Advertisement

Influence of Conformation on Immunochemical Properties of Proteins

Chapter

Abstract

The ability of foreign proteins to induce the production of antibody has formed the basis for both passive and active immunization of humans and animals against infectious diseases. Thus the observation of Behring and Kitasato (1890) that cell-free sera of rabbits and mice, which were injected with inactivated diphtheria or tetanus toxin, were capable of neutralizing the toxin led to the development of antitoxin therapy. In the early history of immunology, attention was focused on the development of methods to inactivate a toxin without affecting its antigenicity. The use of formalin to inactivate a toxin proved to be a valuable discovery (Salkowski, 1898) and had extensive application in the commercial production of antitoxins (Glenny and Südmersen, 1921).

Keywords

Human Serum Albumin Circular Dichroism Disulfide Bond Native Conformation Amino Acid Replacement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Achter, E. K., and Swan, I. D. A., 1971, Biochemistry 10: 2976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmed, A. K., 1969, Ph.D. thesis, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.Google Scholar
  3. Andres, S. F., and Atassi, M. Z., 1970, Biochemistry 9: 2268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Anfinsen, C. B., 1956, J. Biol. Chem. 221: 405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Anfinsen, C. B., 1961, J. Polym. Sci. 49: 31.Google Scholar
  6. Anfinsen, C. B., and Haber, E., 1961, J. Biol. Chem. 236: 1361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Anfinsen, C. B., and Scheraga, H. A., 1975, Adv. Protein Chem. 29: 205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Anfinsen, C. B., and White, F. H., Jr., 1961, in: The Enzymes, Vol. V, 2nd ed., Part B (P. D.Boyer, H. Lardy, and K. Myrback, eds.), p. 95, Academic Press, New York. Anfinsen, C. B., Haber, E., Sela, M., and White, F. H., Jr., 1961, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 47: 1309.Google Scholar
  9. Arnheim, N., Jr., and Wilson, A. C., 1967, J. Biol. Chem. 242: 3951.Google Scholar
  10. Arnheim, N., Prager, E. M., and Wilson, A. C., 1969, J. Biol. Chem. 244: 2085.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Arnon, R., and Shapira, E., 1967, Biochemistry 6: 3942.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Arnon, R., and Shapira, E., 1968, Biochemistry 7: 4196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Atassi, M. Z., 1967, Biochem. J. 103: 29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Atassi, M. Z., 1970, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 221: 612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Atassi, M. Z., 1975, Immunochemistry 12: 423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Atassi, M. Z., and Caruso, D. R., 1968, Biochemistry 7: 699.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Atassi, M. Z., and Saplin, B. J., 1971, Biochemistry 10: 4740.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Atassi, M. Z., and Singhal, R. P., 1970a, J. Biol. Chem. 245: 5122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Atassi, M. Z., and Singhal, R. P., 19706, Biochemistry 9: 3854.Google Scholar
  20. Atassi, M. Z., and Skalski, D. J., 1969, Immunochemistry 6: 25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Atassi, M. Z., Brown, R. K., and McEwan, M., 1965, Immunochemistry 2: 379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Atassi, M. Z., Habeeb, A. F. S. A., and Rydstedt, L., 1970a, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 200: 184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Atassi, M. Z., Tarlowski, D. P., and Paull, J. H., 1970b, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 221: 623.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Aune, K., 1968, Ph.D. dissertation, Duke University, Durham, N.C.Google Scholar
  25. Aune, K. C., Salahuddin, A., Zarlengo, M. H., andTanford, C., 1967, J. Biol. Chem. 242: 4486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Barel, A. O., Turner, M., and Dolmans, M., 1972, Eur. J. Biochem. 30: 26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Barman, T. E., and Bagshaw, W., 1972, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 278: 491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Barnard, E. A., and Stein, W. D., 1959, J. Mol. Biol. 1: 339.Google Scholar
  29. Behring, E., and Kitasato, S., 1890, Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 16: 1113.Google Scholar
  30. Beilinsson, A., 1929, Biochem. Z. 213: 399.Google Scholar
  31. Bigelow, C. C., 1964, J. Mol. Biol. 8: 696.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Bigelow, C. C., and Geschwind, I. I., 1961, C. R. Trav. Lab. Carlsberg 32: 89.Google Scholar
  33. Biltonen, R., Lumry, R., Madison, V., and Parker, H., 1965, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 54: 1412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Blackburn, S., and Lee, G. R., 1956, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 19: 505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Blake, C. C. F., Johnson, L. N., Mair, G. A., North, A. C. T., Phillips, D. C., and Sarma, V. R., 1967, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) Ser. B 167: 378.Google Scholar
  36. Bohak, Z., 1964, J. Biol. Chem. 239: 2878.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Bradbury, J. H., and King, N. L. R., 1971, Aust. J. Chem. 24: 1703.Google Scholar
  38. Bradbury, S. L., and Jakoby, W. B., 1972, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 69: 2373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Bradshaw, R. A., Neurath, H., and Walsh, K. A., 1969, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 63: 406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Brahms, J., and Kay, C. M., 1962, J. Biol. Chem. 237: 3449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Brandts, J. F., and Hunt, L., 1967, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 89: 4826.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Breslow, E., and Gurd, F. R. N., 1962, J. Biol. Chem. 237: 371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Breslow, E., Beychok, S., Hardman, K. D., and Gurd, F. R. N., 1965, J. Biol. Chem. 240: 304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Brew, K., and Campbell, P. N., 1967, Biochem. J. 102: 258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Brew, K., Vanaman, T. C., and Hill, R. L., 1967, J. Biol. Chem. 242: 3747.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Brown, J. E., and Klee, W. A., 1969, Biochemistry 8: 2876.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Brown, J. R., and Hartley, B. S., 1966, Biochem. J. 101: 214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Brown, R. K., Durieux, J., Delaney, R., Leikhim, E., and Clark, B. J., 1959, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sei. 81: 524.Google Scholar
  49. Browne, W. J., North, A. C. T., Phillips, D. C., Brew, K., Vanaman, T. C., and Hill, R. L., 1969, J. Mol. Biol. 42: 65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Buckley, C. E., Ill, Whitney, P. L., and Tanford, C., 1963, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sei. U.S.A. 50: 827.Google Scholar
  51. Bull, H. B., and Breese, K., 1973, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 156: 604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Burgess, A. W., Weinstein, L. I., Gabel, D., and Scheraga, H. A., 1975, Biochemistry 14: 197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Campbell, L. L., and Cleveland, P. D., 1961, J. Biol. Chem. 236: 2966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Campbell, L. L., and Manning, G. B., 1961, J. Biol. Chem. 236: 2962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Castellino, F. J., and Hill, R. L., 1970, J. Biol. Chem. 245: 417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Cecil, R., 1963, in: The Proteins, Vol. 1, 2nd ed. (H. Neurath, ed.), p. 379, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  57. Chantrenne, H., 1961, in: The Biosynthesis of Proteins, Pergamon Press, New York, p. 122.Google Scholar
  58. Cherry, M., 1964, Ph.D. thesis, Yale University, New Haven.Google Scholar
  59. Chilson, O. P., Costello, L. A., and Kaplan, N. O., 1965, Biochemistry 4: 271.Google Scholar
  60. Crumpton, M. J., 1966, Biochem. J. 100: 223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Crumpton, M. J., 1968, Biochem. J. 108:18P (abst.).Google Scholar
  62. Crumpton, M. J., and Poison, A., 1965, J. Mol. Biol. 11: 722.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Dakin, H. D., 1912/1913, J. Biol. Chem. 13: 357.Google Scholar
  64. Davis, S., Boone, C. W., Radin, R., Wade, M. J., and Kleiner, G., 1974, Immunol. Commun. 3: 189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. DeLorenzo, F., Goldberger, R. F., Steers, E., Jr., Givol, D., and Anfinsen, C. B., 1966, J. Biol. Chem. 241: 1562.Google Scholar
  66. Deng, J. S., and Beutner, E. H., 1974, Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. 47: 562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Dickerson, R. E., Takano, T., Eisenberg, D., Kallai, O. B., Samson, L., Cooper, A., and Margoliash, E., 1971, Biol. Chem. 246: 1511.Google Scholar
  68. Dileso, F., and Verga, E., 1960, Ital. J. Biochem. 9: 117.Google Scholar
  69. Donovan, J. W., 1967, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 29: 734.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Dorrington, K. J., and Bennich, H., 1973, J. Biol. Chem. 248: 8378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Eaker, D. L., King, T. P., and Craig, L. C., 1965a, Biochemistry 4: 1473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Eaker, D. L., King, T. P., and Craig, L. C., 19656, Biochemistry 4: 1479.Google Scholar
  73. Eaker, D. L., King, T. P., and Craig, L. C., 1965c, Biochemistry 4: 1486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Edelhoch, H., 1967, Biochemistry 6: 1948.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Ellman, G. L., 1959, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 82: 70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Epand, R. M., and Scheraga, H. A., 1968, Biochemistry 7: 2864.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Epstein, C. J., and Anfinsen, C. B., 1962, J. Biol. Chem. 237: 3464.Google Scholar
  78. Epstein, C. J., and Goldberger, R. F., 1963, J. Biol. Chem. 238: 1380.Google Scholar
  79. Epstein, C. J., Goldberger, R. F., and Anfinsen, C. B., 1963, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 28: 439.Google Scholar
  80. Epstein, H. F., Schechter, A. N., Chen, R. F., and Anfinsen, C. B., 1971a, J. Mol. Biol. 60: 499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Epstein, H. F., Schechter, A. N., and Cohen, J. S., 19716, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sei. U.S.A. 68: 2042.Google Scholar
  82. Fainaru, M., Wilson, A. C., and Arnon, R., 1974, J. Mol. Biol. 84: 635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Fish, W. W., Reynolds, J. A., and Tanford, C., 1970, J. Biol. Chem. 245: 5166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Flory, P. J., 1969, in: Statistical Mechanics of Chain Molecules, p. 291, Interscience, New York.Google Scholar
  85. Foster, J. F., 1960, in: The Plasma Proteins (F. W. Putman, ed.), p. 179, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  86. Frensdorff, H. K., Watson, M. T., and Kauzmann, W., 1953, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 75: 5157.Google Scholar
  87. Friedrick, P., Földi, J., and Varadi, K., 1974, Acta Biochim. Biophys. Acad. Sei. Hung. 9: 1.Google Scholar
  88. Furie, B., Schechter, A. N., Sachs, D. H., and Anfinsen, C. B., 1974, Biochemistry 13: 1561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Furie, B., Schechter, A. N., Sachs, D. H., and Anfinsen, C. B., 1975, J. Mol. Biol. 92: 497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Givol, D., De Lorenzo, F., Goldberger, R. F., and Anfinsen, C. B., 1965, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 53: 676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Glenny, A. T., and Siidmersen, H. J., i92i, J. Uyg. 20: 176.Google Scholar
  92. Gold, A. H., and Segal, H. L., 1964, Fed. Proc. 23:424 (abst.).Google Scholar
  93. Goldberger, R. F., and Epstein, C. J., 1963, J. Biol. Chem. 238: 2988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Goldberger, R. F., Epstein, C. J., and Anfinsen, C. B., 1963, J. Biol. Chem. 238: 628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Goldberger, R. F., Epstein, C. J., and Anfinsen, C. B., 1964, J. Biol. Chem. 239: 1406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Goodno, C. C., and Swenson, C. A., 1975, Biochemistry 14: 867.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Grossberg, A. L., Markus, G., and Pressman, D., 1965, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 54: 942.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Gundlach, H. G., Stein, W. H., and Moore, S., 1959, J. Biol. Chem. 234: 1754.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Habeeb, A. F. S. A., 1960, Can. J. Biochem. Physiol. 38: 493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Habeeb, A. F. S. A., 1964, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 93: 533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Habeeb, A. F. S. A., 1966a, Anal. Biochem. 14: 328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Habeeb, A. F. S. A., 1966b, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 115: 440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Habeeb, A. F. S. A., 1966c, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 121: 21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Habeeb, A. F. S. A., 1967a, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 121: 652.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Habeeb, A. F. S. A., 19676, J. Immunol. 99: 1264.Google Scholar
  106. Habeeb, A. F. S. A., 1968, J. Immunol. 101: 505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Habeeb, A. F. S. A., 1969, J. Immunol. 102: 457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Habeeb, A. F. S. A., and Atassi, M. Z., 1971, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 236: 131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Habeeb, A. F. S. A., and Bennett, J. C., 1971, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 251: 181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Habeeb, A. F. S. A., and Borella, L., 1966, J. Immunol. 97: 951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Habeeb, A. F. S. A., and Hiramoto, R., 1968, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 126: 16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Habeeb, A. F. S. A., Cassidy, H. G., and Singer, S. J., 1958, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 29: 587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Hantgan, R. R., Hammes, G. G., and Scheraga, H. A., 1974, Biochemistry 13: 3421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Harrington, W. F., and Sela, M., 1959, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 31: 427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Harrison, S. C., and Blout, E. R., 1965, J. Biol. Chem. 240: 299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Hartley, B. S., 1964, Nature (London) 201: 1284.Google Scholar
  117. Hartley, B. S., Brown, J. R., Kauffman, D. L., and Smillie, L. B., 1965, Nature (London) 207: 1157.Google Scholar
  118. Hayashi, R., Moore, S., and Merrifield, R. B., 1973, J. Biol. Chem. 248: 3889.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Heins, J. N., Suriano, J. R., Taniuchi, H., and Anfinsen, C. B., 1967, J. Biol. Chem. 242: 1016.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Hermans, J., Jr., and Puett, D., 1971, Biopolymers 10: 895.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Hermans, J., Jr., Puett, D., and Acampora, G., 1969, Biochemistry 8: 22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Herskovits, T. T., and Laskowski, M., Jr., 1962, J. Biol. Chem. 237: 2481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Herskovits, T. T., and Laskowski, M., Jr., 1968, J. Biol. Chem. 243: 2123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Herskovits, T. T., and Mescanti, L., 1965, J. Biol. Chem. 240: 639.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Hill, R. L., Steinmann, H. M., and Brew, K., 1974, in: Lysozyme (E. F. Osserman, R. E. Canfield, and S. Beychok, eds.), p. 55, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  126. Hirs, C. H. W., 1967, Methods Enzymol. 11: 197.Google Scholar
  127. Hofmann, K., Finn, F., Haas, W., Smithers, M. J., Wolman, Y., and Yanaihara, N., 1963, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 85: 833.Google Scholar
  128. Hogle, J. M., and Liener, I. E., 1973, Can. J. Biochem. 51:1014. Holzwarth, G., and Doty, P., 1965, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 87:218. Horn, M. J., Jones, D. B., and Ringel, S. J., 1941, J. Biol. Chem. 138: 141.Google Scholar
  129. Huang, I.-Y., and Bergdoll, M. S., 1970, J. Biol. Chem. 245: 3518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Huggins, C., Tapley, D. F., and Jensen, E. V., 1951, Nature (London) 167: 592.Google Scholar
  131. Isemura, T., Takagi, T., Maeda, Y., and Yutani, K., 1963, J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 53: 155.Google Scholar
  132. Isemura, T., Yutani, K., Yutani, A., and Imanishi, A. I., 1968, J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 64: 411.Google Scholar
  133. Isenman, D. E., Painter, R. H., and Dorrington, K. J., 1975, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72: 548.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Jacobsen, C., Funding, L., Moller, N. R. H., and Steensgaard, J., 1972, Eur. J. Biochem. 30: 392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Jirgensons, B., 1967, J. Biol. Chem. 242: 912.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Johnson, E. R., Anderson, W. L., Atassi, M. Z., Lee, C.-L., and Wetlaufer, D. B., 1975, Fed. Proc. 34:597 (abst.).Google Scholar
  137. Kartha, G., Bello, J., and Harker, D., 1967, Nature (London) 213: 862.Google Scholar
  138. Kato, I., and Anfinsen, C. B., 1969, J. Biol. Chem. 244: 1004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Kato, T., and Sasaki, M., 1974, J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 76: 1021.Google Scholar
  140. Katsoyannis, P. G., and Tometsko, A., 1966, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 55: 1554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Kauzmann, W., 1959, Adv. Protein Chem. 14: 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Kauzmann, W., and Simpson, R. B., 1953, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 75: 5154.Google Scholar
  143. Kay, C. M., and Brahms, J., 1963, J. Biol. Chem. 238: 2945.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Kendrew, J. C., 1962, Brookhaven Symp. Biol. 15: 215.Google Scholar
  145. Klee, W. A., 1968, Biochemistry 7: 2731.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Klinman, J. P., and Rose, I. A., 1971, Biochemistry 10: 2253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Koide, S. S., and Torres, M. T., 1964, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 89: 150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Kolthoff, I. M., and Tan, B. H., 1965, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 87: 2717.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Krigbaum, W. R., and Kiigler, F. R., 1970, Biochemistry 9: 1216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Kronman, M. J., 1968, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 33: 535.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Kronman, M. J., Blum, R., and Holmes, L. G., 1966, Biochemistry 5: 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Kronman, M. J., Holmes, L. G., and Robbins, F. M., 1971, J. Biol. Chem. 246: 1909.Google Scholar
  153. Kronman, M. J., Hoffman, W. B., Jeroszko, J., and Sage, G. W., 1972, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 285: 124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Kuntz, I. D., 1972, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94: 4009.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Landsteiner, K., 1945, in: The Specificity of Serological Reactions, Dover Publications, New York.Google Scholar
  156. Lee, C.-L., and Atassi, M. Z., 1973, Biochemistry 12: 2690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Leonis, J., 1956, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 65: 182.Google Scholar
  158. Levinthal, C., 1968, J. Chim. Phys. 65: 44.Google Scholar
  159. Levinthal, C., Signer, E. R., and Fetherolf, K., 1962, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 48: 1230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Lewis, P. N., and Scheraga, H. A., 1971, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 144: 576.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Lewis, P. N., Go, N., Go, M., Kotelchuck, D., and Scheraga, H. A., 1970, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 65: 810.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Lewis, P. N., Momany, F. A., and Scheraga, H. A., 1971, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 68: 2293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Lin, T.-Y., 1970, Biochemistry 9: 984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Long, C., King, E. J., and Sperry, W. M., eds., 1961, in: The Biochemists’ Handbook, p. 682Google Scholar
  165. Van Nostrand, New York. Lovrien, R., 1963, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 85: 3677.Google Scholar
  166. Lumry, R., Biltonen, R., and Brandts, J. F., 1966, Biopolymers 4: 917.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Maeda, H., Glaser, C. B., and Meienhofer, J., 1970, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 39: 1211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Manning, G. B., and Campbell, L. L., 1961, J. Biol. Chem. 236: 2952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Margoliash, E., Nisonoff, A., and Reichlin, M., 1970, J. Biol. Chem. 245: 931.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Markus, G., 1965, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 54: 253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Markus, G., and Karush, F., 1957, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79: 3264.Google Scholar
  172. Markus, G., Love, R. L., and Wissler, F. C., 1964, J. Biol. Chem. 239: 3687.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Markus, G., McClintock, D. K., and Castellani, B. A., 1967a, J. Biol. Chem. 242: 4395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Markus, G., McClintock, D. K., and Castellani, B. A., 19676, J. Biol. Chem. 242: 4402.Google Scholar
  175. Markus, G., Barnard, E. A., Castellani, B. A., and Saunders, D., 1968, J. Biol. Chem. 243: 4070.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Martin, C. J., and Bhatnagar, G. M., 1967, Biochemistry 6: 1638.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Matthaei, J. H., and Nirenberg, M. W., 1961, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 47: 1580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. McClintock, D. K., and Markus, G., 1968, J. Biol Chem. 243: 2855.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Merigan, T. C., Jr., and Potts, J. T., Jr., 1966, Biochemistry 5: 910.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Mogensen, K. E., and Cantell, K., 1974, Gen. Virol. 22: 95.Google Scholar
  181. Myers, J. S., and Jakoby, W. B., 1973, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 51: 631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Myers, J. S., and Jakoby, W. B., 1975, J. Biol. Chem. 250: 3785.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Nelson, C. A., and Hummel, J. P., 1962, J. Biol Chem. 237: 1567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Neurath, H., Walsh, K. A., and Winter, W. P., 1967, Science 158: 1638.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Neurath, H., Bradshaw, R. A., and Arnon, R., 1970, in: Structure-Function Relationships of Proteolytic Enzymes (P. Desnuelle, H. Neurath, and M. Ottesen, eds.), p. 113Google Scholar
  186. Munks-gaard, Copenhagen. Ng, M. H., and Vilcek, J., 1972, Adv. Protein Chem. 26: 173.Google Scholar
  187. Nisonoff, A., Reichlin, M., and Margoliash, E., 1970, J. Biol Chem. 245: 940.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Nonno, L., Herschman, H., and Levine, L., 1970, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 136: 361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Nozaki, Y., and Tanford, C., 1967, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 89: 742.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Omenn, G. S., Ontjes, D. A., and Anfinsen, C. B., 1970, Biochemistry 9: 304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Pace, N. C., and Tanford, C, 1968, Biochemistry 7: 198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Parks, J. M., Barancik, M. B., and Wold, F., 1963, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 85: 3519.Google Scholar
  193. Perutz, M. F., Muirhead, H., Cox, J. M., and Goaman, L. C. G., 1968, Nature (London) 219: 131.Google Scholar
  194. Peters, J. H., and Goetzl, E., 1969, J. Biol Chem. 244: 2068.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Phillips, D. C., 1966, Sci. Am. 215: 78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Phillips, D. C., 1967, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 57: 484.Google Scholar
  197. Pilz, I., Kratky, O., and Karush, F., 1974, Eur. J. Biochem. 41: 91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Pitt-Rivers, R., and Impiombato, F. S. A., 1968, Biochem. J. 109: 825.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Pollock, M. R., 1963, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 103: 989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Potts, J. T., Jr., and Young, D. M., 1963, Fed. Proc. 22:418 (abst.).Google Scholar
  201. Potts, J. T., Jr., Young, D. M., Anfinsen, C. B., and Sandoval, A., 1964, J. Biol Chem. 239: 3781.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Prager, E. ML, and Wilson, A. C., 1971a, J. Biol Chem. 246: 5978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Prager, E. M., and Wilson, A. C., 19716, J. Biol Chem. 246: 7010.Google Scholar
  204. Prager, E. M., Fainaru, M., Wilson, A. C., and Arnon, R., 1974, Immunochemistry 11: 153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Prieels, J.-P., Poortmans, J., Dolmans, M., and Leonis, J., 1975, Eur. J. Biochem. 50: 523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Puett, D., 1972a, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 257: 537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Puett, D., 19726, Biochemistry 11: 1980.Google Scholar
  208. Puett, D., 1972c, Biochemistry 11: 4304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Puett, D., 1973, J. Biol Chem. 248: 4623.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Puett, D., Friebele, E., and Hammonds, R. G., Jr., 1973, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 328: 261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Reeke, G. N., Hartsuck, J. A., Ludwig, M. L., Quiocho, F. A., Steitz, T. A., and Lipscomb, W. N., 1967, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 58:2220. Reichlin, M., 1972, J. Mol Biol 64: 485.Google Scholar
  212. Reichlin, M., Hay, M., and Levine, L., 1963, Biochemistry 2: 971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Reichlin, M., Hay, M., and Levine, L., 1964, Immunochemistry 1: 21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Reichlin, M., Bucci, E., Fronticelli, C., Wyman, J., Antonini, E., Ioppolo, C., and Rossi-Fanelli, A., 1966, J. Mol Biol. 17: 18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Reichlin, M., Nisonoff, A., and Margoliash, E., 1970, J. Biol Chem. 245: 947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Resnick, H., Carter, J. R., and Kalnitsky, G., 1959, J. Biol Chem. 234: 1711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Reynolds, J. A., and Tanford, C., 1970, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 66: 1002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Reynolds, J. A., and Tanford, C., 19706, J. Biol Chem. 245: 5161.Google Scholar
  219. Richards, F. M., 1963, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 32: 269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Richards, F. M., and Vithayathil, P. J., 1959, J. Biol. Chem. 234: 1459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Richards, F. M., and Vithayathil, P. J., 1960, Brookhaven Symp. Biol 13: 115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Riggs, A. F., and Wolbach, R. A., 1956, J. Gen. Physiol 39: 585.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Ristow, S. S., and Wetlaufer, D. B., 1973, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 50: 544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Robinson, E, A,, 1965, Biochem, Biophys. Res. Commun, 20: 573.Google Scholar
  225. Rothen, A., and Landsteiner, K., 1942, J. Exp. Med. 76: 437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Rupley, J. A., 1967, Methods Enzymol. 11: 905.Google Scholar
  227. Sachs, D. H., Schechter, A. N., Eastlake, A., and Anfinsen, C. B., 1972, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 69: 3790.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Sage, H. J., and Singer, S. J., 1962, Biochemistry 1: 305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Salkowski, E., 1898, Berl. Klin. Wochenschr. 35: 545.Google Scholar
  230. Sarfare, P. S., and Bigelow, C. C., 1967, Can. J. Biochem. 45: 651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Sasaki, M., Kato, T., and Iida, S., 1973, J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 74: 635.Google Scholar
  232. Saxena, V. P., 1971, Fed. Proc. 30:1287 (abst.).Google Scholar
  233. Saxena, V. P., and Wetlaufer, D. B., 1970, Biochemistry 9: 5015.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Schaffer, S. W., 1970, Ph.D. thesis, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Schantz, E. J., Roessler, W. G., Wagman, J., Spero, L., Dunnery, D. A., and Bergdoll, M. S., 1965, Biochemistry 4: 1011.Google Scholar
  235. Schechter, A. N., Chen, R. F., and Anfinsen, C. B., 1970, Science 167: 886.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Schellman, J. A., 1958., J. Phys. Chem. 62: 1485.Google Scholar
  237. Schrier, E. E., and Scheraga, H. A., 1962, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 64: 406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Sela, M., and Anfinsen, C. B., 1957, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 24: 229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Sela, M., Schechter, B., Schechter, I., and Borek, F., 1967, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 32: 537.Google Scholar
  240. Shechter, E., and Blout, E. R., 1964, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 51: 695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Shechter, Y., Patchornik, A., and Burstein, Y., 1973, Biochemistry 12: 3407.Google Scholar
  242. Shechter, Y., Patchornik, A., and Burstein, Y., 1974, J. Biol. Chem. 249: 413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Sherwood, L. M., and Potts, J. T., Jr., 1965a, J. Biol. Chem. 240: 3799.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Sherwood, L. M., and Potts, J. T., Jr., 19656, J. Biol. Chem. 240: 3806.Google Scholar
  245. Shibata, Y., and Kronman, M. J., 1967, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 118: 410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Singer, S. J., and Richards, F. M., 1959, J. Biol. Chem. 234: 2911.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Singhal, R. P., and Atassi, M. Z., 1970, Biochemistry 9: 4252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Sirisinha, S., and Allen, P. Z., 1965, J. Bacteriol. 90: 1120.Google Scholar
  249. Spero, L., Stefanye, D., Brecher, P. I., Jacoby, H. M., Dalidowicz, J. E., and Schantz, E. J., 1965, Biochemistry 4: 1024.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Spero, L., Warren, J. R., and Metzger, J. F., 1973, J. Biol. Chem. 248: 7289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Stark, G. R., Stein, W. H., and Moore, S., 1961, J. Biol. Chem. 236: 436.Google Scholar
  252. Steiner, R. F., De Lorenzo, F., and Anfinsen, C. B., 1965, J. Biol. Chem. 240: 4648.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Stewart, W. E. II, De Somer, P., and De Clercq, E., 1974a, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 359: 364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Stewart, W. E. II, De Clercq, E., and De Somer, P., 19746, Nature (London) 249: 460.Google Scholar
  255. Tamburro, A. M., Jori, G., Vidali, G., Scatturin, A., and Saccomani, G., 1972, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 263: 704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Tanahashi, N., Brodbeck, U., and Ebner, K. E., 1968, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 154: 247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Tanford, C., 1970, Adv. Protein Chem. 24: 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Tanford, C., De, P. K., and Taggart, V. G., 1960, Am. Chem. Soc. 82: 6028.Google Scholar
  259. Tanford, C., Buckley, C. E., III, De, P. K., and Lively, E. P., 1962, J. Biol. Chem. 237: 1168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Tanford, C., Kawahara, K., and Lapanje, S., 1967a, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 89: 729.Google Scholar
  261. Tanford, C., Kawahara, K., Lapanje, S., Hooker, T. M., Jr., Zarlengo, M. H., Salahuddin, A., Aune, K. C., and Takagi, T., 1967, Am. Chem. Soc. 89: 5023.Google Scholar
  262. Taniuchi, H., 1970, J. Biol. Chem. 245: 5459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Taniuchi, H., and Anfinsen, C. B., 1968, J. Biol. Chem. 243: 4778.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Taniuchi, H., and Anfinsen, C. B., 1969, J. Biol. Chem. 244: 3864.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Taniuchi, H., and Anfinsen, C. B., 1971, J. Biol. Chem. 246: 2291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Taniuchi, H., Anfinsen, C. B., and Sodja, A., 1967, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 58: 1235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Teipel, J. W., and Koshland, D. E., Jr., 1971a, Biochemistry 10: 792.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Teipel, J. W., and Koshland, D. E., Jr., 19716, Biochemistry 10: 798.Google Scholar
  269. Timasheff, S. N., Townend, R., and Mescanti, L., 1966, J. Biol. Chem. 241: 1863.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Tsong, T. Y., Baldwin, R. L., and McPhie, P., 1972, J. Mol. Biol 63: 453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Urnes, P., and Doty, P., 1961, Adv. Protein Chem. 16: 401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Vithayathil, P. J., and Richards, F. M., 1961, J. Biol Chem. 236: 1386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Wallevik, K., 1968, Protides Biol. Fluids Proc. Colloq. 15: 561.Google Scholar
  274. Walsh, K. A., and Neurath, H., 1964, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 52: 884.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Warme, P. K., Momany, F. A., Rumball, S. V., Tuttle, R. W., and Scheraga, H. A., 1974, Biochemistry 13: 768.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Warner, C., Schumaker, V., and Karush, F., 1970, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 38: 125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Warner, R. C., and Levy, M., 1958, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80: 5735.Google Scholar
  278. Weber, R. E., and Tanford, C., 1959, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 81: 3255.Google Scholar
  279. Weil, R., and Dorner, F., 1973, in: Selective Inhibitors of Viral Functions (W. A. Carter, ed.), p. 107, CRC Press, Cleveland.Google Scholar
  280. Wetlaufer, D. B., 1973a, J. Food Sci. 38: 740.Google Scholar
  281. Wetlaufer, D. B., 1913b, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 70: 697.Google Scholar
  282. Wetlaufer, D. B., Johnson, E. R., and Clauss, L. M., 1974a, in: Lysozyme (E. F. Osserman, R. E. Canfield, and S. Beychok, eds.), p. 269, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  283. Wetlaufer, D. B., Kwok, E., Anderson, W. L., and Johnson, E. R., 19746, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 56: 380.Google Scholar
  284. White, F. H., Jr., 1960, J. Biol. Chem. 235: 383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. White, F. H., Jr., 1961, J. Biol. Chem. 236: 1353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Wofsy, L., and Singer, S. J., 1963, Biochemistry 2: 104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Wyckoff, H. W., Hardman, K. D., Allewell, N. M., Inagami, T., Tsernoglou, D., Johnson, L. N., and Richards, F. M., 1967, J. Biol. Chem. 242: 3749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Young, J. D., and Leung, C. Y., 1970, Biochemistry 9: 2755.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Yutani, K., Yutani, A., and Isemura, T., 1967, J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 62: 576.Google Scholar
  290. Yutani, K., Yutani, A., Imanishi, A., and Isemura, T., 1968, J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 64: 449.Google Scholar
  291. Zimmerman, S. B., and Schellman, J. A., 1962, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 84: 2259.Google Scholar
  292. Zondag, H. A., 1963, Science 142: 965.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology. Department of MedicineThe University of Alabama School of MedicineBirminghamUSA
  2. 2.Department of MicrobiologyThe University of Alabama School of MedicineBirminghamUSA
  3. 3.Department of BiochemistryThe University of Alabama School of MedicineBirminghamUSA

Personalised recommendations