Equating and equivalence of tests
A test form serves its purpose of assessing an individual’s skill, ability, or knowledge of a well-defined domain only if the test scores satisfy a number of conditions. First, the test scores have to be strongly associated (highly correlated) with the measured trait. This trait is an inherently unobservable quantity. How closely it is approximated by a test score (on average, in a population of examinees) is in most cases a matter of conjecture. At best, some faith in a test score can be generated by pursuing and documenting the usual elements of quality control: review of the composition of the test and scrutiny of every step in the test assembly.
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