Languages for Graphic Attention-Handling

  • I. W. Cotton


The primary area of software research into interactive computer graphics has been in the design of languages for the definition of pictures and the required underlying data structures. While this research is undoubtedly important, it is unfortunate that it has been performed largely to the neglect of research into improved techniques and languages for the interaction phase. The result has been that while it is getting increasingly easier to define pictures to be displayed, it is still rather difficult to specify the control path to be followed in response to operator interactions which seek to identify and perhaps modify picture elements. The state of the art would appear to be at the macro-using or subroutine-calling level, with little convenience and no particular graphic or interactive orientation.


International Business Machine Tracking Cross Attention Type Attention Source Attention Information 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Adams Associates. Report on Graphical Programming language. Delivered to UNIVAC, Division of Sperry Rand Corp., August, 1967.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Conn, C. G. and P. T. Hughes. “An executive for a remote interactive graphics terminal”. DECUS Fall Symposium, 1968, pp. 169–174.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cotton, I. W. and F. S. Greatorex. “Data structures and techniques for remote computer graphics”. Proc. FJCC, 1968, pp. 553–544.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Digital Equipment Corporation. Small Computer Handbook. Maynard Mass., 1969.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ellis, T.O. and W. L. Sibley. “On the development of equitable graphic I/O.” RAND Corp., Santa Monica, Calif., July 1966, 12 p. (Report No. P-3415) (AD-637 781)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Engelbart, D. C. and W. K. English. “A research center for augmenting human intellect.” Proc. FJCC, 1968, pp. 395–410.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gray, J. C. “Compound data structure for computer aided design.” Proc. ACM National Conference. 1967, pp. 355–365.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hurwitz, A. and J. P. Citron. “GRAF: Graphic Additions to FORTRAN”. Proc. SJCC, 1967, pp. 533–557.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    IBM Corporation. IBM System/360 Operating System Graphic Programming Services for IBM 2250 Display Unit, Form C27–6909, International Business Machines Corp., White Plains, N. Y.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    IBM Corporation. GPAK - An on-line System/360 graphic data processing subroutine package with realtime 2250 input and display. Version II. International Business Machines Corp., White Plains, N.Y.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    IBM Corporation. IBM System/360 Operating System Graphic Subroutine Package (GSP) for FORTRAN IV. COBOL, and PL/I, Form C27–6932. International Business Machines Corp., White Plains, N. Y.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Johnson, C. I. “Principles of interactive systems.” IBM Systems Journal. 7 (3 amp; 4), 1968, pp. 147–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Johnson, C. I. “An experimental PL/l extension for graphic programming.” IBM Cambridge Scientific Center Report 320–2025, International Business Machines Corporation, Branch Office, 1968.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lang, C. A., R. B. Polansky and D. T. Ross. “Some experiments with an algorithmic graphical language.” MIT Electronic Systems Laboratory- Technical Memorandum, Cambridge, Mass., August, 1968. (ESL-TM-220)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Licklider, J. C. R. “Man-computer communication.” In Annual Review of Information Science And Technology (Vol. 3), Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., Chicago, 111., 1968.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Michener, J. “Flowchart Programming System.” In Progress Report for the Period May 1 to August ¿1, 1968, for International Business Machines Corp. Data Processing Division).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Miller, W. F. and A. C. Shaw. “A picture calculus.” Emerging Concepts in Graphics. University of Illinois, Urbana, 1967.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Newman, W. “A system for interactive graphical programming”. Proc. SJCC, 1968, pp. 47–54.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Newman, W. “Definition Languages for Use With the Reaction Handler”. Centre for Computing and Automation, Imperial College, England, October, 1967.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ninke, W. H. “A satellite display console system for a multiaccess central computer.” Proc. IFIP Congress. Edinburgh, 1968.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Richardson, F. K. Graphical Specification of Computation. University of Illinois (Department of Computer Science), Urbana, 111., 1968. (Report No. 257).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ross, D. T. An Algorithmic Theory of Language. M.I.T. Electronic Systems Laboratory, Cambridge, Mass., Nov., 1962 (ESL-TM-156).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rully, A. D. “A subroutine package for FORTRAN.” IBM Systems Journal, 7, (3 amp; 4), 1968, pp. 248–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sammet, J. E. Programming Languages: History and Fundamentals. Prentiss-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1969.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stotz, R. H. and T. B. Cheek. “A low-cost graphic display for a computer time-sharing console11 Project MAC and Electronic Systems Laboratory,” M.I.T., Cambridge, Mass., July, 1967. (ESL-TM-316)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sutherland, I. E. “SKETCHPAD - A man-machine graphical communication system.” Proc. SJCC, 1963, pp. 329–346Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sutherland, W. R. “On-line Graphic Specification of Computer Procedures”. M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratories Technical Report 409, May, 1966.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    UNIVAC, Division of Sperry Rand Corp. 1557/1558 Advanced Graphic Display System - Programmers Reference Manual.,(UME-7657)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    van Dam, A. and D. Evans. “A compact data structure for storing, retrieving and manipulating line drawings.” Proc. FJCC, 1967, pp. 601–610.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    van Dam, A. and J. W. Brackett. Lecture Notes: Interactive Computer Graphics. Cybex Associates, Inc., Great Neck, N. Y.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wolfberg, M. S. An Interactive Graph Theory System. University of Pennsylvania (Moore School), Philadelphia, Pa., 1969. (Technical Report No. 69–25)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Company Ltd. 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. W. Cotton
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Sperry Rand Corp.UNIVACBlue Bell, PennsylvaniaUSA

Personalised recommendations