Nervous Control of Walking in the Cockroach

  • K. G. Pearson
  • C. R. Fourtner
  • R. K. Wong
Part of the Advances in Behavioral Biology book series (ABBI, volume 7)

Abstract

Over the past few years there have been significant advances in our knowledge of the nervous events underlying the leg movements of walking insects. These include (1) the precise description of the discharge patterns of identified motoneurones and the correlation of electrophysiological and behavioural data, (2) the demonstration of central rhythm generators for producing the basic rhythmicity of leg movements, (3) the recording of intracellular events in motoneurones and interneurones during rhythmic leg movements, and (4) the effects on motor output of changes in feedback from leg receptors. The most intensively studied animal has been the cockroach. For this animal it is clear that central mechanisms determine the basic rhythmicity and reciprocity in the activity supplying the muscles producing the alternate flexion and extension movement of the femur. Preliminary studies indicate that non-spiking interneurones are involved in the central patterning of motor output.

Keywords

Depression Hunt Stein Burrows Prepar 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Burns, M.D., 1972. The control of walking in Orthoptera. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Glasgow.Google Scholar
  2. Burns, M.D., 1973. The control of walking in Orthoptera. I. Leg movements in normal walking. J. Exp. Biol. 58, 45–58.Google Scholar
  3. Clarac, F., and Coulmance, M., 1971. La marche latérale du crabe (Carcinus); coordination des mouvements articularles et régulation proprioceptive. Z. vergl. Physiol. 73, 408–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Davis, W.J., 1969. Reflex organization in the swimmeret system of the lobster. I. Intrasegmental reflexes. J. Exp. Biol. 51, 547–563.Google Scholar
  5. Davis, W.J., 1971. Functional significance of motoneuron size and soma position in swimmeret system of the lobster. J. Neurophysiol. 34, 274–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Delcomyn, F., 1971a. The locomotion of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana. J. Exp. Biol. 54, 443–452.Google Scholar
  7. Delcomyn, F., 1971b. The effect of limb amputation on locomotion in the cockroach, Periplaneta americana. J. Exp. Biol. 54, 453–469.Google Scholar
  8. DeLong, M., 1971. Central Patterning of movement. Neurosci. Res. Prog. Bull. 9, 10–30.Google Scholar
  9. Engberg, I., and Lundberg, A., 1969. An electromyographic analysis of muscular activity in the hindlimb of the cat during unrestrained locomotion. Acta Physiol. Scand. 75, 614–630.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Euler, C.V., 1966, The control of respiratory movement. In Breathlessness (Ed. Howell, J.B.L., and Campbell, E.J.M.), pp. 19–32.Google Scholar
  11. Evoy, W.H., and Fourtner, C.R., 1973. Nervous control of walking in the crab, Cardisoma guanhumi. Ill, Proprioceptive influences on intra- and intersegmental coordination. J. Comp. Physiol. 83, 303–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ewing, A.W., and Manning, A., 1966. Some aspects of the efferent control of walking in three cockroach species. J. Ins. Physiol. 12, 1115–1118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Graham, D., 1972. A behavioural analysis of the temporal organization of walking movements in the first ins tar and adult stick insect (Carausius morosus). J. Comp. Physiol. 81, 23–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Grillner, S., 1973. On the spinal generation of locomotion. In Sensory Organization of Movements (Ed. Batuev, A.S.) In Press.Google Scholar
  15. Henneman, E., Somjen, G., and Carpenter, D.O., 1965. Functional significance of cell size in spinal motoneurons. J. Neurophysiol. 28, 560–580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hoy, R.R., and Wilson, D.M., 1969. Rhythmic motor output in leg motor neurons of the milkweed bug, Oncopeltus. Fed. Proc. 28, 588.Google Scholar
  17. Hoyle, G., 1964. Exploration of neuronal mechanisms underlying behaviour in insects. Iii Neural Theory and Modelling. (Ed. Reiss, R.). Stanford Univ. Press, pp. 346–376.Google Scholar
  18. Hoyle, G., and Burrows, M., 1973. Neural mechanisms underlying behavior in the locust, Schistocerca gregaria. I. Physiology of identified neurons in the metathoracic ganglion. J. Neurobiol. 4, 3–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kater, S.B., Heyer, C., and Kaneko, C.R.S., 1973. Identifiable neurons and invertebrate behavior. In Neurophysiology (Physiology Series). MTP Int. Rev. Sci. (Ed. Hunt, C.) In Press.Google Scholar
  20. Kater, S.B., and Rowell, C.H.F., 1973. Integration of sensory and centrally programmed components in generation of cyclical feeding activity in Helisoma trivolvis. J. Neurophysiol. 35, 142–155.Google Scholar
  21. Lundberg, A., 1969. Reflex control of stepping. Nansen Memorial Lecture to Norwegian Academy of Sciences and Letters.Google Scholar
  22. Mendelson, M., 1971. Oscillator neurons in crustacean ganglia. Science 171, 1170–1173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Paul, D.H., 1971. Swimming behavior of the sand crab, Emerita analoga (Crustacea, Anomura). III. Neuronal organization of uropod beating. Z. vergl. Physiol. 75, 286–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pearson, K.G., 1972. Central programming and reflex control of walking in the cockroach. J. Exp. Biol. 56, 173–193.Google Scholar
  25. Pearson, K.G., and Iies, J.F., 1970. Discharge patterns of coxal levator and depressor motoneurones of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana. J. Exp. Biol. 52 139–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Pearson, K.G., and Iies, J.F., 1973. Nervous mechanisms underlying intersegmental co-ordination of leg movements during walking in the cockroach. J. Exp. Biol. 58, 725–744.Google Scholar
  27. Pringle, J.W.S., 1938. Proprioception in insects. II. The action of the campaniform sensilla on the legs. J. Exp. Biol. 15, 114–131.Google Scholar
  28. Pringle, J.W.S., 1961. Proprioception in arthropods. In The Cell and the Organism. (Ed. Ramsay, J.A. and Wigglesworth, V.B.).Google Scholar
  29. Runion, H.I., and Usherwood, P.N.R., 1968. Tarsal receptors and leg reflexes in the locust. J. Exp. Biol. 49, 421–436.Google Scholar
  30. Szekely, G., Czeh, G., and Voros, G., 1969. The activity pattern of limb muscles in freely moving normal and de-afferented newts. Exp. Brain Res. 9, 53–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Usherwood, P.N.R., and Runion, H.I., 1970. Analysis of the mechanical responses of metathoracic extensor tibiae muscles of free-walking locusts. J. Exp. Biol. 52, 39–58.Google Scholar
  32. Usherwood, P.N.R., Runion, H.I., and Campbell, J.I., 1968. Structure and physiology of a chordatonal organ in the locust leg. J. Exp. Biol. 48, 305–323.Google Scholar
  33. Wendler, G., 1966. The co-ordination of walking movements in arthropods. Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol., No. 20. Nervous and Hormonal Mechanisms of Integration, pp. 229–250.Google Scholar
  34. Wilson, D.M., 1966. Insect walking. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 11, 103–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wilson, D.M., 1967. An approach to the problem of control of rhythmic behavior. In Invertebrate Nervous Systems. (Ed. Wiersma, C.A.G.). Univ. Chicago Press, pp. 219–230.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. G. Pearson
    • 1
  • C. R. Fourtner
    • 1
  • R. K. Wong
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyUniversity of Alberta EdmontonCanada

Personalised recommendations