Advertisement

Nephritogenic Immune Responses Involving Basement Membrane and Other Antigens in or of the Glomerulus

  • Curtis B. Wilson

Abstract

The immune response, normally a life-protecting device, can injure and destroy body tissue, and lead to such diseases as glomerulonephritis and tubulointerstitial nephritis. Studies in experimental animals begun over 70 years ago, and similar studies in man over the past 10 to 15 years, have identified two ways in which the humoral immune system can lead to renal injury (Wilson and Dixon, 1976). These two mechanisms can be divided for purposes of discussion into groups, dependent on the physical state of the antigens involved. The first group of reactions, involves soluble antigens that react with antibody to form immune complexes (Dixon, 1963). If the soluble antigens are present in the circulation, circulating immune complexes form and later deposit nonspecifically in vascular sites throughout the body, including the glomeruli and peritubular capillaries. If the soluble antigens are in the extravascular renal tissue, an Arthus—like immune complex formation occurs in the interstitium, leading to a localized immune complex disease at the site of reaction (Unanue et al., 1967; Klassen et al., 1971). It should be noted that immune complexes remain in equilibrium with antigen or antibody present in the body fluids, so that the composition of an immune complex deposit may be continually modified (Wilson and Dixon, 1978). Immune complexes actually can be dissolved and removed from the site of injury if a state of great antigen excess is achieved (Wilson, 1974).

Keywords

Immune Complex Glomerular Basement Membrane Pulmonary Hemorrhage Tubular Basement Membrane Glomerular Capillary Wall 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agnello, V., Koffler, D., and Kunkel, H. G., 1973, Immune complex systems in the nephritis of systemic lupus erythematosus, Kidney Int. 3:90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Almkuist, R. D., Buckalew, V. M., Jr., Hirszel, P., Maher, J. F., James, P. M., and Wilson, C. B., 1978, Recurrence of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody (AGBM Ab) mediated glomerulonephritis in an isograft, National Kidney Foundation Clinical Dialysis and Transplant Forum, New Orleans (November 1978), abstract.Google Scholar
  3. Andres, G. A., and McCluskey, R. T., 1975, Tubular and interstitial renal disease due to immunologic mechanisms, Kidney Int. 7:271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andres, G., Brentjens, J., Kohli, R., Anthone, R., Anthone, S., Baliah, T., Montes, M., Mookerjee, B. K., Prezyna, A., Sepulveda, M., Venuto, R., and Elwood, C, 1978, Histology of human tubulo-interstitial nephritis associated with antibodies to renal basement membranes, Kidney Int. 13:480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beirne, G. J., Wagnild, J. P., Zimmerman, S. W., Macken, P. D., and Burkholder, P. M., 1977, Idiopathic crescentic glomerulonephritis, Medicine 56:349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bergstein, J., and Litman, N., 1975, Interstitial nephritis with antitubular basement membrane antibody, N. Engl. J. Med. 292:875.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bhan, A. K., Schneeberger, E. E., Collins, A. B., and McCluskey, R. T., 1978, Evidence for a pathogenic role of a cell-mediated immune mechanism in experimental glomerulonephritis, J. Exp. Med. 148:246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Border, W. A., Lehman, D. H., Egan, J. D., Sass, H. J., Glode, J. E., and Wilson, C. B., 1974, Antitubular basement membrane antibodies in methicillin-associated interstitial nephritis, N. Engl. J. Med. 291:381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cochrane, C. G., 1979, Mediation systems in neutrophil-independent immunologic injury of t he glomerulus, in: Contemporary Issues in Nephrology (C. B. Wilson, B. M. Brenner and J. H. Stein, eds.), pp. 106–121. Churchill Livingston, New York.Google Scholar
  10. Couser, W. G., Steinmuller, D. R., Stilmant, M. M., Salant, D. J., and Lowenstein, L. M., 1978, Experimental glomerulonephritis in the isolated perfused rat kidney, J. Clin. Invest. 62:1275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dahlberg, P. J., Kurtz, S. B., Donadio, J. V., Jr., Holley, K. E., Velosa, J. A., Williams, D. E., and Wilson, C. B., 1978, Recurrent Goodpasture’s syndrome, Mayo Clin. Proc. 53:533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Dixon, F. J., 1963, The role of antigen-antibody complexes in disease, Harvey Led. 58:21.Google Scholar
  13. Edgington, T. S., Glassock, R. J., and Dixon, F. J., 1967, Autologous immune complex pathogenesis of experimental allergic glomerulonephritis, Science 155:1432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Feenstra, K., Lee, R., v.d. Greben, H. A., Arends, A., and Hoedemaeker, Ph. J., 1975, Experimental glomerulonephritis in the rat induced by antibodies directed against tubular antigens. I. The natural history: A histologic and immunohistologic study at the light microscopic and the ultrastructural level, Lab. Invest. 32:235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Finch, R. A., Rutsky, E. A., McGowan, E., and Wilson, C. B., 1979, Treat ment of Goodpasture’s syndrome with immunosuppression and plasmapheresis, South. Med. J. 72:1288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Golbus, S. M., and Wilson, C. B., 1979, Experimental glomerulonephritis induced by the in situ formation of immune complexes in the glomerular capillary wall, Kidney Int. 16:148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Harner, M. H., Nolte, M., Wilson, C. B., Talwalker, Y. B., Musgrave, J. E., Brooks, R. E., and Campbell, R. A., 1974, Anti-TBM antibody and nephrotic syndrome associated with milk hypersensitivity, Third International Symposium on Pediatric Nephrology, Washington, D.C. (1974), p. 8, abstract.Google Scholar
  18. Heymann, W., Hackel, D. B., Harwood, S., Wilson, S. G. F., and Hunter, J. L. P., 1959, Production of nephrotic syndrome in rats by Freund’s adjuvants and rat kidney suspensions, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 100:660.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Holdsworth, S. R., Golbus, S. M., and Wilson, C. B., 1979, Characterization of collagenase solubilized human glomerular basement membrane antigens reacting with human antibodies, Kidney Int. 16:797 (abstract).Google Scholar
  20. Holdsworth, S. R., Neale, T. J., and Wilson, C. B., 1981, Abrogation of immune glomerulonephritis (GN) in rabbits by antimacrophage (M) serum, Kidney Int. 19:193 (abstract).Google Scholar
  21. Hume, D. M., Sterling, W. A., Weymouth, R. J., Siebel, H. R., Madge, G. E., and Lee, H. M., 1970, Glomerulonephritis in human renal homotransplants, Transplant. Proc. 2:361.Google Scholar
  22. Hyman, L. R., Ballow, M., and Knieser, M. R., 1975, Diphenylhydantoin nephropathy: Evidence for an autoimmune pathogenesis, Kidney Int. 8:450 (abstract).Google Scholar
  23. Izui, S., Lambert, P. H., and Miescher, P. A., 1976, In vitro demonstration of a particular affinity of glomerular basement membrane and collagen for DNA: A possible basis for a local formation of DNA-anti-DNA complexes in systemic lupusery the matosus, J. Exp. Med. 144:428.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Izui, S., Lambert, P. H., Fournie, G. J., Turler, H., and Miescher, P. A., 1977, Features of systemic lupus erythematosus in mice injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharides: Identification of circulating DNA and renal localization of DNA-anti-DNA complexes, J. Exp. Med. 145:1115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Johnson, J. P., Whitman, W., Briggs, W. A., and Wilson, C. B., 1978, Plasmapheresis and immunosuppressive agents in antibasement membrane antibody-induced Goodpasture’s syndrome, Am. J. Med. 65:354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Klassen, J., McCluskey, R. T., and Milgrom, F., 1971, Nonglomerular renal disease produced in rabbits by immunization with homologous kidney, Am. J. Pathol. 63:333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Klassen, J., Kano, K., Milgrom, F., Menno, A. B., Anthone, S., Anthone, R., Sepulveda, M., Elwood, C. M., and Andres, G. A., 1973, Tubular lesions produced by autoantibodies to tubular basement membrane in human renal allografts, Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. 45:675.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Klassen, J., Elwood, C, Grossberg, A. L., Milgrom, F., Montes, M., Sepulveda, M., and Andres, G. A., 1974, Evolution of membranous nephropathy into anti-glomerular-basement-membrane glomerulonephritis, N. Engl. J. Med. 290:1340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Koffler, D., Agnello, V., Carr, R. I., and Kunkel, H. G., 1969a, Variable patterns of immunoglobulin and complement deposition in the kidneys of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, Am. J. Pathol. 56:305.Google Scholar
  30. Koffler, D., Sandson, J., Carr, R., and Kunkel, H. G., 1969b, Immunologic studies concerning the pulmonary lesions in Goodpasture’s syndrome, Am. J. Pathol. 54:293.Google Scholar
  31. Krakower, C. A., and Greenspon, S. A., 1951, Localization of the nephrotoxic antigen within the isolated renal glomerulus, Arch. Pathol. 51:629.Google Scholar
  32. Lehman, D. H., Wilson, C. B., and Dixon, F. J., 1974a, Interstitial nephritis in rats immunized with heterologous tubular basement membrane, Kidney Int. 5:187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lehman, D. H., Lee, S., Wilson, C. B., and Dixon, F. J., 1974b, Induction of antitubular basement membrane antibodies in rats by renal transplantation, Transplantation 17:429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lehman, D. H., Wilson, C. B., and Dixon, F. J., 1975, Extraglomerular immunoglobulin deposits in human nephritis, Am. J. Med. 58:765.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lerner, R., and Dixon, F. J., 1966, Transfer of ovine experimental allergic glomerulonephritis (EAG) with serum, J. Exp. Med. 124:431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lerner, R., and Dixon, F. J., 1968, The induction of acute glomerulonephritis in rabbits with soluble antigens isolated from normal homologous and autologous urine, J. Immunol. 100:1277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Lerner, R., Glassock, R. J., and Dixon, F. J., 1967, The role of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody in the pathogenesis of human glomerulone phritis, J. Exp. Med. 126:989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lockwood, C. M., Boulton-Jones, J. M., Lowenthal, R. M., Simpson, I. J., Peters, D. K., and Wilson, C. B., 1975, Recovery from Goodpasture’s syndrome after immunosuppressive treatment and plasmapheresis, Br. Med. J. 2:252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lockwood, C. M., Rees, A. J., Pearson, T. A., Evans, D. J., Peters, D. K., and Wilson, C. B., 1976, Immunosuppression and plasma-exchange in the treatment of Goodpasture’s syndrome, Lancet 1:711.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lockwood, C. M., Pussell, B., Wilson, C. B., and Peters, D. K., 1979, Plasma exchange in nephritis. Adv. Nephrol. 8:383.Google Scholar
  41. Ma, K. W., Golbus, S. M., Kaufman, R., Staley, N., Londer, H., and Brown, D. C, 1978, Glomerulonephritis with Hodgkin’s disease and herpes zoster, Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 102:527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. McCoy, R. C, Johnson, H. K., Stone, W. J., and Wilson, C. B., 1976, Variation in glomerular basement membrane antigens in hereditary nephritis, Lab. Invest. 34:325 (abstract).Google Scholar
  43. McPhaul, J. J., Jr., and Dixon, F. J., 1969, Immunoreactive basement membrane antigens in normal human urine and serum, J. Exp. Med. 130:1395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. McPhaul, J. J., Jr., and Dixon, F. J., 1970, Characterization of human anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies eluted from glomerulonephritic kidneys, J. Clin. Invest. 49:308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mahieu, P., Lambert, P. H., and Miescher, P. A., 1974, Detection of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies by a radioimmunological technique: Clinical application in human nephropathies, J. Clin. Invest. 54:128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mauer, S. M., Sutherland, D. E. R., Howard, R. J., Fish, A. J., Najarian, J. S., and Michael, A. F., 1973, The glomerular mesangium. III. Acute immune mesangial injury: A new model of glomerulone phritis, J. Exp. Med. 137:553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Morel-Maroger, L., Kourilsky, O., Mignon, F., and Richet, G., 1974, Antitubular basement membrane antibodies in rapidly progressive post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis: Report of a case, Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 2:185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Neale, T. J., and Wilson, C. B., 1978, Non-GBM glomerular antigen in spontaneous nephritis in rabbits, Kidney Int. 14:706 (abstract).Google Scholar
  49. Neale, T. J., and Wilson, C. B., 1979, Fixed glomerular antigen in Heymann’s nephritis: Eluted antibody reactivity with normal rat glomeruli, Kidney Int. 16:799 (abstract).Google Scholar
  50. Rees, A. J., Lockwood, C. M., and Peters, D. K., 1977, Enhanced allergic tissue injury in Goodpasture’s syndrome by intercurrent bacterial infection, Br. Med. J. 2:723.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rees, A. J., Peters, D. K., Compston, D. A. S., and Batchelor, J. R., 1978, Strong association between HLA-DRW2 and antibody-mediated Goodpasture’s syndrome, Lancet 1:966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rosenblatt, S., Knight, W., Bannayan, G., Wilson, C. B., and Stein, J. H., 1979, Treatment of Goodpasture’s syndrome with plasmapheresis: A case report and review of the literature. Am. J. Med. 66:689.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Schreiber, R. D., and Müller-Eberhard, H. J., Complement and renal disease, in: Contemporary Issues in Nephrology, Vol. III (C. B. Wilson, B. M. Brenner and J. H. Stein, eds.), p. 67, Churchill Livingstone, New York.Google Scholar
  54. Schreiner, G. F., Cotran, R. S., Pardo, V., and Unanue, E. R., 1978, A mononuclear cell component in experimental immunological glomerulone phritis, J. Exp. Med. 147:369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Steblay, R. W., 1962, Glomerulonephritis induced in sheep by injections of heterologous glomerular basement membrane and Freund’s complete adjuvant, J. Exp. Med. 116:253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sugisaki, T., Klassen, J., Andres, G. A., Milgrom, F., and McCluskey, R. T., 1973, Passive transfer of Heymann nephritis with serum, Kidney Int. 3:66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Treser, G., Semar, M., Ty, A., Sagel, I., Franklin, M. A., and Lange, K., 1970, Partial characterization of antigenic streptococcal plasma membrane components in acute glomerulone phritis, J. Clin. Invest. 49:762.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tung, K. S. K., and Black, W. C, 1975, Association of renal glomerular and tubular immune complex disease and antitubular basement membrane antibody, Lab. Invest. 32:696.Google Scholar
  59. Unanue, E. R., and Dixon, F. J., 1965, Experimental glomerulonephritis. VI. The autologous phase of nephrotoxic serum nephritis, J. Exp. Med. 121:715.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Unanue, E. R., and Dixon, F. J., 1967, Experimental glomerulonephritis: Immunologic events and pathogenetic mechanisms, Adv. Immunol. 6:1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Unanue, E. R., Dixon, F. J., and Feldman, J. D., 1967, Experimental allergic glomerulonephritis induced in the rabbit with homologous renal antigens, J. Exp. Med. 125:163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Van Damme, B. J. C, Fleuren, G. J., Bakker, W. W., Vernier, R. L., and Hoedemaeker, P. J., 1978, Experimental glomerulonephritis in the rat induced by antibodies directed against tubular antigens. V. Fixed glomerular antigens in the pathogenesis of heterologous immune complex glomerulonephritis, Lab. Invest. 38:502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Willoughby, W. F., and Dixon, F. J., 1970, Experimental hemorrhagic pneumonitis produced by heterologous anti-lung antibody, J. Immunol. 104:28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Wilson, C. B., 1974, Immune complex glomerulonephritis, Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Nephrology (Mexico, 1972), Vol. 1, p. 68, Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  65. Wilson, C. B., 1979a, Immunologic diseases of the lung and kidney (Goodpasture’s syndrome), in: Pulmonary Diseases (A. P. Fishman, ed.), McGraw-Hill/Blakiston, New York, pp. 699–706.Google Scholar
  66. Wilson, C. B., 1979b, Immune reactions with antigens in or of the glomerulus, in: Immunopathology, (F. Milgrom and B. Albini, eds.), Karger, Basel, p. 127.Google Scholar
  67. Wilson, C. B., and Dixon, F. J., 1973, Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody-induced glomerulonephritis, Kidney Int. 3:74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wilson, C. B., and Dixon, F. J., 1974, Diagnosis of immunopathologic renal disease (Editorial), Kidney Int. 5:389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wilson, C. B., and Dixon, F. J., 1976, The renal response to immunological injury, in: The Kidney (B. M. Brenner and F. C. Rector, Jr., eds.), p. 838, Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  70. Wilson, C. B., and Dixon, F. J., 1978, Glomerulonephritis: Immunopathology and clinical manifestations, in: Immunological Diseases, 3rd ed., Vol. II (M. Samter, ed.), p. 1348, Little, Brown, Boston.Google Scholar
  71. Wilson, C. B., and Smith, R. C., 1972, Goodpasture’s syndrome associated with influenza A2 virus infection, Ann. Intern. Med. 76:91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Wilson, C. B., Dixon, F. J., Former, J. G., and Cerilli, J., 1971, Glomerular basement membranereactive antibodies in anti-lymphocyte globulin, J. Clin. Invest. 50:1525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wilson, C. B., Lehman, D. H., McCoy, R. C, Gunnels, J. C, Jr., and Stickel, D. L., 1974a, Antitubular basement membrane antibodies after renal transplantation, Transplantation 18:447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wilson, C. B., Marquardt, H., and Dixon, F. J., 1974b, Radioimmunoassay (RIA) for circulating anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies, Kidney Int. 6:114a (abstract).Google Scholar
  75. Wilson, C. B., Golbus, S. M., Neale, T. J., and Woodroffe, A. J., 1980, Nephritogenic immune responses involving antigens in or of the glomerulus, Streptococcal Diseases and the Immune Response (S. E. Read and J. B. Zabrinskie, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 463–475.Google Scholar
  76. Woodroffe, A. J., Neale, T. J., and Wilson, C. B., 1978, Spontaneous glomerulonephritis (GN) in New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits, VIIth International Congress of Nephrology, (Montreal, June 1978), abstract.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag US 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Curtis B. Wilson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ImmunopathologyScripps Clinic and Research FoundationLa JollaUSA

Personalised recommendations