Advertisement

In Vitro Immune Responses of Lymphoid Cell Populations to Proteins and Peptides

Chapter

Abstract

A great deal of valuable information about the immune response has been obtained through studies employing hapten-protein and synthetic peptide systems. Relatively less is known about the immune response to the determinants on proteins. Therefore, in the context of this volume, this chapter considers selected aspects of recent in vitro studies of immune responses to proteins per se—or as carriers for haptens—and to the peptides derived from these proteins. Some genetic, cellular, and molecular aspects of the cooperation of T and B lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic-type cells in the induction and maintenance of the antibody response to proteins are stressed. Also summarized are the antibody, proliferative, and differentiative responses and the generation of macrophage inhibitory factor—an in vitro correlate of cellular immunity—upon addition of peptides to lymphoid cells from animals immunized previously with the native proteins from which these peptides were derived. The section on regulation focuses upon the newly emergent findings on the nonspecific modulation of the antibody response by heterologous antigens and by cyclic nucleotides. Finally, the discussion section attempts to put these observations into perspective, and, with broad brush strokes, to paint the rather impressionistic picture of the antibody response that is possible with the available limited infromation about detailed mechanisms.

Keywords

Antibody Response Spleen Cell Lymphoid Cell Antibody Synthesis Mouse Spleen Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adler, F. L., 1964 Prog. Allergy 8: 41.Google Scholar
  2. Adler, F. L., Fishman, M., and Dray, S., 1966, J. Immunol. 97: 554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adler, L. T., Curley, D. M., and Fishman, M., 1973, J. Immunol. 110: 811.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ambrose, C. T., 1969, J. Exp. Med. 130: 1003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ambrose, C. T., 1973, J. Exp. Med. 137: 1369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Armerding, D., and Katz, D. H., 1974, J. Exp. Med. 140: 19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Armerding, D., and Katz, D. H., 1975, J. Immunol. 114: 1248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Armerding, D., Sachs, D. H., and Katz, D. H., 1974, J. Exp. Med. 140: 1717.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Armstrong, W. D., Langman, R. E., and Diener, E., 1974, J. Immunol. 113: 251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Askonas, B, A„ and Rbodes, J. M., 1965, Nature (London) 205:470Google Scholar
  11. Atassi, M. Z., 1964, Nature (London) 202: 496.Google Scholar
  12. Atassi, M. Z., 1975, Immunochemistry 12: 423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Atassi, M. Z., and Saplin, B. J., 1968, Biochemistry 7: 688.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Becker, M. J., Ray, A., Andersson, L. C., and Makela, O., 1975, Eur. J. Immunol. 5: 262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bell, C., and Dray, S., 1970, J. Immunol. 105: 541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bloom, B. R., Jimenz, L., and Marcus, P. I., 1970, J. Exp. Med. 132: 16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Britton, S., and Moller, G. J., 1968, J. Immunol. 100:1326. Bullock, W. W., and Rittenberg, M. B., 1970, J. Exp. Med. 132: 926.Google Scholar
  18. Bustin, M., Tarrab, R., Strausbauch, P. H., Sulica, A., and Sela, M., 1972, Eur. J. Immunol. 2: 288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Calderon, J., and Unanue, E. R., 1974, J. Immunol. 112: 1804.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Calderon, J., Kiely, J-M, Lefko, J., and Unanue, E., 1975, Exp. Med. 142: 151.Google Scholar
  21. Cerottini, J. C., and Trnka, Z., 1970, Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. 38: 37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cheers, C., and Miller, J. F. A. P., 1972, J. Exp. Med. 136: 1661.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cheers, C., Breitner, J. C. S., Little, M., and Miller, J. F. A. P., 1971, Nature (London) 232: 248.Google Scholar
  24. Clagett, J. A., and Weigle, W. O., 1974, J. Exp. Med. 139: 643.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Claman, H. N., Chaperon, E. A., and Triplett, R. F., 1966, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 122: 1167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cone, R. E., and Marchalonis, J. J., 1974, Biochem. J. 140: 345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cook, R. G., and Stavitsky, A. B., 1975, J. Immunol. 114: 426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Cook, R. G., and Stavitsky, A. B., 1976, Cell. Immunol, in press.Google Scholar
  29. Cook, R. G., Stavitsky, A. B., and Schoenberg, M. D., 1975, J. Immunol. 114: 426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Cunningham, A. J., 1969, Aust. J. Biol. Med. Sci. 47: 493.Google Scholar
  31. Davies, A. J. S., Leuchars, E., Wallis, V., Marchant, R., and Elliot, E. V., 1967, Transplantation 5: 222.Google Scholar
  32. Decker, J. M. Clarke, J., Bradley, L. M., Miller, A., and Sercarz, E. E., 1974, J. Immunol. 113: 1823.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Decker, J. M., Kim, Y. B., and Miller, A., 19746, J. Immunol. 113: 1599.Google Scholar
  34. Delespesse, G., Ishizaka, K., and Kishimoto, T., 1975, J. Immunol. 114: 1065.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. DeLuca, D., Decker, J., Miller, A., and Sercarz, E., 1974, Cell. Immunol. 10: 1.Google Scholar
  36. Diener, E., 1968, J. Immunol. 100: 1062.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Diener, E., and Langman, R. E., 1975, Prog. Allergy 18:6. Diener, E., and Paetkau, V. H., 1972, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 69: 2364.Google Scholar
  38. Diener, E., Lee, K.-C., Langman, R. E., Kraft, N., Paetkau, V. H., and Pernis, B., 1974, Regulation of the immune response at the single cell level, in: Control of Proliferation in Animal Cells ( B. Clarkson and R. Baserga, eds.), pp. 411–422, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.Google Scholar
  39. Dixon, F. J., and McConahey, P. J., 1963, J. Exp. Med. 117: 833.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Dresser, D. W., and Mitchison, N. A., 1968, Adv. Immunol. 8: 129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Dutton, R. W., 1961, Nature (London) 192: 462.Google Scholar
  42. Dutton, R. W., and Mishell, R. I., 1967, J. Exp. Med. 126: 443.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Dutton, R. W., and Pearce, J. D., 1962, Nature (London) 194: 93.Google Scholar
  44. Dutton, R. W., Falkoff, R., Hirst, J. A., Hoffmann, M., Kappler, J. W., Kettman, J. R., Lesley, J. F., and Vann, D., 1971, Is there evidence for a nonantigen specific diifusable chemical mediator from the thymus-derived cell in the initiation of the immune response, in: Progress in Immunology ( B. Amos, ed.), pp. 355–368, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  45. Eisen, H. N., and Siskind, G. W., 1964, Biochemistry 3:996. Ekpaha-Mensa, A., and Kennedy, J. C., 1971, Nature (London) New Biol. 233: 174.Google Scholar
  46. Engers, H. D., and Unanue, E. R., 1973, J. Immunol. 110:465. Erb, P., and Feldmann, M., 1975a, Nature (London) 254: 352.Google Scholar
  47. Erb, P., and Feldmann, M., 1975b, J. Exp. Med. 142: 460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Fanger, M. W., Hart, D. A., Wells, J. V., and Nisonoff, A., 1970, J. Immunol. 105: 1484.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Fauci, A. S., and Johnson, J. S., 1971, J. Immunol. 107: 1052.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Feldmann, M., 1922a, J. Immunol. 2: 130.Google Scholar
  51. Feldmann, M., 1972b, J. Exp. Med. 135: 735.Google Scholar
  52. Feldmann, M., 1972c, J. Exp. Med. 135: 1049.Google Scholar
  53. Feldmann, M., 1972d, J. Exp. Med. 136: 737.Google Scholar
  54. Feldmann, M., 1972c, J. Exp. Med. 136: 532.Google Scholar
  55. Feldmann, M., 1974a, Eur. J. Immunol. 4: 660.Google Scholar
  56. Feldmann, M., 1974b, Eur. J. Immunol. 4: 667.Google Scholar
  57. Feldmann, M., and Basten, A., 1972a, J. Exp. Med. 136: 49.Google Scholar
  58. Feldmann, M., and Basten, A., 1972b, J. Exp. Med. 136: 722.Google Scholar
  59. Feldmann, M., and Basten, A., 1972c, J. Exp. Med. 136: 737.Google Scholar
  60. Feldmann, M., and Basten, A., 1972d, Eur. J. Immunol. 2: 213.Google Scholar
  61. Feldmann, M., and Nossal, G. J. V., 1972, Q. Rev. Biol. 47: 269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Feldmann, M., and Schrader, J. W., 1974, Cell. Immunol. 14: 255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Feldmann, M., Cone, R. E., and Marchalonis, J. J., 1973, Cell. Immunol. 9: 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Feldmann, M., Greaves, M. F., Parker, D. C., and Rittenberg, M. B., 1974, Eur. J. Immunol. 4: 591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Fisher, D. B., and Mueller, G. C., 1969, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 176: 316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Fishman, M., 1961, J. Exp. Med. 114: 837.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Fishman, M., and Adler, F. L., 1963, J. Exp. Med. 117: 595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Friedman, H. (ed.), 1973, RNA in the Immune Response, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 207:1.Google Scholar
  69. Friedman, H. (ed.), 1975, Thymus Factors in Immunity, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 249:1.Google Scholar
  70. Friedman, H. P., Stavitsky, A. B., and Solomon, J. M., 1965, Science 149:1106. Gershon, R. K., 1974, Contemp. Topics Immunobiol. 3: 1.Google Scholar
  71. Gisler, R. H., Staber, F., Rude, E., and Dukor, P., 1973, Eur. J. Immunol. 3: 650.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Goldstein, A. L., Guha, A., Zak, M. M., Hardy, M., and White, A., 1972, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 69: 1800.Google Scholar
  73. Gooch, G. T., Stavitsky, A. B., Atassi, M. Z., Manderino, G., and Harold, W. W., 1976, manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
  74. Gorczynski, R. M., Miller, R. G., and Phillips, R. I., 1973, J. Immunol. 110: 968.Google Scholar
  75. Graf, M. W., and Uhr, J. W., 1969, J. Exp. Med. 130: 1175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Greaves, M. F., and Bauminger, S., 1972, Nature (London) New Biol. 235: 67.Google Scholar
  77. Greaves, M. F., and Brown, G., 1974, J. Immunol. 112: 420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Greaves, M. F., and Janossy, G., 1972, Transplant. Rev. 11: 89.Google Scholar
  79. Greaves, M. F., Owen, J. T., and Raff, M. C., 1973, T and B. Lymphocytes, Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  80. Greenberg, L. J., Gray, E. D., and Yunis, E. J., 1975, J. Exp. Med. 141: 935.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Greene, E. J., Tew, J. G., and Stavitsky, A. B., 1975, Cell. Immunol. 18: 476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Grey, H. M., Kubo, R. T., and Cerottini, J. C., 1972, J. Exp. Med. 136: 1323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Heber-Katz, E., and Wilson, D. B., 1975, J. Exp. Med. 142: 928.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Herscowitz, H. B., and Stavitsky, A. B., 1970, J. Immunol. 105: 1389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Herscowitz, H. B., Stavitsky, A. B., and Tew, J. G., 1971, Cell. Immunol. 2: 259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Hirst, J. A., and Dutton, R. W., 1970, Cell. Immunol. 1: 190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Hudson, L., Sprent, J., Miller, J. F. A. P., and Playfair, J. H. L., 1974, Nature (London) 251: 60.Google Scholar
  88. Hunter, P., and Kappler, J. W., 1975, J. Immunol. 114:1116. Hunter, P., and Kettman, J. R., 1974, Proc. Natl. Acad, Sci. U.S.A. 71: 512.Google Scholar
  89. Hunter, P., and Munro, A. J., 1972, Immunology 23: 69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Hunter, P., Kappler, J. W., and Kettman, J. R., 1974, J. Immunol. 113: 830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Hurme, M., Nakamura, I., Kaartinen, M., and Makela, O., 1975, Scand. J. Immunol. 4: 229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Hyslop, H. E., Dourmashkin, R. R. Green, N. H., and Porter, R. R., 1970, J. Exp. Med. 131: 783.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Ingraham, J. S., 1963, C. R. Acad. Sci. 256: 5005.Google Scholar
  94. Ishizaka, K., and Kishimoto, T., 1972, J. Immunol. 109: 65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Janeway, C. A., Sharrow, S. O., and Simpson, E., 1975, Nature (London) 253: 544.Google Scholar
  96. Jerne, N. K., and Nordin, A. A., 1963, Science 140: 405.Google Scholar
  97. Jonard, J., and Panijel, J., 1973, Eur. J. Immunol. 3: 245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Katz, D. H., and Benacerraf, B., 1972, Adv. Immunol. 15: 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Katz, D. H., and Unanue, E. R., 1973, J. Exp. Med. 137: 967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Katz, D. H., Paul, W. E., Goidl, E. A., and Benacerraf, B., 1970, Science 170: 462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Katz, D. H., Paul, W. E., Goidl, E. A., and Benacerraf, B., 1971, J. Exp. Med. 133: 169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Katz, D. H., Hamaoka, T., and Benacerraf, B., 1973, J. Exp. Med. 137: 1405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Katz, D. H., Dorf, M. E., and Benacerraf, B., 1974a, J. Exp. Med. 140: 290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Katz, D. H., Hamaoka, T., Dorf, M. E., and Benacerraf, B., 19746, J. Immunol. 112: 855.Google Scholar
  105. Kelly, B., Levy, J. G., and Hull, D., 1973, Eur. J. Immunol. 3: 574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Kelly, B., Kaye, B., Yoshizawa, W., Levey, J. G., and Kilburn, D. G., 1974, Eur. J. Immunol. 4: 356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Kettman, J., and Dutton, R. W., 1971, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 68: 699.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Kim, K. J., Cooper, R. B., and Herscowitz, H. B., 1975, Fed. Proc. 34: 959.Google Scholar
  109. Kishimoto, T., and Ishizaka, K., 1971, J. Immunol. 107: 1567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Kishimoto, T., and Ishizaka, K., 1972, J. Immunol. 109: 612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Kishimoto, T., and Ishizaka, K., 1973, J. Immunol. 111: 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Kishimoto, T., and Ishizaka, K., 1973b, J. Immunol. 111: 720.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Kishimoto, T., and Ishizaka, K., 1973c, J. Immunol. 111: 1194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Kishimoto, T., and Ishizaka, K., 1974, J. Immunol. 112: 1685.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Kishimoto, T., and Ishizaka, K., 1975a, J. Immunol. 114: 585.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Kishimoto, T., and Ishizaka, K., 19756, J. Immunol. 114: 1177.Google Scholar
  117. Klinman, N. R., 1971, J. Exp. Med. 133: 963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Klinman, N. R., 1972, J. Exp. Med. 136: 241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Klinman, N. R., and Doughty, R. A., 1973, J. Exp. Med. 138: 473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Klinman, N. R., Long, C. A., and Karush, F., 1969, J. Immunol. 99: 1128.Google Scholar
  121. Kreth, H. W., and Williamson, A. R., 1971, Nature (London) 234: 454.Google Scholar
  122. Kunin, S., Shearer, G. M., Segal, S., Globerson, A., and Feldman, M., 1971, Cell Immunol. 2: 229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Lamelin, J.-P., Lisowska-Bernstein, B., Matter, A., Ryser, J. E., and Vassali, P., 1972, J. Exp. Med. 136: 984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Lazda, V. A., Starr, J. L., and Rachmeler, M., 1968, J. Immunol. 101:349. Lee, K.-C., Langman, R. E., Diener, E., and Paetkau, V. H., 1973, Eur. J. Immunol. 3: 306.Google Scholar
  125. Lefkovits, I., Quintans, J., Munro, A., and Waldmann, H., 1975, Immunology 28: 1149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Levy, J. G., Hull, D., Kelly, B., Kilburn, D. G., and Teather, R. M., 1972, Cell. Immunol. 5: 87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Loor, F. L., Forni, L., and Pernis, B., 1972, Eur. J. Immunol. 2: 203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Macario, A. J. L., and de Macario, E. C., 1974, J. Immunol. 113: 756.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Mach, B., and Vassalli, P., 1965, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 54: 975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Mach, B., and Vassalli, P., 1965b, Science 150: 622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Marbrook, J., 1967, Lancet 2: 1279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. McCullagh, P. J., 1970, J. Exp. Med. 132: 916.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. McDevitt, H. O., and Benacerraf, B., 1969, Adv. Immunol. 11:31. Mendelsohn, J., Skinner, S. A., and Kornfeld, S., 1971, J. Clin. Invest. 50: 818.Google Scholar
  134. Michaelides, M. C., and Coons, A. H., 1963, J. Exp. Med. 117: 1035.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Miller, J. F. A. P., and Mitchell, G. F., 1967, Nature (London) 216: 659.Google Scholar
  136. Miller, J. F. A. P., Sprent, J., Basten, A., Warner, N. L., Breitner, J. C. S., Rowland, G., Hamilton, J., Silver, H., and Martin, W. J., 1971, J. Exp. Med. 134: 1266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Miller, J. J., III, 1973, Cell. Immunol. 8: 413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Mitchison, N. A., 1969, Isr. J. Med. Sci. 5: 230.Google Scholar
  139. Mitchison, N. A., 1971, Eur. J. Immunol. 1: 68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Moorhead, J. W., Walters, C. S., and Claman, H. N., 1973, J. Exp. Med. 137: 411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Muller-Eberhard, H. J., 1968, Adv. Immunol. 8: 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Munro, A., and Hunter, P., 1970, Nature (London) 225: 277.Google Scholar
  143. Munro, A. J., Taussig, M. J., Campbell, R., Williams, H., and Lawson, Y., 1974, J. Exp.Med. 140: 1579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Nakamura, I., Segal, S., Globerson, A., and Feldman, M., 1972, Cell. Immunol. 4: 351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Nossal, G. J. V., and Ada, G. L., 1971, Antigens, Lymphoid Cells and the Immune Response, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  146. Nossal, G. J. V., and Makela, O., 1962, J. Exp. Med. 115: 209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. O’Brien, T. F., and Coons, A. H., 1963, J. Exp. Med. 117: 1063.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Osborne, D. P., and Katz, D. H., 1973a, J. Immunol. 111: 1164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Osborne, D. P., and Katz, D. H., 1973b, J. Immunol. 111: 1176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Pai, R. C., and Atassi, M. Z., 1975, Immunochemistry 12: 285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Panijel, J., Delamette, F., and Leneveu, M, 1971, Eur. J. Immunol. 1: 87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Pelley, R. P., and Stavitsky, A. B., 1976, manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
  153. Perkins, W. D., Karnovsky, M. J., and Unanue, E. R., 1972, J. Exp. Med. 135: 267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Peters, J. H., and Hausen, P., 1971, Eur. J. Biochem. 19: 509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Piguet, P. F., and Vassalli, P., 1973, Eur. J. Immunol. 3: 477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Quastel, M. R., and Kaplan, J. G., 1970, Exp. Cell Res. 63: 230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Raff, M. C., and de Petris, S., 1973, Fed. Proc. 32: 48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Raff, M. C., Feldmann, M, and de Petris, S., 1973, J. Exp. Med. 137: 1024.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Rittenberg, M. B., and Bullock, W. W., 1972, Immunochemistry 9: 491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Roelants, G. E., and Askonas, B. A., 1971, Eur. J. Immunol. 1: 151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Roelants, G., Forni, L., and Pernis, B., 1973, J. Exp. Med. 137: 1060.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Romball, C. G., and Weigle, W. O., 1973, J. Exp. Med. 138: 1426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Rosenthal, A. S., and Shevach, E. M., 1973, J. Exp. Med. 138: 1194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Rubin, A. S., and Coons, A. H., 1972a, J. Immunol. 108: 1597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Rubin, A. S., and Coons, A. H., 1972b, J. Exp. Med. 135: 437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Rubin, A. S., and Coons, A. H., 1972c, J. Exp. Med. 136: 1501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Rubin, A. S., McDonald, A. B., and Coons, A. H., 1973, J. Immunol. 111: 1314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Rubin, A. S., MacDonald, B., and Coons, A H., 1974, J. Exp. Med. 139: 439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Rubin, B., and Wigzell, H., 1974, J. Exp. Med. 139: 732.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Schechter, I., Schechter, B., and Sela M., 1966, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 127: 438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Schimpl, A., and Wecker, E., 1972a, Nature (London) 237: 15.Google Scholar
  172. Schimpl, A., and Wecker, E., 1972b, J. Exp. Med. 137: 547.Google Scholar
  173. Schmidtke, J. R., and Unanue, E. R., 1971, J. Immunol. 107: 331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Schmiege, S. K., and Miller, H. C., 1974, J. Immunol. 113: 110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Schrader, J. W., 1973, J. Exp. Med. 138: 1466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Schrader, J. W., 1975, J. Exp. Med. 141: 962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Schrader, J. W., and Feldmann, M., 1973, Eur. J. Immunol. 3: 711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Schreffler, D. C., and David, C. S., 1975, Adv. Immunol. 20: 125.Google Scholar
  179. Segal, S., Globerson, A., and Feldman, M., 1971a, Cell. Immunol. 2: 205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Segal, S., Globerson, A., and Feldman, M., 1971b, Cell. Immunol. 2: 222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Segal, S., Globerson, A., Feldman, M., Haimovich, J., and Sela, M., 1970, J. Exp. Med. 131: 93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Sela, M., 1969, Science 166: 1365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Self, C. H., Tew, J. G., Cook, R. G., and Stavitsky, A. B., 1974, Immunochemistry 11: 227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Senyk, G., Williams, E. B., Nitecki, D. E., and Goodman, J. W., 1971, J. Exp. Med. 133: 1294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Shearer, G. M., Cudcowicz, G., Connel, M.S.J., and Priore, R. L., 1968, J. Exp. Med. 128: 437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Shortman, K., and Palmer, J., 1971, 7. Cell. Immunol. 2: 399.Google Scholar
  187. Singer, S. J., and Nicolson, G. L., 1972, Science 175: 720.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Siskind, G. W., and Thorbecke, G. J., 1971, Immunology 20: 151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Spitler, L., Benjamini, E., Young, J. D., Kaplan, H., and Fudenberg, H. H., 1970, J. Exp. Med. 131: 133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Stavitsky, A. B., 1954, J. Infect. Dis. 94: 306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Stavitsky, A. B., and Cook, R. G., 1974, J. Immunol. 112: 583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Stavitsky, A. B., and Gusdon, J. P., 1966, Bacteriol. Rev. 30: 418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Stavitsky, A. B., and Self, C. H., 1972, Immunol. Communi. 1: 491.Google Scholar
  194. Stavitsky, A. B., Tew, J. G., and Harold, W. W., 1974, J. Immunol. 113: 2045.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Stavitsky, A. B., Atassi, M. Z., Gooch, G. T., Pelley, R. P., and Harold, W. W., 1975, Immunochemistry 12: 959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Stecher, V. J., and Thorbecke, G. J., 1967, J. Exp. Med. 125: 33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Steiner, L. A., and Eisen, H. N., 1967, J. Exp. Med. 126: 1185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Sterzl, J., 1959, Nature (London) 183:541.Google Scholar
  199. Strausbauch, P. H., Tarrab, R., Sulica, A., and Sela, M., 1972, J. Immunol. 108: 236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Tao, T. W., 1972, Eur. J. Immunol. 2: 332.Google Scholar
  201. Tao, T. W., and Leary, P. L., 1969, Nature (London) 233: 306.Google Scholar
  202. Tarrab, R., Sulica, A., Haimovich, J., and Sela, M., 1971, Eur. J. Immunol. 1: 231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Taussig, M. J., Munro, A. J., Campbell, R., David, C. S., and Staines, N. A., 1975, J. Exp. Med. 142: 694.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Taylor, R. B., Philips, W., Duffus, P. H., Raff, M. C., and de Petris, S., 1971, Nature (London) New Biol. 233: 225.Google Scholar
  205. Teh, H. S., and Paetkau, V., 1974, Nature (London) 250: 505.Google Scholar
  206. Tew, J. G., and Stavitsky, A. B., 1974, Cell. Immunol. 14: 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Tew, J. G., Self, C. H., Harold, W. W., and Stavitsky, A. B., 1973, J. Immunol. 111: 416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Thomas, D. W., Roberts, W. K., and Talmage, D. W., 1975, J. Immunol. 114: 1616.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Unanue, E. R., 1972, Adv. Immunol. 15: 95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Unanue, E. R., and Calderon, J., 1975, Fed. Proc. 34: 1737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Unanue, E. R., and Cerottini, J.-C., 1970, J. Exp. Med. 131: 711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Unanue, E. R., and Katz, D. H., 1973, Eur. J. Immunol. 3: 559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Unanue, E. R., Perkins, W. D., and Karnovsky, M. J., 1972, J. Exp. Med. 136: 885.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Unanue, E. R., Ault, K. A., and Karnovsky, M. J., 1974, J. Exp. Med. 139: 295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Urso, P., and Makinodan, T., 1963, J. Immunol. 90: 897.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Vaughan, J. H., Dutton, A. H., Dutton, R. W., George, M., and Marston, R. Q., 1960, J. Immunol. 84: 258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Vitetta, E. S., and Uhr, J. W., 1975a, Science 189: 964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Vitetta, E. S., and Uhr, J. W., 19756, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 415: 253.Google Scholar
  219. Vitetta, E. S., Bianco, C., Nussenzweig, V., and Uhr, J. W., 1972, J. Exp. Med. 136: 81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Waldmann, H., 1975, Immunology 28: 497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Waldmann, H., and Munro, A., 1974, Immunology 27: 53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Waldmann, H., Munro, A., and Hunter, P., 1973, Eur. J. Immunol. 3: 167.Google Scholar
  223. Waterfield, D., Levy, J. G., Kilburn, D. G., and Teather, R. M., 1972, Cell. Immunol. 3: 253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Watson, J., Epstein, R., and Cohn, M., 1973, Nature (London) 246: 405.Google Scholar
  225. Weigle, W. O., 1966, Immunology 10: 377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Weinbaum, F. I., Butchko, L. S., Thorbecke, G. J., and Nisonoff, A., 1974, J. Immunol. 113: 257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Wilson, G. S., and Miles, A. A., 1964, Topley and Wilson’s Principles of Bacteriology and Immunity, Vol. 2, 5th ed., pp. 1370–1374. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  228. Wood, D. D., and Gaul, S. L., 1974, J. Immunol. 113: 925.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Wust, C. J., Gall, C. L., and Novelli, G. D., 1964, Science 143: 1041.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Microbiology, School of MedicineCase Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations