Advertisement

Living Fossils pp 170-180 | Cite as

“Notidanus”

  • John G. Maisey
  • Katherine E. Wolfram
Part of the Casebooks in Earth Sciences book series (CASEBOOKS)

Abstract

The old lithographic limestone quarries around Solnhofen, Bavaria, are perhaps best known for the beautiful Archaeopteryx fossils that have been found there. For us, however, the Solnhofen Limestone provides an intriguing glimpse of a Late Jurassic shark fauna that contains early representatives of several extant families, including horn-sharks (Heterodontidae), monk-fish (Squatinidae), carpet sharks (Orectolobiformes), dogfishes (Scyliorhinidae), primitive rays (batoids), and also hexanchoids (cow-sharks, “notidanids”). Any of these groups would be worth consideration here, since all of them include fossil species that are “anatomically very similar (bordering on identity)” to living species, as requested for this paper. Apart from the heterodontids, however, only the hexanchoids have been credited with the venerable and patriarchal status of “living fossil.”

Keywords

Lateral Tooth Vertebral Centra Tooth Morphology Fossil Fish Living Fossil 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature

  1. Agassiz, L. 1833–1844. Récherches sur les poissons fossiles. Neuchatel 5:1420.Google Scholar
  2. Applegate, S. P. 1965. Tooth terminology and variation in sharks with special reference to the sand shark, Carcharias taurus Rafinesque. Contrib. Sci. Los Angeles Co. Mus. 86:3–18.Google Scholar
  3. Applegate, S., Uyeno, T. 1968. The first discovery of a fossil tooth belonging to the shark genus Heptranchias, with a new Pristiophorus spine, both from the Oligocene of Japan. Bull. Nat. Sci. Mus. 11:195–200.Google Scholar
  4. Arambourg, C. 1952. Les vertébrés fossiles des gisements des phosphates (Maroc, Algérie, Tunisie). Serv. Geol. Maroc, Notes et Mém. 92:1–372.Google Scholar
  5. Backus, R. H. 1957. Notes on western north Atlantic sharks. Copeia (3):246–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barthel, K. W. 1970. On the deposition of the Solnhofen lithographic limestone. Neues Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh. 135:1–18.Google Scholar
  7. Barthel, K. W. 1972. The genesis of the Solnhofen lithographic limestone (Lower Tithonian): further data and comments. Neues Jb. Geol. Paläont. Mh. 133–145.Google Scholar
  8. Bass, A. J., d’Aubrey, J. D., Kistnasamy, N. 1975. Sharks of the east coast of southern Africa. v. The families Hexanchidae, Chlamydoselachidae, Heterodontidae, Pristiophoridae and Squatinidae. Oceanogr. Res. Inst. Investig. Rept. 43:1–50.Google Scholar
  9. de Beaumont, G. 1960a. Un Notidanus de l’Éocène du Mont Bolca. Compte Rendu de la Société Paléontologique Suisse, Assemblée annuelle. Eclog. Geol. Helv. 53:308–314.Google Scholar
  10. de Beaumont, G. 1960b. Contribution a l’Étude des Genres Orthacodus Woodw. et Notidanus Cuv. (Selachii). Mém. Suisses Paleont. 77:1–46.Google Scholar
  11. Beyrich, H. E. 1849. Reise nach Kelheim, Ingolstadt, Eichstädt, Solnhofen und Pappenheim. Zeitschr. Deut. Geol. Gesell. 1:423–447.Google Scholar
  12. Bigelow, H. B., Schroeder, W. C. 1948. Fishes of the Western North Atlantic: no. 1 sharks. Mem. Sears Found. Mar. Res. 17:576.Google Scholar
  13. Blot, J. 1980. La faune ichthyologique des gisements du Monte Bolca (Province de Verone, Italie). Catalogue systematique presentant l’état actuel des récherches concernant cette faune. Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 2:339–396.Google Scholar
  14. Brown, C. 1900. Über das Genus Hybodus und seine systematische Stellung. Palaeontographica 46:149–174.Google Scholar
