Developmental Psychopharmacology

  • Paul D. Mabry
  • Byron A. Campbell

Abstract

One of the fastest growing scientific disciplines over the past ten years has been developmental neuroscience, and within this discipline an area that has attracted considerable scientific attention is developmental psychopharmacology. Since the early 1960’s, the annual scientific output in developmental psychopharmacology has mushroomed. There are a number of reasons for this heightened interest in ontogenetic drug effects, but perhaps the initial impetus derived from the thalidomide tragedy of the early 1960’s. At about the same time, the realization that physiological and behavioral function might be neurochemically coded served to stimulate further interest. As understanding of brain development increased, and as neurochemical and pharmacological techniques were refined, the number of ontogenetic studies increased proportionally.

Keywords

Dopamine Tryptophan Choline Acetylcholine Atropine 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abdel-Latif, A. A., Smith, J. P., and Ellington, E. P., 1970, Subcellular distribution of sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphate, acetylcholine and acetylcholinesterase in developing rat brain, Brain Res.18:441–450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adlard, B. P. F., and Dobbing, J., 1971, Elevated acetylcholinesterase activity in adult rat brain after undernutrition in early life, Brain Res.30:198, 199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adlard, B. P. F., and Smart, J. L., 1974, Some aspects of the behavior of young and adult rats treated with p-chlorophenylalanine in infancy, Dev. Psychobiol.7:135–144.Google Scholar
  4. Agrawal, H. C., and Himwich, W. A., 1970, Amino acids, proteins and monoamines of developing brain, in: Developmental Neurobiology (W. A. Himwich, ed.), pp. 287–310, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  5. Agrawal, H. C., Glisson, S. N., and Himwich, W. A., 1966, Changes in monoamines of rat brain during postnatal ontogeny, Biochim. Biophys. Acta130:511–513.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Agrawal, H. C., Glisson, S. N., and Himwich, W. A., 1968, Developmental changes in monoamines of mouse brain, Int. J. Neuropharmacol.7:97–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Andersen, A. E., and Guroff, G., 1972, Enduring behavioral changes in rats with experimental phenylketonuria, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.69:863–867.Google Scholar
  8. Angeletti, P. U., and Levi-Montalcini, R., 1970, Sympathetic nerve cell destruction in newborn mammals by 6-hydroxydopamine, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.65:114–121.Google Scholar
  9. Baez, L. A., Eskridge, N. K., and Schein, R., 1976, Postnatal development of dopaminergic and cholinergic catalepsy in the rat, Eur. J. Pharmacol.36:155–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bagdon, W. J., and Mann, D. E., 1965, Factors modifying chlorpromazine hyperthermia in young albino mice, J. Pharm. Sci.54:240–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bajgar, J., Golda, V., Petr, R., Zokova, Z., and Spacer, J., 1972, Development of acetylcholinesterase activity in offspring’s brain of adrenalectomized female rats, Brain Res.44:688–691.Google Scholar
  12. Baker, P. C., and Quay, W. B., 1969, 5-Hydroxytryptamine metabolism in early embryogenesis, and the development of brain and retinal tissues. A review, Brain Res.12:273–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Baker, P. C., Hoff, K. M., and Smith, M. D., 1974, The maturation of monoamine oxidase and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid in regions of the mouse brain, Brain Res.65:255–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Banik, N. L., and Davison, A. N., 1969, Enzyme activity and composition of myelin and subcellular fractions in the developing rat brain, Biochem. J.115:1051–1062.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Baumgarten, H. G., and Schlossberger, H. G., 1973, Effects of 5,6-dihydroxytryptamine on brain monoamine neurons in the rat, in: Serotonin and Behavior (J. Barchas and E. Usdin, eds.), Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Bayliss, B. J., and Todrick, A., 1956, The development of the cholinesterases in the brain and spinal cord of the young rat, Biochem. J.54:29b.Google Scholar
  17. Bell, R. W., Drucker, R. R., and Woodruff, A. B., 1965, The effects of prenatal injections of adrenalin chloride and d-amphetamine sulfate on subsequent emotionality and ulcer-proneness of offspring, Psychon. Sci.2:269, 270.Google Scholar
  18. Bennett, D. S., and Giarman, N.J., 1965, Schedule of appearance of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) and associated enzymes in the developing rat brain, J. Neurochem.12:911–918.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Blozovski, D., and Blozovski, M., 1973, Effets de l’atropine sur l’exploration, l’apprentissage et l’activité électrocorticale chez le rat au cours du development, Psychopharmacologia33:39–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Breese, G. R., and Traylor, T. D., 1972, Developmental characteristics of brain catecholamines and tyrosine hydroxylase in the rat: Effects of 6-hydroxydopamine, Br. J. Pharmacol.44:210–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Broch, O. J., 1973, The postnatal development of catechol-O-methyl transferase in the rat brain, J. Neurochem.20:847–852.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Brus, R., 1973, Effect of 6-hydroxydopamine on the level of the catecholamines in the brain of developing rats, Arch. Intern. Pharmacodyn.201:71–76.Google Scholar
  23. Butcher, R. E., 1970, Learning impairment associated with maternal phenylketonuria in rats, Nature London226:555–556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Butcher, R. E., Vorhees, C., and Berry, H., 1970, A learning impairment associated with induced phenylketonuria, Life Sci.9:1261–1268.Google Scholar
  25. Campbell, E. A., and Mabry, P. D., 1972, Ontogeny of behavioral arousal: A comparative study, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.81:371–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Campbell, B. A., and Mabry, P. D., 1973, The role of catecholamines in behavioral arousal during ontogenesis, Psychopharmacologia31:253–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Campbell, B. A., and Randall, P. K., 1975, Paradoxical effects of amphetamine on behavioral arousal in neonatal and adult rats: A possible animal model of the calming effect of amphetamine on hyperkinetic children, in: Aberrant Development in Infancy (N. R. Ellis, ed.), pp. 105–112, Erlbaum, Potomac, Maryland.Google Scholar
  28. Campbell, B. A., Lytle, L. D., and Fibiger, H. C., 1969, Ontogeny of adrenergic arousal and cholinergic inhibitory mechanisms in the rat, Science166:635–637.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Carraro, A., Corbin, A., Fraschini, F., and Martini, L., 1965, The effect of prepuberal treatment with reserpine on puberty, pituitary luteinizing hormone and the oestrus cycle of the rat, J. Endocrinol.32:387–393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Clark, C. V. H., Gorman, D., and Vernadakis, A., 1970, Effects of prenatal administration of psychotrophic drugs on behavior of developing rats, Dev. Psychobiol.3:225–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Clark, D. W. J., Laverty, R., and Phelan, E. L., 1972, Long-lasting peripheral and central effects of 6-hydroxydopamine in rat, Br. J. Pharmacol.44:233–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Cooper, J. R., Bloom, F. E., and Roth, R. H., 1974, The Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  33. Copenhaver, J. H., Carver, M. J., Johnson, E. A., and Saxton, M. J., 1970, Effect of para-chlorophenylalanine on the growth and development of the fetal, neonatal and adult rat, Biochem. Med.4:516–530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Coyle, J. T., 1973, The development of catecholaminergic neurons of the central nervous system, in: Chemical Approaches to Brain Function, (S. Ehrenpreis and I. J. Kopin, eds.), pp. 35–52, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  35. Coyle, J. T., 1974, Development of the central catecholamine neurons, in: The Neurosciences: Third Study Program (F. O. Schmitt and F. G. Worden, eds.), pp. 877–884, Rockefeller University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  36. Coyle, J. T., and Axelrod, J., 1971, Development of the uptake and storage of L-[3H]norepinephrine in the rat brain, J. Neurochem.18:2061–2075.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Coyle, J. T., and Axelrod, J., 1972a, Dopamine-β-hydroxylase in the rat brain: Developmental characteristics, J. Neurochem.19:449–459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Coyle, J. T., and Axelrod, J., 1972b, Tyrosine hydroxylase in rat brain: Developmental characteristics, J. Neurochem.19:1117–1123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Coyle, J. T., and Henry, D., 1973, Catecholamines in fetal and newborn rat brain, J. Neurochem.21:61–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Crossland, J., 1951, The use of liquid air in the extraction of acetylcholine, J. Physiol.114:318–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Deguchi, T., and Barchas, J., 1972, Regional distribution and developmental change of tryptophan hydroxylase activity in rat brain, J. Neurochem.19:927–929.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Dewyngaert, M., and Kellogg, C., 1974, Effect of early L-dopa administration on the ontogeny of motor functions in the rat. Brain Res.73:175–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Doty, B. A., and Johnston, M. M., 1966, Effects of post-trial eserine administration, age and task difficulty on avoidance conditioning in rats, Psychon. Sci.6:101–102.Google Scholar
  44. Egger, G. J., Livesey, P. J., and Dawson, R. G., 1973, Ontogenetic aspects of central cholinergic involvement in spontaneous alternation behavior, Dev. Psychobiol.6:289–299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Elkes, J., and Todrick, A., 1955, On the development of cholinesterases in the rat brain, in: Biochemistry of the Developing Nervous System (H. Waelsch, ed.), pp. 309–314, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  46. Elkes, J., Eayrs, J. T., and Todrick, A., 1955, On the effect and lack of effect of some drugs on postnatal development in the rat, in: Biochemistry of the Developing Nervous System (H. Waelsch, ed.), pp. 499–509, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  47. Feigley, D. A., 1974, Effects of scopolamine on activity and passive avoidance learning in rats of different ages, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.87:26–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Fibiger, H. C., Lytle, L. D., and Campbell, B. A., 1970, Cholinergic modulation of adrenergic arousal in the developing rat, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.72:384–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Finch, L., Haeusler, G., and Thoenen, H., 1973, A comparison of the effects of chemical sympathectomy by 6-hydroxydopamine in newborn and adult rats, Br. J. Pharmacol.47:249–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Ghosh, S. K., and Guha, S. R., 1972, Oxidation of monoamines in developing rat and guinea pig brain, J. Neurochem.19:229–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Glowinski, J., Axelrod, J., Kopin, I. J., and Wurtman, R. J., 1964, Physiological disposition of 3H-norepinephrine in the developing rat, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.146:48–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Golden, G. S., 1972, Embryological demonstration of a nigrostriatal projection in the mouse, Brain Res.44:278–282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Golden, G. S., 1973, Prenatal development of the biogenic amine systems of the mouse brain, Dev. Biol.33:300–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Green, A. R., and Grahame-Smith, D. G., 1975, 5-Hydroxytryptamine and other indoles in the central nervous system, in: Handbook of Psychopharmacology, Vol. 3, Biochemistry of Biogenic Amines (L. L. Iversen, S. D. Iversen, and S. H. Snyder, eds.), Chapt. 4, pp. 169–245, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  55. Greenough, W. T., Yuwiler, A., and Dollinger, M., 1973, Effects of posttrial eserine administration on learning in “enriched”-and “impoverished”-reared rats, Behav. Biol.8:261–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Grundt, I. K., and Hole, K., 1974, p-Chlorophenylalanine treatment in developing rats: Protein and lipids in whole brain and myelin, Brain Res.74:269–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Haber, B., and Ramano, A., 1966, Sub-cellular distribution of serotonin in the developing rat brain, Nature London209:404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Halgren, E., and Varon, S., 1972, Serotonin turnover in cultured raphe nuclei from newborn rat: In vitro development and drug effects, Brain Res.48:438–442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Heimstra, N., and Sallee, S., 1965, Effects of early drug treatment on adult dominance behavior in rats, Psychopharmacologia8:235–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Hoff, K. M., Baker, P. C., and Buda, R. E., 1974, Free tryptophan levels in regions of the maturing mouse brain, Brain Res.73:376–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Hoffeld, D. R., and Webster, R. L., 1965, Effect of injection of tranquilizing drugs during pregnancy on offspring, Nature London205:1070–1072.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Hoffeld, D. R., Webster, R. L., and Mcnew, J., 1967, Adverse effects on offspring of tranquilizing drugs during pregnancy, Nature London215:182–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Hoffeld, D. R., Mcnew, J., and Webster, R. L., 1968, Effect of tranquilizing drugs during pregnancy on activity of offspring, Nature London218:357–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Hole, K., 1972a, Reduced 5-hydroxyindole synthesis reduces postnatal brain growth in rats, Eur. J. Pharmacol.18:361–366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Hole, K., 1972b, Behavior and brain growth in rats treated with p-chlorophenylalanine in the first weeks of life, Dev. Psychobiol.5:157–173.Google Scholar
  66. Hole, K., 1972c, The effects of cyproheptadine, methylsergide, BC 105, and reserpine on brain 5-hydroxytryptamine and brain growth, Eur. J. Pharmacol.19:156–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Hyyppä, M., Lampinen, P., and Lechtinen, P., 1972, Alteration in the sexual behavior of male and female rats after neonatal administration of p-chlorphenylalanine, Psychopharmacologia25:152–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Jacobs, B. L., Wise, W. D., and Taylor, K. M., 1974, Differential behavioral and neurochemical effects following lesions of the dorsal or median raphe nuclei in rats, Brain Res.79:353–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Jewett, R. E., and Norton, S., 1966, Effects of tranquilizing drugs on postnatal behavior, Exp. Neurol.14:33–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Karki, N., Kuntzman, R., and Brodie, B. B., 1962, Storage, synthesis, and metabolism of monoamines in the developing brain, J. Neurochem.9:53–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Kato, R., 1960, Serotonin content of rat brain in relation to sex and age, J. Neurochem.5:202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Kelfer, D. A., and Rosen, A. J., 1974, Effects of metamphetamine, pipradrol, and methylphenidate on instrumental conditioning and spontaneous motor activity in the immature rat, Psychopharmacologia35:317–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Kellogg, C., and Lundborg, P., 1972a, Production of [3H]catecholamines in the brain following the peripheral administration of [3H]dopa during pre-and postnatal development, Brain Res.36:333–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Kellogg, C., and Lundborg, P., 1972b, Ontogenetic variations in responses to L-dopa and monoamine receptor-stimulating agents, Psychopharmacologia23:187–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Kellogg, C., and Lundborg, P., 1972c, Uptake and utilization of [3H]5-hydroxytryptophan by brain tissue during development, Neuropharmacology11:363–372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Kellogg, C., and Lundborg, P., 1973, Inhibition of catecholamine synthesis during ontogenetic development, Brain Res.61:321–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Kellogg, C., Lundborg, P., and Ramstedt, L., 1973, Analysis of capillary and parenchymal aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase activity in regional brain areas during ontogenetic development in the rat, Brain Res.50:369–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Khazan, N., Sulman, F., and Winnik, H., 1960, Effect of reserpine on pituitary-gonadal axis, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med.105:201–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Kilbey, M. M., and Harris, R. T., 1971, Behavioral, biochemical and maturation effects of early D,L-para-chlorophenylalanine treatment, Psychopharmacologia19:334–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Kling, A., Finer, S., and Nair, V., 1965, Effects of early handling and light stimulation on the acetylcholinesterase activity of the developing rat brain, Int. J. Neuropharmacol.4:353–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Koe, B. K., and Weissman, A., 1966, p-Chlorophenylalanine: A specific depletor of brain serotonin, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.154:499–516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Kordon, C., 1969, Effects of selective experimental changes in regional hypothalamic monoamine levels on superovulation in the immature rat, Neuroendocrinology4:129–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Kordon, C., Javoy, F., Vassent, G., and Glowinski, J., 1968, Blockade of superovulation in the immature rat by increased brain serotonin, Eur. J. Pharmacol.4:169–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Kostrzewa, R. M., and Harper, J. W., 1974, Effect of 6-hydroxydopa on catecholamine-containing neurons in brains of newborn rats, Brain Res.69:174–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Kulkarni, A. S., and Shideman, F. E., 1966, Sensitivities of the brains of infant and adult rats to the catecholamine-depleting actions of reserpine and tetrabenazine, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.153:428–433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Kulkarni, A. S., and Shideman, F. E., 1968, Catecholamine accumulation in the brains of infant and adult rats after monoamine oxidase inhibition, Eur, J. Pharmacol.3:269–271.Google Scholar
  87. Kulkarni, A. S., Thompson, T., and Shideman, F. E., 1966, Effect of reserpine administered during infancy on brain catecholamines and adult behavior in the rat, J. Neurochem.13:1143–1148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Kuzuya, H., and Nagatsu, T., 1969, Flavins and monoamine oxidase activity in the brain, liver, and kidney of the developing rat, J. Neurochem.16:123–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Ladinsky, H., Consolo, S., Peri, G., and Garattini, S., 1972a, Acetylcholine, choline, and choline acetyltransferase activity in the developing brain of normal and hypothyroid rats, J. Neurochem.19:1947–1952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Ladinsky, H., Consolo, S., Peri, G., and Garattini, S., 1972b, Changes in acetylcholine and choline concentrations and choline acetyltransferase activity in developing rat brain: Effect of propylthiouracil, Arch. Intern. Pharmacodyn.196:133–135.Google Scholar
  91. Lal, S., and Sourkes, T. L., 1973, Ontogeny of stereotyped behavior induced by apomor-phine and amphetamine in the vai, Arch. Intern. Pharmacodyn.202:171–182.Google Scholar
  92. Lamprecht, F., and Coyle, J. T., 1972, Dopa decarboxylase in the developing rat brain, Brain Res.41:503–506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Lapin, I. P., Osipova, S. V., Uskova, N. V., and Strabrovski, E. M., 1969, Pharmacological effects of imipramine and desmethylimipramine in developing rats, Psychopharmacologia14:255–265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Lauder, J. M., and Bloom, F. E., 1974, Ontogeny of monoamine neurons in the locus coeruleus, raphe nuclei and substantia nigra of the rat, J. Comp. Neurol.155:469–482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Lehtinen, P., HYYPPÄ, M., and Lampinen, P., 1972, Sexual behaviour of adult rats after the neonatal single injection of reserpine, Psychopharmacologia23:171–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Lew, G. M., and Quay, W. B., 1971, Noradrenaline contents of hypothalamus and adrenal gland increased by postnatal administration of 6-hydroxydopamine, Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol.2:807–812.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Lipton, M. A., Gordon, R., Guroff, G., and Udenfriend, S., 1967, p-Chlorophenylalanine-induced chemical manifestations of phenylketonuria in rats, Science156:248–250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Loizou, L. A., 1970, Uptake of monoamines into central neurones and the blood-brain barrier in the infant rat, Br. J. Pharmacol.40:800–813.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Loizou, L. A., 1971, Effect of inhibition of catecholamine synthesis on central catecholamine-containing neurones in the developing albino rat, Br. J. Pharmacol.41:41–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Loizou, L. A., 1972, The postnatal ontogeny of monoamine-containing neurones in the central nervous system of the albino rat, Brain Res.40:395–418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Loizou, L. A., and Salt, P., 1970, Regional changes in monoamines of the rat brain during postnatal development, Brain Res.20:467–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Louttit, R. T., 1962, Effect of phenylalanine and isocarboxazid feeding on brain serotonin and learning behavior in the rat, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.55:425–428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Lundborg, P., and Kellogg, C., 1971, Formation of [3H]noradrenaline and [3H]dopamine in the brain and heart of the rat foetus, Brain Res.29:387–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Lytle, L. D., and Mcguire, R. A., 1973, The ontogeny of amphetamine-induced alterations in thermal regulation, Fed. Proc. Fed. Amer. Soc. Exp. Biol.32:786 (3214).Google Scholar
  105. Lytle, L. D., Moorcroft, W. H., and Campbell, B. A., 1971, Ontogeny of amphetamine anorexia and insulin hyperphagia in the rat, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.77:388–393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Lytle, L. D., Shoemaker, W., Cottman, K., and Wurtman, R. J., 1972, Long term effects of postnatal 6-hydroxydopamine treatment on tissue catecholamine levels, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.183:56–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Lytle, L. D., Jacoby, J. H., and Wurtman, R. J., 1973, The effects of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine on brain serotonin in the developing rat, Paper presented at the 3rd Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, San Diego.Google Scholar
  108. Lytle, L. D., Jacoby, J. H., Nelson, M. F., and Baumgarten, H. G., 1974, Long-term effects of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine administered at birth on the development of brain monoamines, Life Sci.15:1203–1217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Mabry, P. D., and Campbell, B. A., 1973, Serotonergic inhibition of catecholamine-induced behavioral arousal, Brain Res.49:381–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Mabry, P. D., and Campbell, B. A., 1974, Ontogeny of serotonergic inhibition of behavioral arousal in the rat, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.86:193–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Maeda, T., and Dresse, A., 1969, Recherches sur le développement du locus coeruleus. 1. Etude des catecholamines au microscope de fluorescence, Acta Neurol. Belg.69:5–10.Google Scholar
  112. Maeda, T., and Gerebtzoff, M. A., 1969, Recherches sur le développement du locus coeruleus. 2. Etude histoenzymologique, Acta Neurol. Belg.69:11–19.Google Scholar
  113. Marchbanks, R. M., 1975, Biochemistry of cholinergic neurons, in: Handbook of Psychopharmacology, Vol. 3, Biochemistry of Biogenic Amines (L. L. Iversen, S. D. Iversen, and S. H. Snyder, eds.), Chapt. 5, pp. 247–326, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  114. Matthews, D. A., Nadler, J. V., Lynch, G. S., and Cotman, C. W., 1974, Development of cholinergic innervation in the hippocampal formation of the rat. I. Histochemical demonstration of acetylcholinesterase activity, Dev. Biol.36:130–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Mccaman, R. E., and Aprison, M. H., 1964, The synthetic and catabolic enzyme systems for acetylcholine and serotonin in several discrete areas of the developing rabbit brain, in: Progress in Brain Research, Vol. 9, The Developing Brain (W. A. Himwich and H. E. Himwich, eds.), pp. 220–233, Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  116. Mcgeer, E. G., Fibiger, H. C., and Wickson, V., 1971, Differential development of caudate enzymes in the neonatal rat, Brain Res.32:433–440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Meier, G., and Huff, F., 1962, Altered adult behavior following chronic drug administration during infancy and prepuberty, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.55:469–471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Metzler, C. J., and Humm, D. G., 1951, The determination of Cholinesterase activity in whole brains of developing rats, Science113:382–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Mirkin, B. L., 1972, Ontogenesis of the adrenergic nervous system: Functional and pharmacologic implications, Fed. Proc. Fed. Amer. Soc. Exp. Biol.31:65–73.Google Scholar
  120. Moorcroft, W. H., Lytle, L. D., and Campbell, B. A., 1971, Ontogeny of starvation-induced behavioral arousal in the rat, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.75:59–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Mueller, R. A., and Shideman, F. E., 1968, A comparison of the absorption, distribution and metabolism of reserpine in infant and adult rats, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.163:91–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Musacchio, J. M., 1975, Enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of catecholamines, in: Handbook of Psychopharmacology, Vol. 3, Biochemistry of Biogenic Amines (L. L. Iversen, S. D. Iversen, and S. H. Snyder, eds.), Chapt. 1, pp. 1–35, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  123. Nachmias, V. T., 1960, Amine oxidase and 5-hydroxytryptamine in developing rat brain, J. Neurochem.6:99–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Nadler, J. V., Matthews, D. A., Cotman, C. W., and Lynch, G. S., 1974, Development of cholinergic innervation in the hippocampal formation of the rat. II. Quantitative changes in choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, Dev. Biol.36:142–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Nair, V., 1974, Prenatal exposure to drugs: Effect on the development of brain monoamine systems, in: Drugs and the Developing Brain (A. Vernadakis and N. Weiner, eds.), pp. 171–197, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  126. Nair, V., and Bau, D., 1969, Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on the ontogenesis of acetylcholinesterase and carbonic anhydrase in rat central nervous system, Brain Res.16:383–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Olson, L., and Seiger, A., 1972, Early prenatal ontogeny of central monoamine neurons in the rat: Fluorescence histochemical observations, Z. Anat. Entwicklungsgesch.137:301–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Olson, L., Seiger, A., and Fuxe, K., 1972, Heterogeniety of striatal and limbic dopamine innervation: Highly fluorescent islands in developing and adult rats, Brain Res.44:283–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Pappas, B. A., and Dicara, L. V., 1973, Neonatal sympathectomy by 6-hydroxydopamine: Cardiovascular responses in the paralyzed rat, Physiol. Behav.10:549–553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Pappas, B. A., and Sobrian, S. K., 1972, Neonatal sympathectomy by 6-hydroxydopamine in the rat: No effects on behavior but changes in endogenous brain norepinephrine, Life Sci.11:653–659.Google Scholar
  131. Porcher, W., and Heller, A., 1972, Regional development of catecholamine biosynthesis in rat brain, J. Neurochem.19:1917–1930.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Potts, W. J., Morse, D. L., Cooper, B. R., and Black, W. C., 1970, The effect of magnesium pemoline, tricyanoaminopropene, and d-amphetamine on discriminated avoidance performance in rats as a function of age, Psychon. Sci.20:141–142.Google Scholar
  133. Prichard, J. W., and Guroff, G., 1971, Increased cerebral excitability caused by p-chlorophenylalanine in young rats, J. Neurochem.18:153–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Pryor, G. T., and Mitoma, C., 1970, Use of p-chlorophenylalanine to induce a phenylketonuric-like condition in rats, Neuropharmacology9:269–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Randall, P., and Giniger, E., 1975, L-dopa induced locomotor activity in the neonatal rat; mediation by a descending adrenergic system, Paper presented at the 46th Annual Meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, New York.Google Scholar
  136. Renson, J., 1971, Development of monoaminergic transmissions in the rat brain, in: Chemistry and Brain Development (R. Paoletti and A. N. Davison, eds.), pp. 175–184, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  137. Robinson, N., 1967, Histochemistry of monoamine oxidase in the developing rat brain, J. Neurochem.14:1083–1089.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Robinson, N., 1968, Histochemistry of rat brain stem monoamine oxidase during maturation, J. Neurochem.15:1151–1158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Rutledge, C. O., 1974, Factors influencing the effects of drugs administered during development on adult behavior, in: Drugs and the Developing Brain (A. Vernadakis and N. Weiner, eds.), pp. 61–65, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  140. Sachs, C., 1973, Development of the blood-brain barrier for 6-hydroxydopamine, J. Neurochem.20:1753–1760.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Sachs, C., and Jonsson, G., 1972, Degeneration of central noradrenaline neurons after 6-hydroxydopamine in newborn animals, Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol.4:203–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Salis, P. J., and Dewsbury, D. A., 1971, p-Chlorophenylalanine facilitates copulatory behavior in male rats, Nature London232:400–401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Schaefer, G. J., Buchanan, D. C., and Ray, O. S., 1973, The effects of early p-chlorophenylalanine administration and postweaning housing conditions on serotonin and behavior in rats, Life Sci.12:401–411.Google Scholar
  144. Schalock, R. L., and Copenhaver, J. H., 1973, Behavioral effects of experimental maternal hyperphenylalaninemia, Dev. Psychbiol.6:511–520.Google Scholar
  145. Schlesinger, K., Schreiber, R. A., and Pryor, G. T., 1968, Effects of p-chlorophenylala-nine on conditioned avoidance learning, Psychon. Sci.11:225–226.Google Scholar
  146. Schmidt, M. J., and Sanders-Busch, E., 1971, Tryptophan hydroxylase activity in developing rat brain, J. Neurochem.18:2549–2551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Seiger, A., and Olson, L., 1973, Late prenatal ontogeny of central monoamine neurons in the rat. Fluorescence histochemical observations, Z. Anat. Entwicklungsgesch.140:281–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Seliger, D. L., 1973, Effect of prenatal maternal administration of d-amphetamine on rat offspring activity and passive avoidance learning, Physiol. Psychol.1:273–280.Google Scholar
  149. Sheard, M. H., 1969, The effect of p-chlorophenylalanine on behavior in rats: Relation to brain serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, Brain Res.15:524–528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Shih, J.-H. C., and Eiduson, S., 1971, Multiple forms of monoamine oxidase in developing brain: Tissue and substrate specificities, J. Neurochem.18:1221–1227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Shimizu, N., and Morikawa, N., 1959, Histochemical study of monoamine oxidase in the developing rat brain, Nature London184:650–651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Singh, B., and de Champlain, J., 1972, Altered ontogenesis of central noradrenergic neurons following neonatal treatment with 6-hydroxydopamine, Brain Res.48:432–437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Sparber, S. B., 1974, Postnatal behavioral effects of in utero exposure to drugs which modify catecholamines and/or serotonin, in: Drugs and the Developing Brain (A. Vernadakis and N. Weiner, eds.), pp. 81–102, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  154. Taylor, K. M., Clark, D. W. J., Laverty, R., and Phelan, E. L., 1972, Specific noradrenergic neurons destroyed by 6-hydroxydopamine injection into newborn rats, Nature London239:247–248.Google Scholar
  155. Thornburg, J. E., and Moore, K. E., 1973, Postnatal development of benztropine-induced locomotor stimulation: Evidence for an anticholinergic mechanism of action, Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol.6:313–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Tirri, R., 1971, Central effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine and noradrenaline on body temperature and oxygen consumption in infant rats, Experientia27:274–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Tissari, A., and Pekkarinen, E. M., 1966, 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the developing brain (Scand. Congr. Physiol.), Acta Physiol. Scand.68:Suppl. 277.Google Scholar
  158. Tonge, S. R., 1973a, Permanent alterations in catecholamine concentrations in discrete areas of brain in the offspring of rats treated with methylamphetamine and chlorpromazine, Br. J. Pharmacol.47:425–427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Tonge, S. R., 1973b, Neurochemical teratology: 5-Hydroxyindole concentrations in discrete areas of rat brain after the pre-and neonatal administration of phencyclidine and imipramine, Life Sci.12:481–486.Google Scholar
  160. Tonge, S. R., 1974, Permanent alterations in 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism in discrete areas of rat brain following exposure to drugs during the period of development, Life Sci.15:245–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Tyce, G., Flock, E. V., and Owen, C. A., 1964, Tryptophan metabolism in the brain of the developing rat, Prog. Brain Res.9:198–203.Google Scholar
  162. Uehling, B., 1969, Effects of chronic d-amphetamine sulfate administration during development in rats, Int. J. Neuropharmacol.8:43–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Wapnir, R. A., Hawkins, R. L., Stevenson, J. H., and Bessman, S. P., 1970, Effects of oral administration of p-chlorophenylalanine to experimental animals, Biochem. Med.3:397–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Watt, D. D., and Martin, P. R., 1969, Phenylalanine antimetabolite effect on development. I. Behavioral effects of D,L-4-chlorophenylalanine in the young rat, Life Sci.8:1211–1222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Weiner, N., 1970, Regulation of norepinephrine biosynthesis, Annu. Rev. Pharmacol.10:273–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Weiner, R. I., and Ganong, W. F., 1971, Effect of the depletion of brain catecholamines on puberty and the oestrus cycle in the rat, Neuroendocrinology8:125–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Welsh, J. H., and Hyde, J. E., 1944, The distribution of acetylcholine in brains of rats of different ages, J. Neurophysiol.7:41–49.Google Scholar
  168. Werboff, J., and Havlena, J., 1962, Postnatal behavioral effects of tranquilizers administered to the gravid rat, Exp. Neurol.6:263–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Werboff, J., and Kesner, R., 1963, Learning deficits of offspring after administration of tranquilizing drugs to the mothers, Nature London197:106–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Werboff, J., Gottlieb, J. S., Dembicki, E. L., and Havlena, J., 1961a, Postnatal effect of antidepressant drugs administered during gestation, Exp. Neurol.3:542–555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Werboff, J., Gottlieb, J. S., Havlena, J., and Word, T. J., 1961b, Behavioral effects of prenatal drug administration in the white rat, Pediatrics27:318–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Wolf, H. H., and Rowland, C. R., 1969, Effects of chronic postnatal drug administration on adult dominance behavior in two genera of mice, Dev. Psychobiol.2:195–201.Google Scholar
  173. Young, R. D., 1964a, Drug administration to neonatal rats: Effects on later emotionality and learning, Science143:1055–1057.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Young, R. D., 1964b, Effect of prenatal drugs and neonatal stimulation on later behavior, J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol.58:309–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Young, R. D., 1965a, Effects of differential early experiences and neonatal tranquilization on later behavior, Psychol. Rep.17:675–680.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Young, R. D., 1965b, Effect of tranquilization of neonatal rats on later behavior, Psychol. Rec.15:401–407.Google Scholar
  177. Young, R. D., and Klepinger, B., 1966, Effect of neonatal catecholamine administration on later behavior in rats, Psychopharmacologia8:445–453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Zieher, L. M., and Jaim-Etcheverry, G., 1973, Regional differences in the long-term effect of neonatal 6-hydroxydopa treatment on brain noradrenaline, Brain Res.60:199–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul D. Mabry
    • 1
  • Byron A. Campbell
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyPrinceton UniversityPrincetonUSA

Personalised recommendations