Surface Characterization by Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA)

  • Shirley H. Hercules
  • David M. Hercules


Among the many new instrumental techniques to be added to the chemist’s arsenal, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) is one of the most ideally suited to the examination of surfaces. It is sensitive and quantitative, and signals can be obtained from nearly every element.


Binding Energy Electron Spectroscopy Surface Characterization Molybdenum Oxide Exciting Radiation 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shirley H. Hercules
    • 1
  • David M. Hercules
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of GeorgiaAthensGreece

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