  15. Cappetta, H. 1975. Sélaciens et Holocephale du Gargasien de la region de Gargas (Vaucluse). Geol. Méditer. 2:115–134.Google Scholar
  16. Cappetta, H. 1976. Sélaciens nouveaux di London Clay de l’Essex Ypresien du Bassin de Londres. Geobios 5:551–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cappetta, H. 1980. Les sélaciens du Crétacé superieur du Liban. Palaeontographica Abt. A. 168:69–148.Google Scholar
  18. Case, G. R. 1980. Selachian Fauna from the Trent Formation, Lower Miocene (Aquitanian) of Eastern North Carolina. Palaeontogr. Abt. A. Palaeozool.-Stratigr. 171:75–103.Google Scholar
  19. Compagno, L. J. V. 1973. Interrelationships of living elasmobranchs. In: Greenwood, P. H., Miles, R. S., Patterson, C. (eds.), Interrelationships of fishes. Zool. J. Linnean Soc. 53:15–61.Google Scholar
  20. Compagno, L. J. V. 1977. Phyletic relationships of living sharks and rays. Amer. Zool. 17:303–322.Google Scholar
  21. Cuvier, G. 1817. Le règne animal distribué d’après son organisation, pour servir de base à l’histoire naturelle des animaux et d’introduction a l’anatomie comparée. Paris 2:532.Google Scholar
  22. Davis, J. W. 1887. The fossil fishes of the Chalk of Mount Lebanon in Syria. Sci. Trans. Roy. Dubl. Soc. 2:457–636.Google Scholar
  23. Davis, J. W. 1888. On fossil fish-remains from the Tertiary and Cretaceo-Tertiary formations of New Zealand. Sci. Trans. Roy. Dubl. Soc. 4:1–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Eastman, C. R. 1904. Descriptions of Bolca Fishes. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 46:1–36.Google Scholar
  25. Edgeworth, F. H. 1935. The cranial muscles of vertebrates. Cambridge: University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Egerton, P. M. G. 1845. Description of Hybodus found by Mr. Boscawen Ibbetson in the Isle of Wight. Geol. Soc. Lond. Quart. J. 1:197–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Forster, G. R., Badcock, J. R., Longbottom, M. R., Merrett, N. R., Thomson, K. S. 1970. Results of the Royal Society Indian Ocean Deep Slope Fishing Expedition, 1969. Roy. Soc. Lond. Proc. Ser. B 175:367–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fourmanoir, P. 1961. Requins de la cote ouest de Madagascar. Mém. Inst. Sci. Madag. 4:1–81.Google Scholar
  29. Fowler, H. W. 1911. A description of the fossil fish remains of the Cretaceous, Eocene and Miocene formations of New Jersey. Geol. Surv. New Jersey Bull. 4:192.Google Scholar
  30. Fraas, O. 1855. Beiträge zum obersten weissen Jura in Schwaben. Jahresh. Vereins Vaterl. Naturk. Württemberg, Stuttgart 11:77–107.Google Scholar
  31. Garman, S. W. 1885. Chlamydoselachus anguineus Garm., a living species of cladodont shark. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 12:1–35.Google Scholar
  32. Gegenbaur, C. 1872. Untersuchungen zur vergleichenden Anatomie der Wirbelthiere. III. Das Kopfskelet der Selachier, ein Beitrag zur Erkenntniss der Genese des Kopfskeletes der Wirbelthiere. Leipzig: Wilhelm Englemann.Google Scholar
  33. Goodrich, E. S. 1909. Cyclostomes and fishes, p. 519. In: Lankester, E. R. (ed.), A treatise on zoology, Vol. 9, Vertebrata craniata.Google Scholar
  34. Gudger, E. W., Smith, B. G. 1933. The natural history of the frilled shark Chlamydoselachus anguineus. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 5:245–319.Google Scholar
  35. Günther, A. 1870. Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum, Vol. VIII. Brit. Mus. Publ. 25:549.Google Scholar
  36. Hasse, C. 1882. Das Natürliche System der Elasmobranchier-Besonderer Theil; I. Lieferung Jena: Gustav Fischer 1–94.Google Scholar
  37. Haswell, W. A. 1885. Studies on the elasmobranch skeleton. Proc. Linnean Soc. New South Wales 9:71–119.Google Scholar
  38. Herald, E. S. 1968. Size and aggressiveness of the sevengill shark (Notorynchus maculatus). Copeia (2):412–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Herald, E. S., Ripley, W. E. 1951. The relative abundance of sharks and bat stingrays in San Francisco Bay. Calif. Fish and Game 37:315–329.Google Scholar
  40. Herman, J. 1975. Les Sélachiens des terrains néocretacés et paléocènes de Belgique et des contrées limitrophes. Éléments d’une biostratigraphie intercontinentale. Mémoires pour servir a l’explication des Cartes geologiques et minières de la Belgique. Mem. 15:1–450.Google Scholar
  41. Holmgren, N. 1941. Studies on the head in fishes. Part II. Comparative anatomy of the adult selachian skull with remarks on the dorsal fins in sharks. Acta Zool. 22:1–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Huxley, T. H. 1876. On Ceratodus forsten, with observations on the classification of fishes. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1876 24–59.Google Scholar
  43. Jaekel, O. M. J. 1906. Neue Rekonstruktionen von Pleuracanthus sessilis und von Polyacrodus (Hybodus) hauffianus. Sitz. Ber. Gesell. Naturf. Freunde Ber. 1906 155–159.Google Scholar
  44. Janicke, V. 1969. Untersuchungen über den Biotop der Solnhofener Plattenkalke. Mitt. Bayer. Staatsamml. Paläont. Hist. Geol. 9:117–181.Google Scholar
  45. Jordan, D. S. 1907. The fossil fishes of California with supplementary notes on other species of extinct fishes. U. Calif. Pub. Bull. Dep. Geol. 5:95–144.Google Scholar
  46. Kemp, N. R. 1978. Detailed comparisons of the dentitions of extant hexanchoid sharks and Tertiary hexanchid teeth from South Australia and Victoria, Australia (Selachii: Hexanchidae). Mem. Nat. Mus. Vict. 39:61–83.Google Scholar
  47. Kemp, N. R. 1982. Chondrichthyans in the Tertiary of Australia, pp. 87–118. In: Rich, P. V., Thompson, E. M. (eds.), The fossil vertebrate record of Australia. Clayton: Monash U.Google Scholar
  48. Koken, E. 1907. Ueber Hybodus. Geol. Palaeont. Abh. 5:261–276.Google Scholar
  49. Lawley, R. 1875. Monografia del genere Notidanus rinvenuri alio stato fossile del Pliocene subappennino Toscano. Firenze.Google Scholar
  50. Luther, A. 1908. Untersuchungen über die vom N. trigeminus innervierte Muskulatur der Selachier (Haie und Rochen). Acta Soc. Sci. Fenn. 36:1–168.Google Scholar
  51. Mackie, S. J. 1863. On a new species of Hybodus from the lower chalk. Geologist. 6:332–347.Google Scholar
  52. Maisey, J. G. 1980. An evaluation of jaw suspension in sharks. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Novit. 2706:1–17.Google Scholar
  53. Maisey, J. G. 1982. The anatomy and interrelationships of Mesozoic hybodont sharks. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Novit. 2724:1–48.Google Scholar
  54. Maisey, J. G. 1983. Cranial anatomy of Hybodus basanus Egerton from the Lower Cretaceous of England. Amer. Mus. of Nat. Hist. Novit. 2758:1–64.Google Scholar
  55. Moss, S. A. 1972. The feeding mechanisms of sharks of the Family Carcharhinidae. J. Zool. 167:423–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Parker, T. J. 1891. On the presence of a sternum in Notidanus indicus. Nature 43:142, 516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Pledge, N. S. 1967. Fossil elasmobranch teeth of South Australia and their stratigraphie distribution. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. 91:135–160.Google Scholar
  58. Quenstedt, F. A. 1858. Der Jura. Tübingen: Laupp’ sehe Buchhandlung.Google Scholar
  59. Ridewood, W. G. 1921. On the calcification of the vertebral centra in sharks and rays. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. 210:311–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Romer, A. S. 1966. Vertebrate paleontology. Chicago and London: Univ. of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  61. Schaeffer, B. 1967. Comments on elasmobranch evolution. 3–35 In: Gilbert, P. W., Mathewson, R. F., Rall, D. P. (eds.), Sharks, skates and rays. Baltimore: John Hopkins Press.Google Scholar
  62. Schaeffer, B. 1981. The xenacanth shark neurocranium, with comments on elasmobranch monophyly. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 169:3–66.Google Scholar
  63. Schweizer, R. 1964. Die Elasmobranchier und Holocephalen aus den Nusplinger Plattenkalken. Palaeontographica Abt. 123:58–110.Google Scholar
  64. Smith, B. G. 1942. The heterodontid sharks: their natural history, and the external development of Heterodontus japonicus based on notes and drawings by Bashford Dean. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bashford Dean Memorial volume: Archaic fishes, part II. 8:649–784.Google Scholar
  65. Springer, S., Waller, R. A. 1969. Hexanchus vitulus, a new sixgill shark from the Bahamas. Bull. Mar. Sci. 19:159–174.Google Scholar
  66. Thenius, E. 1973. Fossils and the life of the past. London: English Universities Press Ltd.Google Scholar
  67. Thies, D. 1983. Jurazeitliche Neoselachier aus Deutschland und S. England. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 58:1–116.Google Scholar
  68. Vincent, G. 1876. Description de la faune de l’étage Landénien inférieur de Belgique. Ann. Soc. Malacol. Belg. 1:111–160.Google Scholar
  69. Wagner, J. A. 1861. Monographie der fossilen Fische aus den Lithographischen Schiefern Bayerns: Plakoiden und Pyknodonten. Mun. Abh. Bay. Akad. Wiss. 9:138Google Scholar
  70. Waldman, M. 1971. Hexanchid and Orthacondontid shark teeth from the Lower Tertiary of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Canad. Jour. Earth Sci. 8:166–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ward, D. J. 1979. Additions to the fish fauna of the English Palaeogene. 3. A review of the Hexanchid sharks with a description of four new species. Tert. Res. 2:111–129.Google Scholar
  72. Welton, B. J. 1974. Heptranchias howellii (Reed, 1946), (Selachii-Hexanchidae) in the Eocene of the United States and British Columbia. Paleobioscience 117:1–15.Google Scholar
  73. White, E. G. 1937. Interrelationships of the elasmobranchs with a key to the order Galea. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 74:25–138.Google Scholar
  74. White, P. J. 1895. A sternum in Hexanchus griseus. Anat. Anz. 11:222–224.Google Scholar
  75. Woodward, A. S. 1886a. On the relations of the mandibular and hyoid arches in a Cretaceous shark (Hybodus dubrisiensis Mackie). Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1886 218–224.Google Scholar
  76. Woodward, A. S. 1886b. On the palaeontology of the Selachian Genus Notidanus, Cuvier. Geol. Mag., N. S. 3:205–217, 253–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Woodward, A. S. 1888. On the Cretaceous Selachian Genus Synechodus. Geol. Mag. 3:496–499.Google Scholar
  78. Woodward, A. S. 1889. Catalogue of the fossil fishes in the British Museum (Natural History). Part I. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Publ. Lond. 47:474.Google Scholar
  79. Woodward, A. S. 1916. The fossil fishes of the English Wealden and Purbeck Formations. Part I. Mon. Palaeont. Soc. Lond. 1916 1–48.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • John G. Maisey
    • 1
  • Katherine E. Wolfram
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Vertebrate PaleontologyAmerican Museum of Natural HistoryNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations