History of Exercises for the Elderly

  • Herman L. Kamenetz


The history of exercise has been written many times from various perspectives but with little emphasis on exercise for older people. The present chapter may well be the first such attempt to depict the changing fads and fashions in exercise for the elderly over the centuries.


Physical Exercise Sixteenth Century Moderate Exercise Therapeutic Exercise Paris School 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alberti, Leone Battista. Delia Famiglia. In Joseph (1949).Google Scholar
  2. Amiot, Joseph-Marie, Bourgeois, Cibot, et al. Mémoires Concernant L’Histoire, les Sciences, les Arts, les Moeurs et les Usages des Chinois par les Missionnaires de Pékin. 15 vol. Paris, Nyon, 1776–1789, vol. 4, pp. 441–451; vol. 13, pp. 373 ff.Google Scholar
  3. Andry de Bois-Regard, Nicolas. L’exercice modéré est-il le meilleur moyen de seconserver en santé? Thesis, Paris, 1723 and 1741. In extenso in Daily (1857), pp. 502–517.Google Scholar
  4. Andry de Bois-Regard, Nicolas. L’Orthopédie ou l’Art de Prévenir et de Corriger dans les Enfans les Difformités du Corps. Paris, Veuve Alix, 1741.Google Scholar
  5. Asclepiades. His Life and Writings. Antonio Cocchi’s Life of Asclepiades and Christian Gottlieb Gumpert’s Fragments from Asclepiades translated by Robert Montraville Green. New Haven, Conn., Licht, 1955.Google Scholar
  6. Aubrey, John. Brief Lives. Edited by Oliver Lawson Dick. Ann Arbor, Univ. of Michigan Press, 1957, p. 155. In Finney (1968).Google Scholar
  7. Aurelianus, Caelius. On Acute Diseases and On Chronic Diseases. Edited and translated by I. E. Drabkin. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1950.Google Scholar
  8. Bardi, Giovanni de. Essay on the play of Florentine football. Badminton Magazine, 1902. In Joseph (1949).Google Scholar
  9. Betts, John R. American medical thought on exercise as the road to health, 1820–1860. Bull. Hist. Med. 45 (2): 138–152, March-April 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Blundell, John W. F. The Muscles and Their Story, from the Earliest Times; including the Whole Text of Mercurialis, and the Opinions of Other Writers Ancient and Modern, On Mental and Bodily Development. London, Chapman & Hall, 1864.Google Scholar
  11. Borelli, Giovanni Alfonso, De Motu Animalium. Rome, 1680.Google Scholar
  12. Byford, W H. Physiology, pathology and therapeutics of muscular exercise. Chicago Med. J., 1 (8): 359–382, 1858.Google Scholar
  13. Cagnatus, Marsilius. De Sanitate Tuenda. Lib. II: De Arte Gymnastica. Padua, 1605. In Finney (1968), Joseph (1949).Google Scholar
  14. Canstatt, Karl Friedrich. Die Krankheiten des Höheren Alters und ihre Heilung. Erlangen, Enke, 1839.Google Scholar
  15. Cardanus, Hieronymus. De Subtilitate et de Kerum Varietate. Venice, 1562. In Joseph (1949).Google Scholar
  16. Champier, Symphorien. Rosa Gallica. Nancy, 1512.Google Scholar
  17. Charcot, Jean Martin. Leçons Cliniques sur les Maladies des Vieillards et les Maladies Chroniques. Paris, 1867.Google Scholar
  18. Cheyne, George. An Essay on Health and Long Life. London, Strahan, 1724.Google Scholar
  19. Cicero, Marcus Tullius. De Senectute. Translated by W. A. Falconer. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard, 1964.Google Scholar
  20. Cocchi, Antonio. Life of Asclepiades. Milan, 1824. In Asclepiades (1955).Google Scholar
  21. Coughlin, Robert E. Physical exercise in later life. Medical Record (N.Y.) 95: 558–561, 1919.Google Scholar
  22. Dally, N. Cinèsiologie ou Science du Mouvement dans ses Rapports avec l’Education, l’Hygiene et la Thérapie. Paris, Librairie Centrale des Sciences, 1857.Google Scholar
  23. DuBois-Reymond, Emil. Über die Übung. Berlin, Hirschwald, 1881.Google Scholar
  24. Duchesne, Joseph (Quercetanus). Ars Medica Dogmatica-Hermetica. Frankfurt, 1648. In Joseph (1949).Google Scholar
  25. Durand-Fardel, Charles Louis-Maxime. Traite Pratique des Maladies des Vieillards. 1854. In Geller (1965).Google Scholar
  26. Ellfeldt, Lois, and Lowman, Charles Leroy. Exercises for the Mature Adult. Springfield, Ill., Thomas, 1973.Google Scholar
  27. Fabricio d’Acquapendente, Girolamo. De Motu Animalium. Venice, 1614.Google Scholar
  28. Finney, Gretchen [Ludke]. Vocal exercise in the sixteenth century related to theories of physiology and disease. Bull. Hist. Med. 42(5):422–449, Sep.-Oct. 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Finney, Gretchen [Ludke]. Fear of exercising the lungs related to iatro-mechanics 1675–1750. Bull. Hist. Med. 45(4): 341–366, Jul.-Aug. 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Floyer, Sir John. Medicina Gerocomica, or The Galenic Art of Preserving Old Men’s Healths. London, Isted, 1724.Google Scholar
  31. Foissac, Pierre. La Longévité Humaine ou l’Art de Conserver la Santé et de Prolonger la Vie. Paris, Baillière et Fils, 1873.Google Scholar
  32. Frenkel, Heinrich S. Die Therapie atactischer Bewegungsstörungen. Munch, med. Wschr. 37:917–920, 30 Dec. 1890.Google Scholar
  33. Fuller, Francis. Medicina Gymnastica: or, A Treatise Concerning the Power of Exercise…. London, Knaplock, 1705.Google Scholar
  34. Garrison, Fielding H. An Introduction to the History of Medicine. Ed. 4. Philadelphia, Saunders, 1960.Google Scholar
  35. Gazius, Antonius. Florida Corona. First published under the title: De Conservatione Sanitatis. Venice, 1491.Google Scholar
  36. Geller, Guido. Die Geriatrie an der Salpêtriere von Pinel bis Charcot. Thesis, Zurich. Wil, Meyerhans, 1965.Google Scholar
  37. Graham, Douglas. A Treatise on Massage. Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1902.Google Scholar
  38. Graham, Sylvester. Lectures on the Science of Human Life. Boston, Marsh, Capen, Lyon & Webb, 1839, pp. 658–659.Google Scholar
  39. See also Shryock, Richard H. Sylvester Graham and the popular health movement, 1830–1870. Mississippi Valley Hist. Rev., 18: 172–183, 1931. In Betts (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gumpert, Christian Gottlieb. Fragments from Asclepiades of Bithynia. Weimar, 1794. In Asclepiades (1955).Google Scholar
  41. Guthrie, Douglas. A History of Medicine. London, Nelson, 1958.Google Scholar
  42. Hippocrates with an English translation by E. T. Withington. New York, Putnam, 1927, Vol. 3, p. 339. On joints, LVIII.Google Scholar
  43. Hoffmann, Friedrich Wilhelm. Dissertationes Physico-Medicae.… The Hague, 1708. In Dally (1857), pp. 206, 233–240.Google Scholar
  44. Hufeland, Christoph Wilhelm. Die Kunst das Menschliche Leben zu Verlängern. Vienna, Franz Haas, 1796.Google Scholar
  45. Joseph, Ludwig H. Gymnastics from the middle ages to the 18th century. Ciba Symposia 10(5): 1030–1060, March-April 1949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Jüthner, J. Philostratòs über Gymnastik. Leipzig, 1909.Google Scholar
  47. Kamenetz, Herman L. History of massage. In Licht, Sidney. Massage, Manipulation and Traction. New Haven, Licht, 1960.Google Scholar
  48. Kamenetz, Herman L. Exercises for the Elderly. Phoenix, Arizona, Armour Pharmaceutical Company, 1971.Google Scholar
  49. Kilgour, Frederick G. Introduction. In Mendez (1960).Google Scholar
  50. Laurentius, Andreas (André du Laurens). A Discourse of the Preservation of the Sight; of Melancholike Diseases; of Rheumes, and of Old Age. Transi. Richard Surphlet (London 1599), introd. by Sanford V. Larkey. Oxford, Univ. Press, 1938. In Finney (1968).Google Scholar
  51. Leithauser, Daniel J. Early Ambulation and Related Procedures in Surgical Management. Springfield, I11., Thomas, 1946.Google Scholar
  52. Licht, Sidney. History. In Licht, Sidney. Therapeutic Exercise. Ed. 2. New Haven, Licht, 1961.Google Scholar
  53. Mac-Auliffe, Leon. La Thérapeutique Physique d’Autrefois. Paris, Masson, 1904.Google Scholar
  54. Maimonides, Moses. The Preservation of Youth: Essays on Health. Translated from the Original Arabic by Hirsch L. Gordon. New York, Philosophical Library, 1958.Google Scholar
  55. Maimonides, Moses. The Medical Aphorisms. Translated and edited by Fred Rosner and Suessman Muntner. New York, Yeshiva University Press, 2 vols., 1970–1971.Google Scholar
  56. Major, Ralph H. A History of Medicine. Springfield, I11., Thomas, 1954.Google Scholar
  57. Mendez, Christobal. Libro del Exercicio Corporal. Seville, Torre, 1553. Book of Bodily Exercise. Translated by Francisco Guerra. New Haven, Licht, 1960.Google Scholar
  58. Mercurialis, Hieronymus. De Arte Gymnastica. Venice, Giunta Press, 1569.Google Scholar
  59. Molière. Le Médecin Malgré Lui. (The Doctor in Spite of Himself.) 1666. Les Fourberies de Scapin. (The Rogueries of Scapin.) 1671.Google Scholar
  60. Montaigne, Michel de. Essais. Book III, Ch. XIII. Paris, Garnier, 1962, p. ¿69. Essays. Translated by Charles Cotton. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1947, p. 465.Google Scholar
  61. Müller, Karl. Die Entwicklung der Geriatrie im 18. Jahrhundert. Thesis, Zurich. Zurich, Juris, 1966.Google Scholar
  62. Nascher, Ignatz Leo. Geriatrics: The Diseases of Old Age and Their Treatment. Philadelphia, Blakiston, 1914Google Scholar
  63. Nenci, Giuseppe. Discorsi sopra la Ginnastica e sopra l’Utilità dell’Osservazione nella Medicina Pratica…. Lucca, Giusti, 1766. In Joseph (1949).Google Scholar
  64. Neuburger, Max. John Floyer’s pioneer work. Bull. Hist. Med., 22:208–212, 1948.Google Scholar
  65. Nörenberg, Ruth. Krankengymanstische Betreuung alter Patienten. Krankengymnastik 21: 374–379, Aug. 1969.Google Scholar
  66. Oertel, Max Joseph. Therapie der Kreislaufstörungen. Leipzig, 1885.Google Scholar
  67. Oribasius. Oeuvres d’Oribase. Translated by Bussemaker and Daremberg. Paris, 1851–1876. In Licht (1961).Google Scholar
  68. Pollajc, Kurt. Wissen and Weisheit der Alten Ärzte: Die Heilkunst der Frühen Hochkulturne. Düsseldorf, Econ-Verlag, 1968.Google Scholar
  69. Prus, Clovis-René. Recherches sur les maladies de la vieillesse. Mém. acad. roy. mèd. y 1840. In Geller (1965).Google Scholar
  70. Reniers, Perceval. The Springs of Virginia; Life, Love, and Death at the Waters. 1775–1900. Chapel Hill, Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1941.Google Scholar
  71. Reveillé-Parise, Joseph Henri. Traité de la Vieillesse Hygiénique, Médical et Philosophique Paris, Baillière, 1853.Google Scholar
  72. Rush, Benjamin. Sermons to the Rich and Studious, on Temperance and Exercise. London, 1772. Reprinted Litchfield, Conn., 1791. Medical Miscellanies. Philadelphia, 1809, vol. I, pp. 196, 395, 429, vol. II, pp. 82–93. Selected Writings edited by Dagobert D. Runes. New York, Philos. Lib., 1947, pp. 103, 358–372. Scharll, Martha. Altersgymnastik. Stuttgart, Thieme, 1969.Google Scholar
  73. Schott, Theodor. Physikalische Behandlung der Chronischen Herzkrankheiten. Berlin, Springer, 1916.Google Scholar
  74. Schwarz, Richard W. John Harvey Kellogg, M.D. Nashville, Southern Publishing Association, 1970.Google Scholar
  75. Stokes, William. The Diseases of the Heart and the Aorta. Philadelphia, Lindsay & Blakiston, 1854, p. 357 ff.Google Scholar
  76. Taylor, Charles F. Theory and Practice of the Movement-Cure….. Philadelphia, Lindsay, 1861.Google Scholar
  77. Taylor, George H. An Exposition of the Swedish Movement-Cure…. New York, Fowler & Wells, 1860.Google Scholar
  78. Thewlis, Malford W. Geriatrics, A Treatise on Senile Conditions, Diseases of Advanced Life, and Care of the Aged. St. Louis, Mosby, 1919. (Ed. 6:The Care of the Aged 1954).Google Scholar
  79. Tissot, J-C. Gymnastique Medicinale et Chirurgieale. Paris, Bastien, 1780.Google Scholar
  80. Tissot’s Medicinal and Surgical Gymnastics, translated by Elizabeth and Sidney Licht. New Haven, Licht, 1964.Google Scholar
  81. Veith, Ilza. The Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Internal Medicine. Translated from the Chinese. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1949. Berkeley, Univ. of California Press, 1966.Google Scholar
  82. Willard, Augustus. Air, exercise and sunlight. Annual address delivered before the Medical Society. Transactions Med. Soc. State of New York pp. 3–22, 1858.Google Scholar
  83. Zeman, Frederic D. The Gerontocomia of Gabriele Zerbi. J. Mount Sinai Hosp., 10(5): 710–716, Jan.-Feb. 1944.Google Scholar
  84. Zeman, Frederic D. Life’s later years: Studies in the medical history of old age. Part 10: the eighteenth century. J. Mount Sinai Hosp., 12(4):939–953, Nov.-Dec. 1945.Google Scholar
  85. Zerbi, Gabriele. Gerentocomia, Scilicet de Senum Aura atque Victu. Rome, 1489.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Herman L. Kamenetz

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations