The Dog, Canis familiaris

  • John M. Stewart
  • J. Paul Scott

Abstract

The dog, Cams familiaris, is the oldest domesticated animal. The actual time when domestication first occurred will probably never be known, but the oldest known remains, obtained from a cave in the Beaverhead Mountains of Idaho, have been carbon dated to be from the period 8300–9500 B.C., which means that they may be as much as 11,500 years old. Assuming, as Lawrence (1967) does, that the first dogs were domesticated approximately 12,000 years ago, they could have gone through as many as 6000 generations in domestication, based on an average generation span of 2 years, or, more conservatively, 4000 generations at a rate of one generation per 3 years. Since dogs associated with primitive human cultures were usually kept in small semi-isolated populations, the opportunities for rapid evolutionary change have been great. As Scott (1968) has pointed out, domestication presents a situation similar to a species entering into a new environment. We would expect the phenomenon of adaptive radiation to have taken place, particularly since dogs spread to all parts of the world and were kept not only in a great variety of human cultural environments, but also exposed to almost every climatic condition, from tropical to arctic. At the time of the historical exploration of the world, dogs were found associated with people on all continents, and most islands as well.

Keywords

Electrophoresis Iodide Half Life Neutropenia Glaucoma 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Barnett, K. C, 1969 Primary retinal dystrophies in the dog. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 154:804–808.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Barnett, K. C, 1970 Glaucoma in the dog. J. Small Anim. Pract. 11:113–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barnett, K. C, G. R. Bjorch and R. Kock, 1970 Hereditary retinal dysplasia in the Labrador retriever in England and Sweden. J. Small Anim. Pract. 10:755–759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baur, E. W. and R. T. Schorr, 1969 Genetic polymorphism of tetrazolium oxidase in dogs. Science (Wash., D.C.) 166:1524–1525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Borgaonkar, D. S., O. S. Elliot, M. Wong and J. P. Scott, 1968 Chromosome study of four breeds of dogs. J. Hered. 59:157–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Burns, M., 1952 The Genetics of the Dog, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, England.Google Scholar
  7. Burns, M. and M. N. Fraser, 1968 Genetics of the Dog, Oliver & Boyd, London.Google Scholar
  8. Cohen, C. and J. L. Fuller, 1953 The inheritance of blood types in the dog. J. Hered. 44:225–228.Google Scholar
  9. Dawson, W. M., 1937 Heredity in the dog. U.S. ept. Agric. Yearb.:1315–1349. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  10. Dodds, W. J., 1972 Hereditary canine coagulation disorders. Carniv. Genet. Newsl. 2(3):53–56.Google Scholar
  11. Donovan, D. F. and M. Wyman, 1965 Ocular fundus anomaly in the collie. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 147:1465–1469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Elliot, O., 1970 Intraspecific variation in weight of canine adrenal glands. Anat. Anz. 126:120–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Ford, L., 1969 Hereditary aspects of human and canine cyclic neutropenia. J. Hered. 60:293–299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Fox, M. W., 1965 Diseases of possible hereditary origin in the dog; A bibliographic review. J. Hered. 56:169–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Fox, M. W., 1970 Inherited structural and functional abnormalities in the dog. Can. Vet. J. 11:5–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Fuller, J. L., 1967 Experiential deprivation and later behavior. Science (Wash., D.C.) 158:1645–1652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fuller, J. L., 1970 Genetic influences on socialization. In Early Experience and the Process of Socialization, edited by R. A. Hoppe, G. A. Milton and E. C. Simmel, pp. 7–18, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Fuller, J. L. and L. D. Clark, 1966 Genetic and treatment factors modifying postisolation syndrome in dog. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 61:251–257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fuller, J. L. and L. D. Clark, 1968 Genotype and behavioral vulnerability to isolation in dogs. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 66:151–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Furth, E. O., D. V. Becker, E. A. Nunez and C. F. Reid, 1968 Thyroxine metabolism in the dog. Endocrinology. 82:976–982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hegreberg, G. A., G. A. Padgett, J. R. Gorham and J. B. Henson, 1969 A connective tissue disease of dogs and mink resembling the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome of man. II. Mode of inheritance. J. Hered. 60:249–254.Google Scholar
  22. Hutt, F. B., 1967 Genetic selection to reduce the incidence of hip dysplasia in dogs. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 151:1041–1048.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hutt, F. B., 1969 Advances in canine genetics with special reference to hip dysplasia. Can. Vet. J. 11:307–311.Google Scholar
  24. Hutt, F. B. and A. DeLahunta, 1971 A lethal glossopharyngeal defect in the dog. J. Hered. 62:291–293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Hutt, F. B., C. G. Richard and R. A. Field, 1948 Sex-linked hemophilia in dogs. J. Hered. 39:2–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Iljin, N. A., 1941 Wolf-dog genetics. J. Genet. 42:359–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Koppang, N., 1970 Neuronal ceroidlipofuscinosis in English setters. Juvenile amaurotic familial idiocy (AFI) in English setters. J. Small Anim. Pract. 10:639–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lawrence, B., 1967 Early domestic dogs. Z. Saugetier. 32:44–59.Google Scholar
  29. Leone, C. A. and R. L. Anthony, 1966 Serum esterases among registered breeds of dogs as revealed by immunoelectrophoretic comparisons. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 18:359–368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Little, C. C, 1957 The Inheritance of Coat Color in Dogs, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.Google Scholar
  31. Lund, J. E., G. A. Padgett and J. R. Gorham, 1970 Additional evidence on the inheritance of cyclic neutropenia in the dog. J. Hered. 61:47–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Meyers, K. M., and G. A. Padgett and W. M. Dickson, 1970 The genetic basis of a kinetic disorder of Scottish terrier dogs. J. Hered. 61:189–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Murphree, O. D., R. A. Dykman and J. E. Peters, 1967 Genetically-determined abnormal behaviour in dogs; results of behavioural tests. Cond. Reflex 2:199–205.Google Scholar
  34. Murphree, O. D., J. E. Peters and R. A. Dykman, 1969 Behavioural comparisons of nervous, stable, and crossbred pointers at ages 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Cond. Reflex 4:20–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Musser, E. and W. R. Graham, 1968 Familial occurrence of thyroiditis in purebred beagles. Lab. Anim. Care 18:58–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Mustard, J. F., D. Secord, T. D. Hoeksema, H. G. Downie and H. C. Rowsell, 1962 Canine factor-VII deficiency. Brit. J. Haematol. 8:43–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nunez, E. A., D. V. Becker, E. O. Furth, B. E. Belshaw and J. P. Scott, 1970 Breed differences and similarities in thyroid function in purebred dogs. Am. J. Physiol. 218:1337–1341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Nunez, E. A., B. B. Belshaw and M. D. Gershon, 1972 A fine structural study of the highly active follicular cell of the African Basenji dog. Am. J. Anat. 133:463–481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Osborne, C. A., D. H. Clifford and C. Jessen, 1967 Hereditary esophageal achalasia in dogs. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 151:572–581.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Patterson, D. F., 1968 Epidemiological and genetic studies of congenital heart disease in the dog. Circ. Res. 23:171–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Patterson, D. F. and W. Medway, 1966 Hereditary diseases of the dog. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 149:1741–1754.Google Scholar
  42. Patterson, D. F., W. Medway, H. Luginbuhl and S. Chacko, 1967 Congenital hereditary lymphoedema in the dog. Part I. Clinical and genetic studies. J. Med. Genet. 4:145–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Peters, J. E., O. D. Murphree and R. A. Dykman, 1967 Genetically-determined abnormal behaviour in dogs: Some implications for psychiatry. Cond. Reflex 2:206–215.Google Scholar
  44. Roberts, S. R. and S. I. Bistner, 1968 Persistent pupillary membrane in Basenji dogs. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 153:533–542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Robinson, R., 1968 Catalogue & Bibliography of Canine Genetic Anomalies. CHART Publication, West Wickham, Kent, England.Google Scholar
  46. Rowsell, H. C, H. G. Downie, J. F. Mustard, J. E. Leeson and J. A. Archibald, 1960 A disorder resembling hemophilia B (Christmas disease) in dogs. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 137:247–250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Rubin, L. F., 1968 Heredity of retinal dysplasia in Bedlington terriers. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 152:260–262.Google Scholar
  48. Rubin, L. F., 1971 Hemeralopia in Alaskan malamute pups. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 158:1699–1701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Rubin, L. F., T. K. R. Burns and L. H. Lord, 1967 Hemeralopia in dogs. Am. J. Vet. Res. 28:355–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Rubin, L. F., S. A. Koch and R. J. Huber, 1969 Hereditary cataracts in miniature schnauzers. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 154:1456–1458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Scott, J. P., 1964 Genetics and the development of social behavior in dogs. Am. Zool. 4:161–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Scott, J. P., 1968 Evolution and domestication of the dog. Evol. Biol. 2:243–275.Google Scholar
  53. Scott, J. P. and F. Bronson, 1964 Experimental exploration of the et-epimeletic or caregiving behavioral system. In Psychobiological Approaches of Social Behavior, edited by P. H. Leiderman and D. Shapiro, pp. 174–193, Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif.Google Scholar
  54. Scott, J. P. and J. L. Fuller, 1965 Genetics and the Social Behavior of the Dog, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, III.Google Scholar
  55. Scott, J. P., J. L. Fuller and J. A. King, 1959 The inheritance of annual breeding cycles in hybrid basenji-cocker spaniel dogs. J. Hered. 50:255–261.Google Scholar
  56. Scott, J. P., J. H. Shepard and J. Werboff, 1967 Inhibitory training in dogs: Effects of age at training in basenjis and Shetland sheep dogs. J. Psychol. 66:237–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Scott, J. P., F. Bronson and A. Trattner, 1968 Differential human handling and the development of agonistic behavior in basenji and Shetland sheep dogs. Dev. Psychobiol. 1(2): 133–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Scott, J. P., J. M. Stewart and V. J. DeGhett, 1974 Critical periods in the organization of systems. Dev. Psychobiol. 7(6):489–513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Shultz, F. T., 1970 Genetics. In The Beagle as an Experimental Dog, edited by A. C. Anderson, pp. 489–509, Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa.Google Scholar
  60. Stevens, R. W. C. and M. E. Townsley, 1970 Canine serum transferrins. J. Hered. 61:71–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Stockard, C. R., 1941 The Genetic and Endocrine Basis for Differences in Form and Behavior, Wistar Institute Press, Philadelphia, Pa.Google Scholar
  62. Swisher, S. N. and L. E. Young, 1961 The blood grouping systems of dogs. Physiol. Rev. 41:495–520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Templeton, J. W. and E. D. Thomas, 1971 Evidence for a major histocompatibility locus in the dog. Transplantation 11:429–431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Trimble, H. C. and C. F. Keeler, 1938 The inheritance of “high uric acid excretion” in dogs. J. Hered. 29:280–289.Google Scholar
  65. Van der Velden, N. A., 1968 Fits in Tervueren shepherd dogs: A presumed hereditary trait. J. Small Anim. Pract. 9:63–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Vigeveno, A. L. G., 1971 Neonatal dilation of the esophagus in dogs. Genen Phaenen 14:73–81.Google Scholar
  67. Wurster, D. H. and K. Benirschke, 1968 Comparative cytogenetic studies in the order Carnivora. Chromosoma (Berl.) 24:336–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Yakely, W. L., M. Wyman, D. F. Donovan and N. S. Fechheimer, 1968 Genetic transmission of an ocular fundus anomaly in collies. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 152:457–461.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • John M. Stewart
    • 1
  • J. Paul Scott
    • 2
  1. 1.The Jackson LaboratoryBar HarborUSA
  2. 2.Bowling Green State UniversityBowling GreenUSA

Personalised recommendations