• Hugo Spindola-Franco
  • Bernard G. Fish


Cardiomyopathy is the term used to describe a heterogenous spectrum of disorders of the myocardium. If the cause can be identified, it may be found that it involves the heart exclusively, or it may be part of a systemic disorder. In many instances no etiology can be determined. These comprise the idiopathic group.


Mitral Valve Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Glycogen Storage Disease Ventricular Septum Pompe Disease 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


General References

  1. Bradenburg RO, Chazov E, Cherian G, Falase AO, Grosgogeat Y, Kawai C, Joogen F, Judez VM, Orinius E, Goodwin JF, Olsen EGJ, Oakley CM, Pisa Z (1981) Report of the WHOISFC task force on definition and classification of cardiomyopathies. Circulation 64:437A–438ACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Fowler NO (1964) Classification and differential diagnosis of the myocardiopathies. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 7:1–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Giles TD (1981) Cardiomyopathy: A spectrum of disease. Cardiol Ser Baylor Coll Med 4:6–36Google Scholar
  4. Goodwin JF (1972) Clarification of the cardiomyopathies. Mod Concepts Cardiovasc Dis 41:41–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Goodwin JF, Gordon H, Hollman A, Bishop MB (1961) Clinical aspects of cardiomyopathy. Br Med J 1:5219–5230Google Scholar
  6. Harris LC, Nghiem ZX (1972) Cardiomyopathies in infants and children. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 15:255–287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. McGuire J (1969) The cardiomyopathies (primary myocardial disease, myocardosis, idiopathic cardiac hypertrophy, myocardiopathy, cardiopathy, idiopathic cardiomyopathy). Semin Roentgenol 4:299–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Dilated Cardiomyopathy

  1. Corya BC, Feigenbaum H, Rasmussen S, Black MJ (1974) Echocardiography features of congestive cardiomyopathy compared with normal subjects and patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 49:1153–1159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Elkayam U, Gardin JM, Berkley R, Hughes CA, Henry WL (1983) The use of Doppler flow velocity measurement to assess the hemodynamic response to vasodilators in patient with heart failure. Circulation 67:377–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Fenoglio JT, Ursell PC, Kellog CF, Drusin RE, Weiss MB (1983) Diagnosis and classification of myocarditis by endomyocardial biopsy. N Engl J Med 308:12–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fuster V, Gersch BJ, Guiliani ER, Tajik AJ, Brandenburg RO, Frye RL (1981) The natural history of idioathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol 47:525–531PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hassell LA, Fowles RE, Stinson EB (1981) Patients with congestive cardiomyopathy as cardiac transplant recipients. Indications for and results of cardiac transplantation and comparison with patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 47:1205–1209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hill CA, Harle TS, Gaston W (1968) Cardiomyopathy: A review of 59 patients with emphasis on the plain chest roentgenogram. Am J Roentgenol 104:433–439Google Scholar
  7. James TN (1983) Myocarditis and cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med 308:39–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Pierpont GL, Cohn JN, Franciosa J A (1978) Arch Intern Med 138:1847–1850PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Steere AC, Grodzicki RL, Kornblatt AN, Craft JE, Barbour AG, Burgdorfer W, Schmid GP, Johnson E, Malawista SE (1983) The spirochetal etiology of Lyme disease. N Engl J Med 308:733–740PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Tripp ME, Katcher ML, Peters HA, Gilbert EF, Arya S, Hodach RJ, Shug AL (1981) Systemic carnitive deficiency presenting as familial endocardial fibroelastosis: a treatable cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med 305:385–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Waber LJ, Valle D, Neill C, DiMauro S, Shug A (1982) Carnitive deficiency presenting as familial cardiomyopathy: a treatable defect in carnitive transport. J Pediatr 101:700–705PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

  1. Awdeh MR, Erwin S, Young JM, Nunn S (1978) Systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve caused by sarcoid involving the septum. South Med J 71:969–971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Blaufuss AH, Laks MM, Garner D, Ishimoto BM, Criley JM Production of ventricular hypertrophy simulating idiopathic hypertropic subaortic stenosis (IHSS) by subhypertensive infusion of norepinephrine (NE) in the conscious dog. Clin Res 23:77AGoogle Scholar
  3. Boughner DR, Schuld RL, Persuad JA (1975) Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Assessment by echocardiographic and Doppler ultrasound techniques. Br Heart J 37:917–923PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Breitweser JA, Meyer RA, Sperling MA, Tsang RC, Kaplan S Cardiac septal hypertrophy in hyperinsulinemic infants. J Pediatr 96:535–539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brockenbrough EC, Braunwald E, Morrow AG (1961) A hemodynamic technic for the detection of hypertropic subaortic stenosis. Circulation 23:189–194Google Scholar
  6. Cabin HS, Costello RM, Vasudevan G, Maron BJ, Roberts WC Cardiac lymphoma mimicking hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Am Heart J 102:466–468PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clark CE, Henry WL, Epstein SE (1973) Familial prevalence and genetic transmission of idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis. N Engl J Med 289:709–714PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Colucci WS, Lorell BH, Schoen FJ, Warhol MJ, Grossman W Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy due to Fabry’s disease. N Engl J Med 307:926–928PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Come PC, Bulkley BH, Goodman ZD, Hutchins GM, Pitt BM, Fortuin NJ (1977) Hypercontractile states simulating hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circulation 55:901–908PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Darsee JR (1981) The hypertrophic heart syndromes: A glance at the chromosome. Am Heart J 101:124–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dinsmore RE, Sanders CA, Harthorne JW (1966) Mitral regurgitation in idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis. N Engl J Med 275:1225–1228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Doi Yl, McKenna WJ, Gehrke J, Oakley CM, Goodwin JF (1980) M-mode echocardiography in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Diagnostic criteria and prediction of obstruction. Am J Cardiol 45:6–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ferraus VJ, Morrow AG, Roberts WC (1972) Myocardial ultrastructure in idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis. A study of operatively excised left ventricular outflow tract muscle in 14 patients. Circulation 45:769–792Google Scholar
  14. Green CE, Elliot LP, Coghlan HC (1981) Improved cineangiographic evaluation of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by caudocranial left anterior oblique view. Am Heart J 102:1015–1021PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Henry WL, Clark CE, Epstein SE (1973) Asymmetric septal hypertrophy (ASH): The unifying link in the IHSS disease spectrum: Observations regarding its pathogenesis, pathophysiology, and course. Circulation 47:827–832PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Isner JM, Falcone MW, Virmani R, Roberts WC (1979) Cardiac sarcoma causing “ASH” and simulating coronary heart disease. Am J Med 66:1025–1030PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Maron BJ, Epstein SE (1980) Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Recent observations regarding the specificity of three hallmarks of the disease: Asymmetric septal hypertrophy, septal disorganization and systolic anterior motion of the anterior mitral leaflet. Am J Cardiol 45:141–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Matsumori A, Kawai C, Wakabayashi A, Terasaki PI, Park MS, Sakurami T, Veno Y (1981) HLA-DRW4 antigen linkage in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Am Heart J 101:14–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Popp RL, Harrison CD (1969) Ultrasound in the diagnosis and evaluation of therapy of idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis. Circulation 40:905–914Google Scholar
  20. Redwood DR, Scherer JL, Epstein SE (1974) Biventricular cine angiography in the evaluation of patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy. Circulation 49:1116–1121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. St. John Sutton MG, Tajik AJ, Gurliani ER, Gordon H, Daniel WP (1981) Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy and lentiginosis: A little known neural ectodermal syndrome. Am J Cardiol 47:214–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sanderson JE, Gibson DG, Brown DJ, Goodwin JF (1977) Left ventricular filling in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. An angiographic study. Br Heart J 39:661–670PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sengers RCA, ter Haar JMF, Trijbels JL, Willems JL, Daniels O, Stradhouders AM (1975) Congenital cataract and mitochondrial myopathy of skeletal and heart muscle associated with lactic aridosis after exercise. The Journal of Pediatrics 86:873–880PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Shah PM, Gramiak R, Kramer DH (1969) Ultrasound localization of left ventricular outflow obstruction in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Circulation 40:3–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Shub C, Williamson MD, Tajik AJ (1981) Dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction associated with pheochromocytoma. Am Heart J 102:286–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Simon AL, Ross J Jr., Gault JH (1967) Angiographic anatomy of the left ventricle and mitral valve in idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis. Circulation 36:852–867PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Spindola-Franco H, Codini MA, Nivatpumin T (1976) Biplane, biventricular angiography for the assessment of idopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis. Circulation 54:41Google Scholar
  28. Way GL, Wolfe RR, Eshaghpour E, Bender RL, Jaffe RB, Rutenberg HD (1979) The natural history of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 95:1020–1025PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Restrictive Cardiomyopathy

  1. Burch GE, DePasquale NP (1970) Recognition and prevention of cardiomyopathy. Subcommittee on cardiomyopathy. Circulation 42:A47–A53Google Scholar
  2. Fine G (1968) Neoplasms of the pericardium and heart. In: Gould SE (ed) Pathology of the heart and blood vessels, 3rd edn. Thomas, Springfield, I11, pp 851–883Google Scholar
  3. Hall SW Jr, Theologides A, From AHL, Gobel FL, Fortuny IE, Lawrence CJ, Edwards JE (1977) Hypereosinophilic syndrome with biventricular involvement. Circulation 55:217–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Hansen AT, Eskildsen P, Gorzsche H (1951) Pressure curves from the right auricle and the right ventricle in chronic constrictive pericarditis. Circulation 3:881–888PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Hill KR, Still WJS, McKinney B (1967) Jamaican cardiomyopathy. Br Heart J 29:594–601PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hirschmann JV (1978) Pericardial constriction. Am Heart J 96:110–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Meaney E, Shabetai R, Bhargava V, Shearer M, Weidner C, Mangiardi LM, Smalling R, Peterson K (1976) Cardiac amyloidosis, constrictive pericarditis and restrictive cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol 38:547–556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Tyberg TI, Goodyer AVN, Hurst VW, Alexander J, Langou RA (1981) Left ventricular filling in differentiating restrictive amyloid cardiomyopathy and constrictive pericarditis. Am J Cardiol 47:791–796PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Endomyocardial Fibrosis

  1. Andy JJ, Bishara FF, Soyinka OO (1981) Relation of severe eosinophilia and microfilariasis to chronic African endomyocardial fibrosis. Br Heart J 45:672–680PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Becker BJP, Chatgidakis CB, van Lingen B (1964) Cardiovascular collagenosis with parietal endocardial thrombosis. A clinicopathologic study of forty cases. Circulation 7:315–356Google Scholar
  3. Chew CYC, Ziady GM, Raphael MJ, Nellen M, Oakley CM (1977) Primary restrictive cardiomyopathy: Non-tropical endomyocardial fibrosis and hypereosinophilic heart disease. Br Heart J 39:399–413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Davies JNP (1948) Endocardial fibrosis in Africans. East African Med J 25:10–14Google Scholar
  5. Davies JNP, Coles RM (1960) Some considerations regarding obscure disease affecting the mural endocardium. Am Heart J 59:600–631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dubost C, Prigent C, Gerbaux A, Maurice P, Passelecq, J Rulliere R, Carpentier A, Deloche A (1981) Surgical treatment of constrictive fibrous endocarditis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 82:585–591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Hess OM, Turina M, Senning A, Goebel NH, Scholer Y, Krayenbuehe HP (1978) Br Heart J 40:406–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. James CF, Hutchins GM (1980) Congestive heart failure secondary to diffuse organized biventricular mural thrombus following mitral valve replacement. Chest 72:338–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Metras D, Coulibaly O, Ouattera K, Chauvet J, Ekra A, Longechaud A, Bertrand E, Castaneda AR (1982) Endomyocardial fibrosis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 83:52–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Roberts WC, Leigler DG, Carbone PP (1969) Endomyocardial disease and eosinophilia. A clinical and pathologic spectrum. Am J Med 46:28–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Shillingbard JP, Somers K (1961) Clinical and hemodynamic patterns in endomyocardial fibrosis. Br Heart J 33:433–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Infiltrative Cardiomyopathy (Amyloidosis, Sarcoidosis and Hemochromatosis)

  1. Araett EN, Neinhuis AW, Henry WL, Ferrans VJ, Redwood DR, Roberts WC (1975) Massive myocardial hemosiderosis: A structure-function conference at the National Heart and Lung Institute. Am Heart J 90:777–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Borer JS, Henry WL, Epstein SE (1977) Echocardiography observations in patients with systemic infiltrative disease involving the heart. Am J Cardiol 39:184–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chew C, Ziady GM, Raphael MJ, Oakley CM (1975) The functional defect in amyloid heart disease. The “stiff heart” syndrome. Am J Cardiol 36:438–444PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Silverman KJ, Hutchins GM, Bulkley BH (1978) Cardiac sarcoid: A clinicopathologic study of 84 unselected patients with systemic sarcoidosis. Circulation 58:1204–1211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Siqueira-Filho AG, Cunha CLP, Tajik AJ, Seward JB, Schattenberg T, Giuliani ER (1981) M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiography features in cardiac amyloidosis. Circulation 63:188–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Arrythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia

  1. Baron A, Nanda NC, Falkoff M, Barold SS, Gallagher JJ (1982) Two-dimensional echocardiography detection of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. Am Heart J 103:1066–1067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dungan WT, Garson A Jr, Gillette PC (1981) Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia: A cause of ventricular tachycardia in children with apparently normal hearts. Am Heart J 102:745–750PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Fontaine G, Guiraudon G, Frank R, Vedel J, Grosgogeat Y, Cabrol C, Facquet J (1977) Stimulation studies and epicardial mapping in ventricular tachycardia: Study of mechanisms and selection for surgery. In Kulbertus HE (ed.): Reentrant arrhythmias. Lancaster, MTP Press Ltd, p. 344Google Scholar
  4. Guiraudon G, Fontaine G, Frank R, Leandri R, Barra J, Cabrol C (1981) Surgical treatment of ventricular tachycardia guided by ventricular mapping in 23 patients without coronary artery disease. Ann Thorac Surg 32:439–450PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Guiraudon GM, Klein GJ, Gulamhusein SS, Painvin GA, Del Campo C, Gonzales JC, Ko PT (1983) Total disconnection of the right ventricular free wall: Surgical treatment of right ventricular tachycardia associated with right ventricular dysplasia. Circulation 67:463–470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Uhl HSM (1952) A previously undescribed congenital malformation of the heart. Almost total absence of the myocardium of the right ventricle. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 91:197–209PubMedGoogle Scholar

Uhl Anomaly

  1. Arcilla RA, Gasul BM (1961) Congenital aplasia or marked hypoplasia of the myocardium of the right ventricle (Uhl’s anomaly) J Pediatr 58:381–388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Asayama J, Matsuura T, Endo N, Matsukubo H, Furukawa K (1977) Idiopathic enlargement of the right atrium. Am J Cardiol 40:620–623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barritt DW, Urich H (1956) Congenital tricuspid incompetence. Br Heart J 18:133–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cote M, Davignon A, Fouron J (1973) Congenital hypoplasia of right ventricular myocardial (Uhl’s anomaly) associated with pulmonary atresia in a newborn. Am J Cardiol 31:658–661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. French JW, Baum D, Popp R (1975) Echocardiography findings in the Uhl’s anomaly. Am J Cardiol 36:349–353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Perrin EV, Mehrizi A (1965) Isolated free-wall hypoplasia of the right ventricle. Am J Dis Child 109:558–566PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Segall HN (1950) Parchment Heart (Osier). Am Heart J 40: 48–950CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Sheldon WC, Johnson DC, Favaloro RG (1969) Idiopathic enlargement of the right atrium. Am J Cardiol 23:278–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Uhl HSM (1952) Previously undescribed congenital malformation of the heart: Almost total absence of myocardium of the right ventricle. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 91:197–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Zuberbuhler JR, Blank E (1970) Hypoplasia of right ventricular myocardium. Am J Roentgenol 110:491–496Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hugo Spindola-Franco
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Bernard G. Fish
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Albert Einstein College of MedicineYeshiva UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Montefiore Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Bronx Veterans Administration HospitalNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations