Air and Surface Sampling Studies

  • Joseph R. Luciano


This chapter is devoted to the review of studies conducted here and abroad in sampling of airborne bacteria and particulates and in sampling of surface bacteria. Most of the results reported are related to conventional air conditioned facilities while others are related to research facilities for the study of recirculation, in addition to sampling of earlier types of recirculation systems as described in Chapter 2. Also, quantitative and qualitative dissemination and dispersal of aerobic bacterial flora by humans is described in several studies.


Operating Room Bacterial Count Airborne Bacterium American Hospital Association Surgical Suite 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Baldwin, M., Weatherby, R.J. and MacDonald, F.D.S. Microbial characteristics in a neurosurgical environment. Hospitals, Journal of the American Hospital Association, Vol. 39, March 1, 1965.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schaffer, J.G. and McDade, J.J. The microbiological profile of a new hospital. Hospitals, Journal of the American Hospital Association, Vol. 38, March, 1964.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Blowers, R., and Wallace, K.R. Environmental aspects of staphylococcal infections acquired in hospitals: ventilation of operating rooms–bacteriological investigations. Am. J. Pub. Health 50: 484–490, 1960.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Warner, et al. Bacteriology of air conditioning ducts. Canadian Medical Association Journal, Vol. 83, Feb. 23, 1963.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schaffer, et al., The microbiological profile of two hospitals of differing structures. Hospitals, Journal of American Hospital Association, Vol. 39, Sept. 16, 1965.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) 1974.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bond, R.G., Halbert, M.M., Putnam, H.D., Ruschmeyer, O.R., and Vesley, D. Survey of microbial contamination in the surgical suites of 23 Hospitals. Contract PH–86–63–96, Division of Hospital and Medical Facilities, Bureau of State Services, Public Health Service, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, University Health Service and School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bond, R.G. and Michaelsen, G.S. Bacterial contamination from hospital solid wastes. Under Research Grant: EF-00007–04, Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, University Health Service and School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455, August, 1964.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Beck, W.C., Particulate contamination of the surgical wound, Guthrie Clin Bull 36, 64, 1966.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hatch, T.F. Distribution and deposition of inhaled par- ticles in the respiratory tract, Bact. Rev. 25: 237–240, Sept. 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ingram, F.A.: The environment: Its role in surgical infections, Contam Contr. 7:27, 33–34, July, 1966.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fahlberg, W.J. Contamination control in surgery. 1969 Proceedings, American Association for Contamination Control.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Northey, D., Adess, M.L., Hartsuck, J.M. and Rhoades, E.R., Microbial surveillance in a surgical intensive care unit. Surg., Gyn. & Obs., Vol. 130, No. 3, Sept. 1974.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Thomas, G.M., Anesthetics and recirculated air in operating rooms. Anesth Analg, p.32, Jan.-Feb. 1957.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Blowers, R. and Crew, J. Ventilation of operating theatres. J. Hyg, Cambridge, 58, 427, 1960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ulrich, J.A., Cribbs, W. and Michaelsen, G.S. Recirculation of air in operating rooms. Research Contract PH108–65–26, Division of Hospital and Medical Facilities, Bureau of Health Services, Aug. 1968.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brodie, F.S. and Leaney, D.B. Air sampling in new hospital. Canadian Hospital, Journal of the Canadian Hospital Association, p. 42–45, Feb. 1963.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Whyte, W. and Robertson, P. Some observations on air conditioning in hospitals with special regard to recirculation of air. Building Services Engineer, Vol. 38, pp. 150–156, October 1970.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sciple, G.W., Riemensnider, D.K. and Schleyer, C.A.J. Recovery of microorganisms shed by humans into a sterilized environment. Applied Microbiology, Vol. 15, No. 6, pp. 1388–1392, Nov. 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bethune, D.W., Blowers, R., Parker, M. and Pask, E.A. Dispersal of staphylococcus aureus by patients and surgical staff. The Lancet, p. 480. 27 Feb. 1965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bowie, J.H., Tonkin, R.W., Robson, J.S., Dixon, A.A. (1964) Lancet, ii, 1383, 1964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Williams, R.E.O., Blowers, R., Garrod, L.P., Shooter, R.A. (1960) Hospital infection; p. 178. London.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bernard, H.R., Speers, R., Jr., O’Grady, F.W. and Shooter, R.A. Airborne bacterial contamination: Investigation of human sources. Arch Surg, Vol. 91, p. 530, Sept. 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hill, J., Howell, H. and Blowers, R. Effect of clothing on dispersal of Staphylococcus aureus by males and females. The Lancet, p. 1031, Nov. 2, 1974.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hare, R., Ridley, M. Br. Med. J., i, 69, 1958.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Emslie, J.A.N. Lancet, i, 660, 1966.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kethley, T.W. and Cown, W.B. Dispersion of airborne bacteria in clean rooms. 5th Annual Technical Meeting, American Association for Contamination Control, Houston, Texas, 30 Mar. 1966.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Blakemore, W.S., McGarrity, G.J., Thurer, R.J., Wallace, H.W., MacVaugh, H. III and Coriell, L.L. Infection by airborne bacteria with cardiopulmonary bypass. Surg. 70: 830–838, 1971.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Froud, P.J., Alder, V.G. and Gillespie, W.A. Contaminated areas in operating-theatres. The Lancet, p. 961, Oct. 29, 1966.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph R. Luciano
    • 1
  1. 1.BaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations