Functional Anatomy

  • Kent M. Samuelson


The study of ankle fractures has unfortunately been complicated at times by lack of standardized terminology to describe ankle and foot motion. In an effort to obviate this problem, the following scheme will be adopted and utilized throughout this book.


Ankle Joint Ankle Fracture Lateral Malleolus Ankle Motion Posterior Tibial Tendon 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    American Medical Association: Guide to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment. 1977.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barnett CH, Napier JR: The axis of rotation at the ankle joint in man. Its influence upon the form of the talus and the morbidity of the fibula. J Anat 86: 1, 1952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cave EF (ed): Fractures and Other Injuries. Chicago, Year Book Medical, 1958.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cedell C-A: Ankle lesions. Acta Orthop Scand 46: 425, 1975.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Close J: Someapplications of the functional anatomy of the ankle joint. J Bone Joint Surg 38A: 761, 1956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Close JR, Inman VD: The Action of the Ankle Joint. Prosthetic Devices Research Project, Institute of Engineering Research, University of California, Berkeley. Advisory Committee on Artificial Limbs, National Research Council, Series II, Issue 22, 1952.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dabezies E, D'Ambrosia RD, Shoji H: Classification and treatment of ankle fractures. Orthopaedics 1: 365, 1978.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dunn HK, Samuelson KM: Flat-top talus. A long-term report of 20 club feet. J Bone Joint Surg 56A: 57, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dupuytren BG: On the Injuries and Diseases of Bones. Translated by LeGros Clark. London, New Syndenham Society, 1847.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ferreira AP, DeWet IS, Dommisse GF: Fractures and dislocations of the ankle joint. S Afr Med J 54: 1095, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fowler PJ: Ligamentous anatomy and physical examinations. Am J Sports Med 5: 229, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gaston SR, McLaughlin HL: Complex fracture of the lateral malleolus. J Trauma 1: 69, 1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Golterman AFL: Diagnosis and treatment of tibiofibular diastasis. Arch Chir Neerl 16: 185, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Goss CM: Anatomy of the Human Body by Henry Gray, 28th ed. Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1966.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hamilton WC, Good RP, Cotler JM: Personal communication.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Harvey JP Jr: Fractures of the ankle. A clinical survey of 181 cases. Clin Orthop 42: 57, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Heck CV, Hendryson IE, Rowe CR: Joint Motion: Method of Measuring and Recording. Chicago American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 1965.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hughes SPF:· External rotational injury of the ankle joint with displacement of the talus. Ann Roy ColI Surg 59:61, 1977.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Inman VT: The Joints of the Ankle, 1st 00. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1976.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Isman RE, Inman VT: Anthropometric Studies of the Human Foot and Ankle. Biomechanics Laboratory, University of California, San Francisco and Berkeley. Technical Report 58. San Francisco, The Laboratory, 1968.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jergesen F: Open reduction of fractures and dislocations of the ankle. Am J Surg 98: 136, 1959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kleiger B: The mechanism of ankle injuries. J Bone Joint Surg 38A: 59, 1956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kleiger B: Treatment of oblique fractures of the fibula. J Bone Joint Surg 43: 969, 1961.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kleiger B: Mechanisms of ankle injury. Orthop Clin North Am 5: 127, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lambert KL: The weight-bearing function of the fibula. A strain gauge study. J Bone Joint Surg 53A: 507, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lauge-Hansen N: Fractures of the ankle. II. Combined experimental-surgical and experimental-roentgenologic investigations. Arch Surg 60: 957, 1950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lewis JL: The effect of ankle-injury forces. J Bone Joint Surg 46A: 1380, 1964.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Magnusson R: On the late results in non-operated cases of malleolar fractures. Acta Chir Scand (Suppl) 84: 1, 1944.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mann RA: Biomechanics of the Foot. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Atlas of Orthotics: Biomechanical Principles and Application. St. Louis, Mosby, 1975.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    McLaughlin HL: Trauma. Philadelphia, Saunders, 1960.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Menelaus MB: Injuries of the anterior inferior tibio-fibular ligament. Aust NZ J Surg 30: 279, 1960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mitchell WG, Shafton GW, Sclafani SJ: Mandatory open reduction. Its role in displaced ankle fractures. J Trauma 19: 602, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Monk CJE: Injuries of the tibio-fibularligaments. J Bone Joint Surg 51: 330, 1969.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Murray MP, Drought AB, Kory RC: Walking patterns of normal men. J Bone Joint Surg 46A: 335, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pankovich AM: Fractures of the fibula proximal to the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis. J Bone Joint Surg 60A: 221, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pankovich, AM: Fractures of the fibula at the distal tibio-fibular syndesmosis. Clin Orthop ReI Res 143: 138, 1979.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pankovich AM, Shivaram MS: Anatomical basis of variability in injuries of medial malleolus and the deltoid ligament. I. Anatomical studies. Acta Orthop Scand 50: 217, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Percy EC, Hill RO, Callaghan JE: The “sprained” ankle. J Trauma 9: 972, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Phillips RS, Balmer GA, Monk CJE: The external rotation fracture of the fibular malleolus. Br J Surg 56: 55, 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Platt H: Introduction to a discussion on fractures in the neighborhood of the ankle-joint. Lancet 1: 33, 1926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ramsey P, Hamilton W: Changes in tibiotalar area of contact caused by lateral talar shift. J Bone Joint Surg 58A: 356, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Robichon J, Desjardins P, Pegington J, Moonje VB: Functional anatomy of the ankle joint and its relationship to ankle injuries. J Bone Joint Surg 55B: 662, 1973.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Scranton PE Jr, McMaster JG, Kelly E: Dynamic fibular function. A new concept. Clin Orthop 118: 76, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Seirge A, Arvikar RJ: The prediction of muscular load sharing and joint forces in the lower extremities during walking. J Biomech 8: 89, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Shephard E: Tarsal movements. J Bone Joint Surg 33B: 258, 1951.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Smith MGH: Inferior tibio-fibular diastasis treated by cross screwing. J Bone Joint Surg 45B: 737, 1963.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Speed JS, Boyd HB: Operative reconstruction of malunited fractures about the ankle. J Bone Joint Surg 18: 270, 1936.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Staples OS: Ligamentous injuries of the ankle joint. Clin Orthop 42: 21, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Stauffer RN, Chao EYS, Brewster RC: Force and motion analysis of the normal, diseased, and prosthetic ankle joint. Clin Orthop ReI Res127: 189, 1977.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Svend-Hansen H, Bremerskov U, Baekgaard N: Ankle fractures treated by fixation of medial malleolus alone. Late results in 29 patients. Acta Orthop Scand 49: 211, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Vasli S: Operative treatment of ankle fractures. Acta Chir Scand (Suppl) 226: 1, 1957.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Walsh WM, Hughston JC: Unstable ankle fractures in athletes. Am J Sports Med 4: 173, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Weinert CR Jr, McMaster JH, Scranton PE Jr, Ferguson RJ: Human Fibular Dynamics in Foot Science. American Orthopaedic Foot Society. Philadelphia, Saunders, 1976.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wright DG, Desai SM, Henderson WH: Action of the subtalar and ankle-joint complex during the stance phase of walking. J Bone Joint Surg 46A: 361, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wyller T: The axis of the ankle joint and its importance in subtalar arthrodesis. Acta Orthop Scand 33: 320, 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Yablon IG, Heller FG, Shouse L: The key role of the lateral malleolus in displaced fractures of the ankle. J Bone Joint Surg 59A: 169, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Yadav SS: Ankle stability after resection of the distal third of the fibula for giant-cell lesions. Report of two cases. Clin Orthop 155: 105, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kent M. Samuelson

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations