Intercellular Gas: Its Role in Sonated Plant Tissue

  • A. Gershoy
  • D. L. Miller
  • W. L. Nyborg

Abstract

Determination of conditions for safe medical use of ultrasound is a difficult task which will probably require a variety of approaches. In one approach, model systems are chosen as test objects, in the hope of gaining insights which are useful generally. Plant tissues have been found suitable as models; with these, bio-effects are found at relatively low ultrasonic levels and can be investigated to determine thresholds. We shall not review previous studies here but note that in recent work a group of investigators at the University of Rochester1–4 have shown that 2 MHz ultrasound at intensities as low as 1 W/cm2 causes damage in the form of chromosome anomalies in plant roots. They also have shown that the temperature elevation during sonication is negligible under their conditions, and have suggested that some kind of cavitation might be a mechanism for the sonic effect.

Keywords

Toxicity Quartz Starch Corn Germinate 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    W. D. Gregory, M. W. Miller, E. L. Carstensen, F. L. Cataldo and M. M. Reddy, Non-thermal effects of 2 MHz ultrasound on the growth and cytology of Vicia faba roots, British Journal of Radiology 47, 122–129 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    F. L. Cataldo, M. W. Miller, W. D. Gregory and E. L. Carstensen, A description of ultrasonically-induced chromosomal anomalies in Vicia faba, Radiation Botany 13, 211–213 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    E. L. Carstensen, M. W. Miller and C. A. Linke, Biological effects of ultrasound, Journal of Biological Physics 4, 173–192 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    F. A. Eames, E. L. Carstensen, M. W. Miller and May Li, Ultrasonic heating of Vicia faba roots, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 57, 1192–1194 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    W. L. Nyborg, D. L. Miller and A. Gershoy, Physical consequences of ultrasound in plant tissues and other bio-systems, Proceedings of Seventh Rochester International Conference on Environmental Toxicity 1974 (Plenum Publishing Company).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. G. Flynn, Physics of cavitation, pp 57–172 in Physical Acoustics, Vol. 1B, Ed., W. P. Mason, Academic Press, New York 1964.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    E. N. Harvey in Decompression Sickness, Ed., J. F. Fulton, W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1951, Chap. IV.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. Johnsson and A. Lindvall, Effects of low-intensity ultrasound on viscous properties of Helodea cells, Naturwissenschaften 56, 40 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    H. J. Dyer and W. L. Nyborg, Ultrasonically induced movements in cells and cell models, IRE Trans. Med. Electron. ME-7, 163 (1960).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. Gershoy and W. L. Nyborg, Perturbation of plant-cell contents by ultrasonic micro-irradiation, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 54, 1356–1367 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    E. N. Harvey, E. B. Harvey and A. L. Loomis, Biol. Bull. 55, 459 (1928).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    W. L. Wilson, F. J. Wiercynski, W. L. Nyborg, R. M. Schnitzler and F. J. Sichel, Deformation and motion produced in isolated living cells by localized ultrasonic vibration, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 40, 1363 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    G. G. Selman, The effect of ultrasonics on mitosis, Experimental Cell Research 3, 656–674 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. Slotova, Z. Karpfel and I. Hrazdira, Chromosome aberrations caused by the effect of ultrasound in the meristematic cells of Vicia faba, Biologia Plantarum 9, 49–55 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    B. I. Bleaney and R. Oliver, The effect of irradiation of Vicia faba roots with 1.5 MHz ultrasound, British Journal of Radiology 45, 358–361 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    E. R. Hering and B. J. Shepstone, The effect of irradiation of Vicia faba roots with 1.5 MHz ultrasound, British Journal of Radiology 45, 786–787 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. Gramiak and P. M. Shah, Detection of intracardiac blood flow by pulsed echo-ranging ultrasound, Radiology 100, 415–418 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine and Plenum Press, New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Gershoy
    • 1
  • D. L. Miller
    • 1
  • W. L. Nyborg
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Physics and BotanyUniversity of VermontBurlingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations