Various Host-Insect Interrelations in Host-Finding and Colonization Behavior of Bark Beetles on Coniferous Trees
Three aspects of the relationship beween the coniferous host tree and bark beetles of the family Scolytidae are analyzed, and recent results are summarized. 1) Host-plant-terpenes serve in the host-recognition mechanism by attracting or repelling certain species and by synergizing or enhancing insect pheromones. 2) Proposed biosynthetic pathways for bark beetle pheromones produced from host-plant substances include 3-methyl-2-cyclohexen-l-one from the monoterpene terpinolene through piperitenone followed by cleavage of the isopropylidene side chain, and the analog alcohol 3-methyl-2-cyclohexen-l-ol from reduction of the ketone. Also, trans-verbenol, verbenone, and myrtenol are believed to result from oxidation of alpha-pinene, and similarly pinocarvone by oxidation of beta-pinene. However, the suggestion that certain kinds of pheromone production occur only on the freshly attacked host-tree is not supported by evidence that newly emerged beetles already release the same pheromones. 3) The host-plant also serves as the dense medium or substrate for sonic communication by those bark beetles that produce sound signals — an aspect that has received no study. In various Dendroctonus species it is established that the acoustic and chemical signals function as both stimulus and response in host-finding and colonization behavior.
KeywordsKetone Chitin Bark Terpene Monoterpene
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