The Diagnostic Evaluation of Patients with Heart Failure

  • James B. Young
  • John A. Farmer

Abstract

Sir Thomas Lewis began his seminal text, Diseases of the Heart, emphasizing that the central problem in patients with heart disease is recognizing and quantifying severity of heart failure as early as possible.1 Braunwald highlighted this fact, contemporizing the point by stating “. . . More than a half century later, the situation has changed little, in that a principle complication of virtually all forms of heart disease is heart failure . . .”2 Paul Dudley White may have only slightly overstated the issue when he noted “. . . myocardial insufficiency giving rise to congestive heart failure is the commonest of the important functional disorders of the heart.”3 Obviously, it is important to recognize this condition, although the heart failure syndrome has changed today. Now, patients with heart failure are older, have more ischemic heart disease, less valvular pathology, and are on many medications.4

Keywords

Anemia Bilirubin Proteinuria Perforation Constipation 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • James B. Young
  • John A. Farmer

There are no affiliations available

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