Advertisement

Language and Intergroup Attitudes

Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Social Psychology book series (SSSOC)

Abstract

Somewhat surprisingly, social psychologists have traditionally been rather reluctant to consider speech in their formulations of social behavior (notable exceptions are Brown, 1965; Lambert, 1967; Robinson, 1972). However, this oversight has recently and gradually been corrected with a series of studies on language from a social-psychological perspective (e.g., Fraser & Scherer, 1982; Giles & St. Clair, 1979). It is clear that the way we speak and how listeners interpret our speech has important consequences for our interactions with others. Furthermore, the social-psychological approach to the study of such influences makes unique theoretical and methodological contributions to the wider discipline of language science.

Keywords

Dominant Group Applied Context Speech Characteristic Language Planning Intergroup Relation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adomo, W. (1973). The attitudes of selected Mexican and Mexican American parents in regards to bilingual/bicultural attitudes. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, U.S. International University.Google Scholar
  2. Agheyisi, R., & Fishman, J. A. (1970). Language attitude studies: A brief survey of methodological approaches. Anthropological Linguistics, 12, 131–157.Google Scholar
  3. Aitchison, J. (1981). Language change: Progress or decay? Bunpay, Suffolk: Fontana.Google Scholar
  4. Ajzen, I. (1977). Intuitive theories of events and the effects of base-rate information on prediction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 303–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. d’Anglejan, A., & Tucker, G. R. (1973). Sociolinguistic correlates of speech styles in Quebec. In R. W. Shuy & R. W. Fasold (Eds.), Language attitudes: Current trends and prospects. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Applegate, J. A., & Delia, J. G. (1980). Person-centered speech, psychological development, and the contexts of language usage. In R. N. St. Clair & H. Giles (Eds.), The social and psychological contexts of language. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  7. Arthur, B., Bradford, G., & Farrar, D. (1974). Evaluation reactions of college students to dialect differences in the English of Mexican-Americans. Language and Speech, 17, 255–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bourhis, R. Y. (Ed.). (1983). Conflict and language planning in Quebec. Clevedon, Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  9. Bourhis, R. Y., & Giles, H. (1976). The language of cooperation in Wales: A field study. Language Sciences, 42, 13–16.Google Scholar
  10. Bourhis, R. Y., Giles, H., & Lambert, W. E. (1975). Social consequences of accommodating one’s style of speech: A cross-national investigation. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 6, 55–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bourhis, R. Y., Giles, H., Leyens, J., & Tajfel, H. (1979). Psycholinguistic distinctiveness: Language divergence in Belgium. In H. Giles & R. N. St. Clair (Eds.), Language and social psychology. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  12. Bourhis, R. Y., Giles, H., & Rosenthal, D. (1981). Notes on the construction of a “subjective vitality questionnaire” for ethnolinguistic groups. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 2, 145–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brennan, E. M., & Brennan, J. S. (1981). Accent scaling and language attitudes: Reactions to Mexican-American English speech. Language and Speech, 24, 207–221.Google Scholar
  14. Brown, B. (1964). The social psychology of variations in French Canadian speech styles. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, McGill University, Montreal.Google Scholar
  15. Brown, R. (1965). Social psychology. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  16. Cacioppo, J. T., & Petty, R. E. (1982). Language variables, attitudes, and persuasion. In E. B. Ryan and H. Giles (Eds.), Attitudes towards language variation: Social and applied contexts. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  17. Carranza, M. A., & Ryan, E. B. (1975). Evaluative reactions of bilingual Anglo and Mexican American adolescents toward speakers of English and Spanish. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 6, 83–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cheyne, W. (1970). Stereotyped reactions to speakers with Scottish and English regional accents. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 9, 77–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. de la Zerda, N., & Hopper, R. (1979). Employment interviewers’ reactions to Mexican American speech. Communication Monographs, 46, 126–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Doise, W. (1978). Groups and individuals: Explanations in social psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Edwards, J. (1979). Language and disadvantage. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  22. Eiser, J. R. (1975). Attitudes and the use of evaluative language: A two-way process. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 5, 235–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Eiser, J. R. (1980). Cognitive social psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  24. Eiser, J. R. (1982). Attitudes and applied research. In P. Stringer (Ed.), Confronting social issues: Some applications of social psychology (Vol. 1). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  25. Fielding, G., & Evered, C. (1980). The influence of patients’ speech upon doctors: The diagnostic interview. In R. St. Clair & H. Giles (Eds.), The social and psychological contexts of language. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  26. Fishman, J. A. (1966). Language loyalty in the United States. The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
  27. Fishman, J. A. (1971). Sociolinguistics: A brief introduction. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
  28. Fishman, J. A. (1977). Language and ethnicity. In H. Giles (Ed.), Language, ethnicity, and intergroup relations. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  29. Fishman, J. A., Cooper, R., & Ma, R. (1971). Bilingualism in the barrio. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Fraser, B. (1973). Some “unexpected” reactions to various American-English dialects. In R. W. Shuy & R. W. Fasold (Eds.), Language attitudes: Current trends and prospects. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Fraser, C., & Scherer, K. R. (Eds.). (1982). Advances in the social psychology of language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Gardner, R. C. (1982). Language attitudes and language learning. In E. B. Ryan & H. Giles (Eds.), Attitudes towards language variation: Social and applied contexts. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  33. Gardner, R. C., & Lambert, W. E. (1972). Attitudes and motivation in second-language learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
  34. Genesee, F., & Bourhis, R. Y. (1982). The social psychological significance of code switching in cross-cultural communication. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 1, 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Giles, H. (1970). Evaluative reactions to accents. Educational Review, 22, 211–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Giles, H. (1971). Patterns of evaluation in reactions to RP, South Welsh and Somerset accented speech. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 10, 280–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Giles, H. (1972). Evaluation of personality content from accented speech as a function of listeners’ social attitudes. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 34, 168–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Giles, H. (1973). Communicative effectiveness as a function of accented speech. Speech Monographs, 40, 330–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Giles, H. (Ed.). (1977). Language, ethnicity and intergroup relations. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  40. Giles, H. (1979). Ethnicity markers in speech. In K. R. Scherer & H. Giles (Eds.), Social markers in speech. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Giles, H., Baker, S., & Fielding, G. (1975). Communication length as a behavioral index of accent prejudice. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 6, 73–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Giles, H., & Bourhis, R. Y. (1976). Methodological issues in dialect perception: Some social psychological perspectives. Anthropological Linguistics, 18, 294–304.Google Scholar
  43. Giles, H., Bourhis, R. Y., & Taylor, D. M. (1977). Towards a theory of language in ethnic group relations. In H. Giles (Ed.), Language, ethnicity and intergroup relations. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  44. Giles, H., & Byrne, J. (1982). An intergroup approach to second language acquisition. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 3, 17–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Giles, H., & Johnson, P. (1981). The role of language in ethnic group relations. In J. Turner & H. Giles (Eds.), Intergroup behavior. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  46. Giles, H., & Powesland, P. F. (1975). Speech style and social evaluation. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  47. Giles, H., & Ryan, E. B. (1982). Prolegomena for developing a social psychological theory of language attitudes. In E. B. Ryan & H. Giles (Eds.), Attitudes towards language variation: Social and applied context. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  48. Giles, H., & St. Clair, R. N. (Eds.). (1979). Language and social psychology. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  49. Giles, H., & St. Jacques, B. (Eds.). (1979). Language and ethnic relations. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  50. Giles, H., Scherer, K., & Taylor, D. M. (1979). Speech markers in social interaction. In K. R. Scherer & H. Giles (Eds.), Social markers in speech. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Giles, H., Smith, P., Ford, B., Condor, S., & Thakerar, J. (1980). Speech styles and the fluctuating salience of sex. Language Sciences, 2, 260–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hewstone, M. (Ed.). (1983). Attribution theory: Social and functional extensions. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  53. Hewstone, M., Bond, M. H., & Wan, K.-C. (in press). Social facts and social attributions: The explanation of intergroup differences in Hong Kong. Social Cognition. Google Scholar
  54. Hewstone, M., & Jaspars, J. (1982). Intergroup relations and attribution processes. In H. Tajfel (Ed.), Social identity and intergroup relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Hewstone, M., Jaspars, J., & Lalljee, M. (1982). Social representations, social attribution and social identity: The intergroup images of ‘public’ and ‘comprehensive’ schoolboys. European Journal of Social Psychology, 12, 241–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hopper, R., & Williams, F. (1973). Speech characteristics and employability. Speech Monographs, 40, 296–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kalin, R. (1982). The social significance of speech in medical, legal and occupational settings. In E. B. Ryan & H. Giles (Eds.), Attitude towards language variation: Social and applied contexts. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  58. Kalin, R., Rayko, D. S., & Love, N. (1980). The perception and evaluation of job candidates with four different ethnic accents. In H. Giles, W. P. Robinson, & P. M. Smith (Eds.), Language: Social psychological perspectives. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  59. Labov, W. (1966). The social stratification of English in New York City. Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics.Google Scholar
  60. Lambert, W. E. (1967). The social psychology of bilingualism. Journal of Social Issues, 23, 91–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lambert, W. E., Hodgson, R., Gardner, R. C., & Fillenbaum, S. (1960). Evaluational reactions to spoken languages. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 60, 44–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lee, R. (1971). Dialect perception: A critical review and reevaluation. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 57, 410–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lind, E. A., & O’Barr, W. M. (1979). The social significance of speech in the courtroom. In H. Giles & R. N. St. Clair (Eds.), Language and social psychology. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  64. Mervis, C. B., & Rosch, E. (1981). Categorization of natural objects. In M. R. Rosenzweig & L. M. Porter (Eds.), Annual Review of Psychology, 32, 8- ?.Google Scholar
  65. Milner, D. (1981). Racial prejudice. In J. Turner & H. Giles (Eds.), Intergroup behavior. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  66. Moscovici, S. (1976). Social influence and social change. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  67. Moscovici, S., & Hewstone, M. (1983). Social representations and social explanations: From the “naive” to the “amateur” scientist. In M. Hewstone (Ed.), Attribution theory: Social and functional extensions. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  68. Olmedo, E. L. (1981). Testing linguistic minorities. American Psychologist, 36, 1078–1085.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pendleton, D. A., & Bochner, S. (1980). The communication of medical information in general practice consultations as a function of patients’ social class. Social Science and Medicine, 14, 669–673.Google Scholar
  70. Powesland, P. F., & Giles, H. (1975). Persuasiveness and accent-message incompatibility. Human Relations, 28, 85–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Price, S., Fluck, M., & Giles, H. (1983). The effects of language of testing on bilingual pre-adolescents’ attitudes toward Welsh and varieties of English. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 4, in press.Google Scholar
  72. Robinson, W. P. (1972). Language and social behavior. Harmondsworth: Penguin.Google Scholar
  73. Robinson, W. P. (1979). Speech markers and social class. In K. R. Scherer & H. Giles (Eds.), Social markers in speech. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Rubin, J., & Jernuud, B. (Eds.). (1971). Can language be planned? Sociolinguistic theory and practice for developing nations. Honolulu: East-West Center.Google Scholar
  75. Ryan, E. B. (1979). Why do low-prestige language varieties persist? In H. Giles & R. N. St. Clair (Eds.), Language and social psychology. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  76. Ryan, E. B. (1981). Language planning from an attitudinal perspective. Paper presented to the International Conference on Language Planning and Public Policy, Cancun, Mexico.Google Scholar
  77. Ryan, E. B., & Carranza, M. A. (1975). Evaluative reactions of adolescents toward speakers of standard English and Mexican American accented English. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 855–863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ryan, E. B., & Carranza, M. A. (1977). Ingroup and outgroup reactions toward Mexican American language varieties. In H. Giles (Ed.), Language, ethnicity and intergroup relations. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  79. Ryan, E. B., Carrranza, M. A., & Moffie, R. W. (1977). Reactions toward varying degrees of accentedness in the speech of Spanish-English bilinguals. Language and Speech, 20, 267–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Ryan, E. B., & Giles, H. (Eds.). (1982). Attitudes towards language variation: Social and applied contexts. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  81. Ryan, E. B., Giles, H., & Sebastian, R. J. (1982). An integrative perspective for the study of attitudes toward language variation. In E. B. Ryan & H. Giles (Eds.), Attitudes towards language variation: Social and applied contexts. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  82. Ryan, E. B., & Sebastian, R. J. (1980). The effects of speech style and social class background on social judgments of speakers. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19, 229–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Schank, R., & Abelson, R. (1977). Scripts, plans, goals, and understanding. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  84. Scherer, K. R., & Giles, H. (Eds.). (1979). Social markers in speech. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  85. Sebastian, R. J., Ryan, E. B., & Corso, L. (in press). Social judgments of speakers with differing degrees of accent. Social Behavior and Personality. Google Scholar
  86. Sebastian, R. J., Ryan, E. B., Keogh, T. F., & Schmidt, A. C. (1980). The effects of negative affect arousal on reactions to speakers. In H. Giles, W. P. Robinson, & P. M. Smith (Eds.), Language: Social psychological perspectives. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  87. Segalowitz, N., & Gatbonton, E. (1977). Studies of the non-fluent bilingual. In P. A. Hornby (Ed.), Bilingualism: Psychological, social and educational implications. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  88. Seggie, I. (in press). Attributions of guilt as a function of accent and crime. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 4.Google Scholar
  89. Seligman, C., Tucker, G. R., & Lambert, W. E. (1972). The effects of speech style and other attributes on teachers’ attitudes toward pupils. Language in Society, 1, 131–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Shuy, R. W., & Fasold, R. W. (1973). Language attitudes: Current trends and prospects. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
  91. Strongman, K., & Woolsey, J. (1967). Stereotyped reactions to regional accents. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 6, 164–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Tajfel, H. (1959). A 1959 note on Lambert’s ‘Evalutional reactions to spoken language’. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 13, 86–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Tajfel, H. (1981). Social stereotypes and social groups. In J. C. Turner & H. Giles (Eds.), Intergroup behavior. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  94. Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  95. Taylor, D. M., & Gardner, R. C. (1970). The role of stereotypes in communication between ethnic groups in the Philippines. Social Forces, 49, 271–283.Google Scholar
  96. Taylor, D. M., & Giles, H. (1979). At the crossroads of research into language and ethnic relations. In H. Giles & B. St. Jacques (Eds.), Language and ethnic relations. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  97. Taylor, D. M., & Simard, L. (1979). Ethnic identity and intergroup relations. In D. J. Lee (Ed.), Emerging ethnic boundaries. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press.Google Scholar
  98. Thakerar, J. N., & Giles, H. (1981). They are—so they speak: Noncontent speech stereotypes. Language and Communication, 1, 251–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Thakerar, J. N., Giles, H., & Chesire, J. (1982). Psychological and linguistic parameters of speech accommodation theory. In C. Fraser & K. R. Scherer (Eds.), Advances in the social psychology of language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  100. Williams, F., Hewett, N., Miller, L. M., Naremore, R. C., & Whitehead, J. L. (1976). Explorations of the linguistic attitudes of teachers. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1984

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations