Section 6

Abnormalities of Visceroatrial Situs
  • Hugo Spindola-Franco
  • Bernard G. Fish


Diagnosis of the visceroatrial situs (position and morphology of the atria) is of paramount importance in the analysis of complex congenital cardiac defects. The Latin term situs solitus (SS) is used to indicate normal position of the viscera, including the cardiac atria. The mirror-image presentation of the normal visceroatrial morphology and relationships is termed situs inversus (SI). Thus there are two normal or determinate types of situs. In SS the morphological right atrium (RA ) is on the right side and the morphological left atrium (LA) is on the left side. The liver, the spleen and other noncardiac viscera are also in normal position. In SI the morphological RA is on the left side of the morphological LA, which is right sided. The liver, spleen and other noncardiac viscera also have a mirror-image relationship. The immotile cilia syndrome on occasion is associated with situs inversus (Kartagener triad of SI, sinusitis and bronchiectasis). Table 7–9 is a list of abnormalities of visceroatrial situs.


Atrial Septal Defect Biliary Atresia Right Atrium Situs Inversus Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Abnormalites of Visceroatrial Situs

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hugo Spindola-Franco
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Bernard G. Fish
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Albert Einstein College of MedicineYeshiva UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Montefiore Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Bronx Veterans Administration HospitalNew YorkUSA

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