, and Biological Effects

  • Daniel Ribera
  • Florence Labrot
  • Gérard Tisnerat
  • Jean-François Narbonne
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 146)

Abstract

The term metal designates a group of chemical elements mainly found in columns IA, IIA, and among transition elements in the periodic table. They are chiefly known to form basic oxides with oxygen. Considering their biological effects, this group is extremely heterogeneous. In fact, some metals are trace elements; that is, in small amounts they are vital to life (iron, zinc, magnesium, copper, and cobalt). Others are, on the contrary, toxic even in small quantities. This is the case for heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury, and chromium.

Keywords

European Economic Community Inductively Couple Plasma Mass Spectroscopy Uranium Hexafluoride Regulatory Statute Health Phys 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Académie des Sciences (1988) Cancérogénèse par les faibles doses des radiations ionisantes et normes de sécurité. Éditions Latarjet, Académie des Sciences, Paris.Google Scholar
  2. Amiard JC, Amiard-Triquet C (1980) Radioécologie des milieux aquatiques. Masson, Paris.Google Scholar
  3. Angeletti L, Ancellin L, Bittel R (1977) Aspects pratiques du comportement du plutonium dans l’environnement. Radioprotection 12:3–26.Google Scholar
  4. Angeletti L (1979) Les transuraniens: propriétés physico-chimiques et comporte­ment dans l’environnement. Comportement dans les sols, les eaux et les sédi­ments. Transferts à la biomasse aquatique et aux végétaux. Rapport CEA-R64987, Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA), Paris.Google Scholar
  5. Association pour les Techniques et les Sciences de Radioprotection (ATSR) (1992) Rayonnements Ionisants 1:36.Google Scholar
  6. Atkins P (1992) Chimie Générale. Inter Editions, Paris.Google Scholar
  7. Bartlett BO, Middleton LJ, Milbourn GM, Squire HM (1960) Survey of radioactiv­ity in human diet and experimental studies. Report for 1960, Agricultural Re­search Council, Letcombe.Google Scholar
  8. Batchelor AL, Jenner TJ, Papworth DG (1982) Influence of macrophages on micro-distribution of inhaled uranium oxide aerosol in rat lung. Physiol Med Biol 27(7):949–958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baudin JP, Lambrechts A, Pally M (1991) Utilisation des mousses aquatiques comme bioindicateurs de contamination radioactive. Hydroecol Appl 3(2):209–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bennelick EJ (1966) A review of the toxicology and potential hazards of natural and depleted uranium. In: Toxicology of Uranium. Harwell, London, pp 13–17.Google Scholar
  11. Bentley KW, Stockwell DR, Britt KA, Kerr CB (1985) Transient proteinuria and aminoaciduria in rodents following uranium intoxication. Bull Envir Contam Toxicol 34:407–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bertin M, Rudell B (1979) Uranium. In: Friberg L, Nordberg GF, Vouk VB (eds) Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals. Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Bertin M (1994) Les effets biologiques des rayonnements ionisants. In: Energie Électronucléaire, Electricité de France, Paris.Google Scholar
  14. Bessis J (1979) Les Risques auprès des Centrales Nucléaires. Eyrolles, Paris, pp 17–55.Google Scholar
  15. Bhattacharyya M, Larsen RP, Cohen N, Ralston LG, Oldham RD, Moretti ES, Ayres L (1985) A dual isotope-method for determining the gastrointestinal ab­sorption of uranium and plutonium in the adult baboons. Health Phys 49:176–177.Google Scholar
  16. Boice JD, Engholm G, Kleinerman RA (1988) Radiation dose and second cancer risk in patients treated for cancer of the cervix. Radiat Res 166:3–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Borek C (1982) Radiation oncogenesis in culture. Adv Cancer Res 37:159–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bosshard E, Zimmerli B, Schlatter C (1992) Uranium in the diet: risk assessment of its nephro-and radiotoxicity. Chemosphere 24(3):309–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Boudène C (1979) Généralités sur la toxicité des produits chimiques. In: Aspects Biochimiques de la Toxicité de Diverses Substances Chimiques. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Paris, pp 1–18.Google Scholar
  20. Bowen HJM (1979) Environmental Chemistry of the Elements. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  21. Bowen VT, Livingston HD, Burke JC (1976) Distribution of transuranium nuclides in sediment and biota of the North Atlantic Ocean. In: Transuranium Nuclides in the Environment, San Francisco, 17–21 November 1975. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, pp 107–120.Google Scholar
  22. Brodsky A (1982) Handbook of Radiation Measurement and Protection, vol 2. CRC Press, London, pp 73–121.Google Scholar
  23. Bundesgesundheitsamt, Institut für Strahlenhygiene [ISH](BGA) (1985) Dosisfakt­oren für inhalation oder ingestion von radionuklidverbindungen. ISH, Hefte Nos. 63, 79, 80, 81Google Scholar
  24. Butterworth A (1955) The significance and value of uranium in urine analysis. Trans Assoc Indust Med Offic 5:36–43.Google Scholar
  25. Bywater JF, Banaczkowski R, Bailey M (1991) Sensitivity to uranium of six species of tropical freshwater fishes and four species of cladocerans from northern Australia. Environ Toxicol Chem 10:1449–1458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cadee GC (1984) Biological activity and sediments. In: Sediments and Pollution in Waterways. General Considerations. IAEA, Vienna, pp 111–126.Google Scholar
  27. Calahan CA (1988) Earthworms as ecotoxicological assessement tools. In: Edwards CA, Neuhauser EF (eds) Earthworms in Waste and Environmental Management. SPB Academic, The Hague, The Netherlands, pp 295–301.Google Scholar
  28. Calando JP (1991) Evaluation rapide des risques radiologiques après un acci­dent. Code de calcul ORION. Rapport CEA/DAM/SPRE/B III, CEN/Saclay, France.Google Scholar
  29. Chalabreysse J (1976) Surveillance radiotoxicologique du personnel de l’usine de séparation des isotopes de l’uranium par diffusion gazeuse de Pierrelatte. Thèse de docteur en biologie humaine, Université C. Bernard, Lyon.Google Scholar
  30. Chalabreysse J (1978) Surveillance radiotoxicologique du personnel de l’usine de séparation des isotopes de l’uranium par diffusion gazeuse de Pierrelatte: méth­odes et résultats. Report R-2, COGEMA, The Hague.Google Scholar
  31. Chalabreysse J, Beau P, Chevalier C, Jeanmaire L, Bataller G, Berard P, Gibert B (1989a) Experience acquise en France sur la radiotoxicologie des composés industriels de l’uranium. Radioprotection 243:191–202.Google Scholar
  32. Chalabreysse J, Beau P, Chevalier C, Jeanmaire L, Bataller G, Berard P, Gibert B (1989b) French expérience with uranium compounds. Radiat Prot Dosim 26(1/4):49–56.Google Scholar
  33. Chassard-Bouchaud C (1982) Concentration de l’uranium par les crustacés. Etude structurale, ultrastructurale et microanalytique par emmission ionique second­aire et par spectrographie des rayons X. CR Acad Sci Paris 294(III):915-­924.Google Scholar
  34. Chassard-Bouchaud C (1983) Cellular and sub-cellular localization of uranium in the crab Carcinus maenas: a microanalytical study. Mar Pollut Bull 14(4):133-­136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Chassard-Bouchaud C (1988) Metabolism and citotoxicity of uranium in Mytilus sp.: a structural, ultrastructural and microanalytical study. Oceanis 14(1):167–195.Google Scholar
  36. Coggle JE (1971) Biological effects of radiation. Wykeham, London.Google Scholar
  37. Cothern CR, Lappenbush WL (1983) Occurrence of uranium in drinking water in the U.S. Health Phys 45:83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Coulon R (1990) Bilan de la contamination des produits alimentaires. In: Les Élé­ments Radioactifs dans l’Environnement. Conférence du 17 Octobre 1990 à Paris, Société Française d’Energie Nucléaire.Google Scholar
  39. Deby C (1991) De l’oxygène. Recherche (Paris) 228(22):57–64.Google Scholar
  40. Delétang J, Ruellan A (1967) Les phénomènes d’échange de cations et d’anions dans les sols. ORSTOM, Paris.Google Scholar
  41. Doury A (1972) Une méthode de calcul pratique et générale pour la prévision numér­ique des pollutions véhiculées par l’atmosphère. Rapport CEA R4280, CEN, Saclay.Google Scholar
  42. Doury A (1980) Pratiques françaises en matière d’évaluation de la pollution at­mosphérique potentielle liée aux activités nucléaires. Rapport CEA/IPSN/DSN 397, Commisariat a l’energie Atomique, Saclay.Google Scholar
  43. Durbin PA (1984) Metabolic models for uranium. Biokinetics and analysis of ura­nium in man. USUR-05, Hanford Environmental Health Foundation, Richland, WA.Google Scholar
  44. Durbin PW, Wrenn ME (1975) Metabolism and effects of uranium in animals, vol 93. Energy Research and Development Administration, Arlington, VA, pp 67­-129.Google Scholar
  45. Dutrillaux B (1987) Conséquences génétiques prévisibles de l’irradiation collective. In: Conséquences médicales de l’accident nucléaire de Tchernobyl. Société Fran; caise de Biophysique et de Médecine Nucléaire, Créteil, 14–15 Mai 1987.Google Scholar
  46. Edgington DN, Robbins JA (1975) The behavior of plutonium and other long-lived radionuclides in Lake Michigan. II. Patterns of deposition into the aquatic envi­ronment. In: Impacts of Nuclear Releases into the aquatic environment, Ota­niemi, June 30-July 4. IAEA, Vienna, pp 193–212.Google Scholar
  47. Elder JF, Collins JJ (1991) Freshwater mollusks as indicators of bioavailability and toxicity of metals in surface-water systems. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 122: 37–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. European Economic Community (EEC) (1979) Méthodologie pour l’évaluation des conséquences radiologiques des rejets d’effluents radioactifs en fonctionnement normal. Report V/3865/79-FR, EN, Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique and the National Radiological Protection Board, Brussels.Google Scholar
  49. EEC (1984) EEC Directive 79/831, Annex V, Part C: Methods for the determination of ecotoxicity. Level 1, earthworms—artificial soil test. DGXI/128/82 Rev. 5, Commission of the European Communities, Brussels.Google Scholar
  50. Finkel MP (1953) Relative biological effectiveness of radium and other alpha emit­ters in CF. 1. Female mice. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 83:494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Fisher RD (1987) Toxicology of uranium: a review. In: Seiler S (ed) Handbook on the Toxicity of Inorganic Compounds. Industrial Engineering Series. Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  52. Forstner U, Wittman GTW (1981) Metal pollution in the aquatic environment, 2nd Ed. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  53. Foulquier L, Philippot JC, Baudin-Jaulent Y (1982) Métrologie de l’environnement. Echantillonnage et préparation d’organismes d’eau douce. Mesure des radio­nucléides émetteurs gamma. Rapport CEA R5164, CEA, Paris.Google Scholar
  54. Galle P (1982) Metabolism and toxicity of uranium. In: Proceedings, Meeting on radionuclide toxicity (Jan. 1982, Crétail, France). Masson, Paris, pp 224–240.Google Scholar
  55. Gambini DJ, Granier R (1990) Applied Radiobiology and Radiation Protection. Horwood, Chichester.Google Scholar
  56. Gambini DJ, Granier R (1992) Manuel pratique de radioprotection. Editions Médi­cales Internationales, Paris.Google Scholar
  57. Goats GC, Edward CA (1988) A prediction of field toxicity of chemicals to earth­worms by laboratory methods. In: Edwards CA, Newhauser EF (eds) Earth­worms in Waste and Environmental Management. SPB Academic, The Hague, The Netherlands, pp 283–294.Google Scholar
  58. Goering PL, Mistri P, Fowler BA (1987) Mechanisms of metal-induced cell injury. In: Haley TJ, Berndt WO (eds) Handbook of Toxicology. Hemisphere Publish­ing, New York, pp 384–425.Google Scholar
  59. Goswani SC, Gulati KL, Nagpaul KK (1977) Estimation of uranium and boron contents in plants and soils by nuclear particle etch technique. Plant Soil 48:709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gough LP, Severson RC (1976) Impact of point source emission from phosphate processing on the element content of plants and soils. In: Hemphill DD (ed) Trace Substances in Environmental Health, vol 10. University of Missouri, Co­lumbia.Google Scholar
  61. Graney RL, Cherry DS, Cairns J Jr (1983) Heavy metal indicator potential of the asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) in artificial stream system. Hydrobiologia 102: 81–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Grauby A (1972) Compartimentation de la radioactivité dans le milieu terrestre. Evacuation des déchets radioactifs. Proceedings, Réunion d’Information de l’AIEN, Avril 1972. Organisation pour la Cooperation et le Developpement Éco­nomique (OCDE), Paris.Google Scholar
  63. Gruzdev BI (1965) Accumulation of uranium, radium and thorium by plants and the distribution of these radioelements in the system soil-plants in some natural phytocénoses. Microelem Nat Radiat 15:111.Google Scholar
  64. Guary JC Fraizier A (1975) Observations in situ sur les mécanismes de transfert du plutonium en milieu marin. Note CEA-N-1820, CEN-CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses.Google Scholar
  65. Hamilton EI (1972) The concentration of U in man and his diet. Health Phys 22: 149–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Harmsen K, De Haan FAM (1980) Occurrence and behavior of uranium and tho­rium in soil and water. Neth J Agric Sci 28:40.Google Scholar
  67. Harrison JD, Stather JW (1981) The gastrointestinal absorption of protactinium, uranium and neptunium in the hamster. Radiat Res 88:47–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hartley DM, Johnston JB (1983) Use of the freshwater clam Corbicula manilensis as a monitor for organochlorine pesticides. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 31:33­-40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hazardous Substance Data Bank (HSDB) (1994) U.S. National Library of Medi­cine. Distributed by Silverplatter Information Ltd., Norwood, MA.Google Scholar
  70. Hetherington JA, Jefferies DF, Lovett MB (1975) Some investigations into the behavior of plutonium in the marine environment. In: Impacts of Nuclear Re­leases into the Aquatic Environment, Otaniemi, June 30-July 4. IAEA, Vienna, pp 193–212.Google Scholar
  71. Hodge H (1973) A history of uranium poisoning. In: Hodge HEC, Stannard JN, Hursh JB (eds) Uranium, Plutonium Transplutonic Elements. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, vol 36. Springer-Verlag Berlin, pp 197–239.Google Scholar
  72. Hodje H, Leach LJ, Sylvester GE, Wilson HB, Yuile C (1970) A five year inhalation study with natural UO2. Retention and biological effects in the monkey, dog and rats. Health Phys 18:599–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hodje H, Leach LJ, Sylvester GE, Wilson HB, Yuile C (1973) A five year inhalation study with natural UO2. Post-exposure retention and biological effects in the monkey, dog and rats. Health Phys 25:239–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hursh JB, Neuman WR, Toribara T, Wilson H, Waterhouse C (1969) Oral inges­tion of uranium by man. Health Phys 17:619–621.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Hursh JB, Spoor NL (1973) Data on man. In: Hodge HEC, Stannard JN, Hursh JB (eds) Uranium, Plutonium Transplutonic Elements. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, vol 36. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 197–239.Google Scholar
  76. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (1975) Report of the task group on reference man. Publication ICPR 23, Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  77. ICRP (1977) Recommendations. Publication ICPR 26. Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  78. ICRP (1979) Limits for intakes of radionuclides by workers. Publication ICPR 30, Part 1, Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  79. ICRP (1980/81) Limits for intakes of radionuclides by workers. Publication ICPR 30, Part 2 and supplement. Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  80. ICRP (1985) Quantitative basis for developing a unified index of harm. Publication ICPR 45. Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  81. ICRP (1990) Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Publication ICPR 60. Ann ICRP 21:1–3.Google Scholar
  82. Iskra AA, Bakhurov VG, Kulikov NV (1969) The role of fresh-water vegetation in the migration and translocation of natural radioactive elements in a body of water. Actes du symposium international de radioécologie, Cadarache, 8–12/09/ 1963, session II, pp 251–268.Google Scholar
  83. Jammet H, Le Go R, Lafuma J (1977) Accidents radiologiques. Conduites à tenir en cas d’irradiation externe accidentelle ou de contamination radioactive acciden­telle. Rev Gén Nucl 5:104.Google Scholar
  84. Jones ES (1966) Microscopic and autoradiographic studies of distribution of ura­nium in the rat kidney. Health Phys 12:1437–1451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Journal Officiel de la République Française (JORF) (1988) Décret 66450 du 20 Juin 1966 relatif aux principes généraux de protection contre les rayonnements ionisants, modifié par le décret 88521 du 18 Avril 1988, JORF, Paris.Google Scholar
  86. JORF (1989) Décret du 3 Janvier 1989 relatif aux eaux destinées à la consommation humaine à l’exclusion des eaux minérales naturelles, pp 125–131, JORF, Paris.Google Scholar
  87. JORF (1990) Hygiène et sécurité. Protection contre les rayonnements ionisants, No. 1420, JORF, Paris.Google Scholar
  88. Kabata-Pendidas A, Pendidas H (1984) Trace elements in soils and plants. CRC Press, London.Google Scholar
  89. Kato A, Hishida A, Nakajima T (1994) Effects of oxygen free radical scavengers on uranium induced acute renal failure in rats. Free Radical Biol Med 16(6):855–859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Kisielesky WE, William GF, William PN, James SA (1952) The metabolism of the uranium 233 in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 104:459–467.Google Scholar
  91. Kopp P, Oestling O, Burkart W (1989) Availability to and uptake by plants of radionuclides under different environmental conditions. Toxicol Environ Chem 23:53–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Lallemand J (1990) Effets des rayonnements ionisants sur le développement in utero. Lyon Pharm 41:93–100.Google Scholar
  93. La Touche YD, Willis DL, Dawydiak OI (1987) Absorption and biokinetics of U in rats following an oral administration of uranyl nitrate solution. Health Phys 53: 147–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Laul JC, Weimer WC, Ranticelli LA (1979) Biogeochemical distribution of rare earth and other trace elements in plants and soils. In: Ahrens LH (ed) Origin and Distribution of the Elements, vol 11. Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  95. Leach LJ, Yuile C, Sylvester GE, Wilson HB (1970) A five year inhalation study with natural UO2 dust. 1. Retention and biologic effects in the monkey, dog, and rats. Health Phys 18:599–612.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Leach LJ, Yuile C, Sylvester GE, Wilson HB (1973) A five year inhalation study with natural UO2 dust. 2. Post-exposure retention and biologic effects in the monkey, dog, and rats. Health Phys 25:239–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Leppard GG, Burninson BK (1983) Bioavailability, trace element associations with colloids and an emerging interest in colloidal organic fibrils. In: Leppard GG (ed) Trace Element Speciation in Surface Waters and Its Ecological Implications. Plenum Press, New York, pp 105–122.Google Scholar
  98. Looser MO, Parriaux A, Bensimon M (1993) Survey of the landfill confinement with inorganic traces Geoconfine 93, Balkema, Rotterdam.Google Scholar
  99. Lucas HF, Rowland RE, Stehney AF (1978) Dose-response relationships for female radium dial workers. Radiat Res 76:368–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Luessenhop AJ, Gallimore JC, Sweet HW, Struxness EG, Robinson J (1958) The toxicity in man of hexavalent uranium following intravenous administration. Am J Roentgenol 79:83–100.Google Scholar
  101. Mantel N, Bryan WR (1961) Safety testing of carcinogenic agents. J Natl Cancer Inst 27:455–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Maslov VI, Gruzdev BI, Maslova KI, Nikiforov VS, Vekhovskaya IN (1979) The role of muriform rodents in the biogenic migration of uranium, radium and thorium under different radioecological conditions. Actes du symposium inter­national de radioécologie, Cadarache, 8–12/09/1963, session V, pp 923–960.Google Scholar
  103. Mays CW, Rowland RE, Steehney AF (1985) Cancer risk from the lifetime intake of Ra and U isotopes. Health Phys 48:635.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Miller WM, Alexander R, Chapman N, McKinley I, Smellie J (1994) Radionuclide release and transport. In: Natural Analogues in the Geological Disposal of Ra­dioactive Wastes. Studies in Environmental Science, vol 57. Elsevier, Amster­dam, pp 169–267.Google Scholar
  105. Mole RH (1982) Consequences of pre-natal radiation exposure for post-natal devel­opment, a review. Int J Radiat Biol 42:1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Moore LL, William RL (1992) A rapid method for determining nanogram quantities of uranium in urine using the kinetic phosphorescence analyzer. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 156(1):223–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Myers DS, Silver WJ, Coles DG, Lamson KC, McIntyre DR, Mendoza B (1976) Evaluation of the use of sludge containing plutonium as a soil conditioner for food crops. In: Transuranium Nuclides in the Environment, San Francisco, 17­21 November 1975. AIEA, Vienna, pp 311–323.Google Scholar
  108. Nash DB (1981) Brief description of research papers accepted for publication during 1980. Annual report. Department of Radiation Biology and Biophysics, Roches­ter University, New York.Google Scholar
  109. National Academy of Sciences (1972) National Research Council. Committee on the biological effects of ionizing radiations: The effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiations (BEIR I), National Academy of Sciences, Washington.Google Scholar
  110. National Academy of Sciences (1980) National Research Council. Committee on the biological effects of ionizing radiations: The effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiations (BEIR III), National Academy Press, Wash­ington.Google Scholar
  111. National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) (1987) Committed doses to se­lected organs and committed effective doses from intakes of radionuclides. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London.Google Scholar
  112. Neuman WF (1949) The distribution and excretion of uranium. In: Voegtlin C, Hodge HC (eds) Pharmacology and Toxicology of Uranium Compounds. Mc­Graw-Hill, New York, pp 701–728.Google Scholar
  113. Nordstrom DK, Smellie JA, Wolf M (1990) Chemical and isotopic composition of groundwaters and their seasonal variability at the Osamu Utsumi mine and Mor­odo Ferro analog study site. SBK Tech Rep 15:1–111, Pacos de Caldas, Brazil.Google Scholar
  114. Novikova AP, Tixaya MG (1963) The effect of difficultly soluble uranium com­pounds on the organism with inhalation. Proceedings of the Symposium on Radiological Health and Safety in Mining and Milling of Nuclear Materials, Vienna, Austria. August 26–31, 1963 (ORNL-tr-26).Google Scholar
  115. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (1993) OECD guideline for testing of chemicals. Fish, acute toxicity test. No. 203, OECD, Paris, France.Google Scholar
  116. Ortega A, Domingo JL, Llobet JM, Tomas JM, Paternain JL (1989) Evaluation of the oral toxicity of uranium in a 4-week drinking-water study in rats. Bull Envi­ron Contam Toxicol 42:935–941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Otake M, Yoshimaru H, Schuh WJ (1988) Severe mental retardation among the prenatally exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: a comparison of the T65DR and DS86 dosimetry systems. RERF TR 16–87, Radiation Effects Reseach Foundation, Hiroshima, pp 1–40.Google Scholar
  118. Outridge PM, Noller BN (1991) Accumulation of toxic trace elements by freshwater vascular plants. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 121:1–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Pannetier R (1980) Vademecum du Technicien Nucléaire, 2nd Ed, vol 2. Éditions du Bastet, Paris, pp 538–553.Google Scholar
  120. Pannetier R (1981) Vademecum du Technicien; Connaissances et Savoir-Faire de Base. Éditious du Bastet, Paris, pp 270–274.Google Scholar
  121. Pannetier R (1982) Vademecum du Technicien Nucléaire, 2nd Ed, vol. 3. Éditions du Bastet, Paris, pp 338–344, 490–502, 682–695.Google Scholar
  122. Pascal P (1960) Isotopes et minerais d’uranium. In: Nouveau Traité de Chimie Minérale, vol XV, fasc 1. Uranium. Masson, Paris, pp 20–94.Google Scholar
  123. Pasquier C, Bourguignon M (1979) Etude expérimentale de la fixation rénale après contamination aigu par l’uranium influence de la solubilité de UOZ+, UO3, U3O8. Vol. 237. IAEA, Vienna, p 15.Google Scholar
  124. Pasquier C, Mestries JC, Carainis M (1979) Traitement des contaminations aiguës à l’uranium. Essai de l’acetazolamide. SSA Tray Sci 1:3.Google Scholar
  125. Pesson P (1976) La Pollution des Eaux Continentales. Gauthier-Villars, Paris.Google Scholar
  126. Piechowsky J, Menoux B (1984) Retention et excretion des radionucléides après incorporation par inhalation chez l’homme adulte. Report R5266, CEA, Paris.Google Scholar
  127. Polikarpov GG (1966) Radioecology of aquatic organisms. North Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  128. Poston TM (1982) Observations on the bioaccumulation potential of thorium and uranium in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 528: 682–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Priest ND, Howells GR, Green D, Haines JW (1982) Uranium in bone: Metabolic and autoradiographic studies in the rat. Hum Toxicol 1:97–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Pujol E (1988) Toxicologie de l’uranium et de ses divers composés. Analyse et synthèse bibliographique. CEA/IPSN/DPS, Service d’Hygiène Industrielle, Paris.Google Scholar
  131. Rediske JH, Selders AA (1953) The absorption and translocation of cesium by plants. General Electric Co., Richland, WA.Google Scholar
  132. Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) (1994) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Distributed by Silverplatter Infor­mation Ltd., Norwood, MA.Google Scholar
  133. Robeau D (1990) Mouvement des radionucléides dans l’environnement: bilan de leur distribution dans les différents milieux. In: Les éléments radioactifs dans l’environnement, Conférence du 17 Octobre 1990, Paris, Société Française d’E­nergie Nucléaire.Google Scholar
  134. Roberts BL, Dorough WH (1984) Relative toxicities of chemicals to the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Environ Toxicol Chem 3:67–68.Google Scholar
  135. Roberts L (1987) Atomic bomb doses reassessed. Science 238:1649–1651.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Rouston RC, Jansen G, Robinson V (1977) Am-241, Np-237 and Tc-99 sorption on two United States subsoils from different weathering intensity areas. Health Phys 33:311–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Shacklette HT, Erdman JA, Harms TF (1978) Trace elements in plant foodstuffs. In: Oehme FW (ed) Toxicity of Heavy Metals in the Environment, part I. Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  138. Sheppard SC, Evenden WG (1988) Critical compilation and review of plant/soil concentration ratios for uranium, thorium and lead. J Environ Radioact 8:255–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Sheppard SC, Evenden WG, Anderson AJ (1992) Multiple assays of uranium toxicity in soil. Environ Toxicol Water Qual 7:275–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Simmonds JR, Linsley GS, Jones JA (1979) A dynamic modelling system for the transfer of radioactivity in terrestrial food chains. Nucl Saf, 22(6):766–777.Google Scholar
  141. Stroo WE, Hook JB (1977) Enzymes of renal origin in urine as indicators of nephrotoxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 39(3):423–434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Sullivan MF (1980) Absorption of actinides elements from the gastro-intestinal tract of neonatal animals. Health Phys 38:173–185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Tessier A, Campbell PGC, Bisson M (1979) Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Anal Chem 51(7):844–851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Thornton I (1974) Biogeochemical and soil ingestion studies in relation to the trace-element nutrition in livestock. In: Hoekstraw W (ed) Trace Element Metabolism in Animals. University Park Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  145. Thun MJ, Baker DB, Smith AB, Halpherin W (1981) NIOSH Health hazards evalu­ation report. HETA 81.055.954Google Scholar
  146. Triulzi C, Tassi Pelati L, Mezzadri MG (1969) Laboratory studies on vertical distri­bution of Sr, Cs, Ce, Pm, Eu in traced cores of marine sediments. Arch Ocean­ogr Limnol 16:103–115.Google Scholar
  147. Trudinger PA, Swaine DJ (eds) (1979) Biogeochemical Cycling of Mineral-Forming Elements. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  148. Tubiana M (1979) Problèmes posés par l’irradiation des femmes enceintes. Effets des radiations ionisantes sur l’embryon et le foetus. Bull Cancer 66:155–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Tubiana M, Bertin M (1989) Radiobiologie, Radioprotection (Coll. Que sais-je?), 2nd Ed. Presses Universitaires de France, Paris.Google Scholar
  150. Tubiana M, Dutreux J, Wambersie A (1986) Radiobiologie. Hermann, Paris.Google Scholar
  151. Ville P (1994) Marqueurs biochimiques et toxicité subaigüe chez deux espèces de lombriciens: etude fondamentale et applications. PhD dissertation, University Bordeaux I, France.Google Scholar
  152. Wahlgren MA, Albets JJ, Nelson DM, Orlandini KA (1976) Study of the behaviour of transuranics and possible chemical homologues in Lake Michigan water and biota. In: Transuranium Nuclides in the Environment. San Francisco, 17–21 November 1975, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, pp 9–24, 107–120.Google Scholar
  153. Waite DT, Joshi SR, Sommerstad H, Wobeser G, Gajadhar AA (1990) A toxicological examination of whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and northern pike (Esox lucius) exposed to uranium mine tailings. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 19:578–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Walinder G (1989) Metabolism and sites of effects of uranium after incorporation along different routes in mice, rabbits and piglets. Radiat Prot Dosim 26(1/4): 89–95.Google Scholar
  155. Walinder G, Hammarström L, Billandelle U (1967) Incorporation of uranium. I. Distribution of intravenously and intraperitoneally injected uranium. Br J Indust Med 24:305–312.Google Scholar
  156. Welford GA, Baird R (1967) Uranium levels in human diet and biological materials. Health Phys 13:13–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Wells JR, Kaufman PB, Jones JD (1980) Heavy metals contents in some macro­phytes from Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron, USA). Aquat Bot 9:185–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Wildung RE, Garland TR (1980) The relationship of microbial processes to the fate and behavior of transuranic elements in soils and plants. In: Hanson WC (ed) Transuranic Elements in the Environment. ERDA Publ Ser TIC-22800, NTIS, Springfield, VA.Google Scholar
  159. Willis DL (1985) Pharmacokinetics and chemical toxicity of U-238 in drinking water. Quarterly Progress Reports, USEPA, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  160. Wrenn MDE (1984) Biokinetics and analysis of uranium in man. In: Proceedings of a colloquium held at Richland, WA, vol 47. Hanford Environmental Health Foundation, Richland, WA.Google Scholar
  161. Wrenn MDE, Durbin PW, Howard B, Lipsztein J, Rundo J, Still ET, Willis DL (1985) Metabolism of ingested U and Ra. Health Phys 48:601–633.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Wrenn MDE, Durbin PW, Willis DL, Singh NP (1987) The potential toxicity of uranium in water. Am Water Works Assoc J 79(4):177–184.Google Scholar
  163. Wrenn ME, Singh NP, Ruth H, Rallison ML, Burleigh DP (1989) Gastrointestinal absorption of soluble uranium from drinking water by man. Radiat Prot Dosim 26(1/4): 119–122.Google Scholar
  164. Wyatt JH (1975) Ultrastructure changes produced by the action of uranyl acetate on the human erythrocytes in vitro. Report AAEC/E 346, XXIIIème Congrès du Groupe Français des Pesticides, Lyon.Google Scholar
  165. Yuile CL (1973) Animal experiments. In: Hodge HC, Stannard JN, Hursh JB (eds) Uranium, Plutonium, Transplutonic elements. Springer-Verlag, New York, p 179.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Ribera
    • 1
  • Florence Labrot
    • 2
  • Gérard Tisnerat
    • 2
  • Jean-François Narbonne
    • 3
  1. 1.ADEC ToxBordeauxFrance
  2. 2.CEA/CESTALe BarpFrance
  3. 3.Laboratoire de Toxicologie Alimentaire, ISTABUniversité Bordeaux ITalenceFrance

Personalised recommendations