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Demonstration of Protective (Inhibitory) Effects of Urinary Macromolecules on the Crystallization of Calcium Oxalate

  • W. B. Gill
  • J. W. Karesh

Abstract

Several inhibitors of kidney stone salt crystallization have been found to be effective in human urine which has led to the hypothesis that kidney stones may be caused by a deficiency of inhibitors in an otherwise normal supersaturated urine. Several small molecular weight (<1000) inhibitors of calcium oxalate and/or calcium phosphate crystallization have been reported 1 2 3. In a comparison of human urinary retentates with their dialysates, our laboratory has previously found a significant inhibition of the crystallization of urinary calcium oxalate by urinary macromolecules (UMM).4

Keywords

Crystallization Rate Calcium Oxalate Small Molecular Weight Artificial Urine Supersaturation Level 
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References

  1. 1.
    Russell, R.G. and Fleisch, H. Pyrophosphate and Stone Formation p. 165 in Renal Stone Research Symposium, Leeds, 1968. Ed. Hodgkinson, P. and Nordin, B. Churchill Publ., London.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Thomas, W.C. Inhibitors of Mineralization & Renal Stones p141 Nordin, B. Churchill Publ., London IbidGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sutor, D.J. Growth Studies of Calcium Oxalate in the Presence of Various Ions and Compounds. I Brit. J. Urol. 4l:171, 1969, II Brit. J. Urol. 42:296, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gill, W.B. and Roma, M.J. Determinants of Supersaturation Levels and Crystallization Rates of Calcium Oxalate from Urines of Normal Humans & Stone-Formers: Effects of Non-Dialyzable Materials. Presented 7th Ann. Meeting Assoc. Academic Surgery, Nov., 1973, Rochester, N.Y. (in press) J. Surgical Research.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gill, W.B. and Karesh, J.W. A Crystallization Profile of Urinary Calcium Oxalate (Supersaturation Levels, Crystallization Rates, Metastable Limits and Heterogeneous Nucleation). Presented at the Int. Colloq. Renal Lithiasis. Jan., 1975 U. of Fla. (in press).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gill, W.B., Silvert, M.A. and Roma, M.J. Supersaturation Levels & Crystallization Rates from Urines of Normal Humans and Stone-Formers Determined by a 14C-Oxalate Technique. J. Invest. Urol. 12:203, 1974.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. B. Gill
    • 1
  • J. W. Karesh
    • 1
  1. 1.The University of ChicagoChicagoUSA

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