Advertisement

The Role of Deformation-Induced Phase Transformations in the Plasticity of Some Iron-Base Alloys

  • V. F. Zackay
  • M. D. Bhandarkar
  • E. R. Parker

Abstract

Microstructural changes in alloys can be induced by phase transformations. While many phase transformations are thermally activated, some are not. An important example of the nonthermally activated type is the deformation-induced phase transformation. Deformation-induced phase transformations are known to cause unusual changes in the mechanical properties of ferrous and nonferrous alloys. In the past several years it has been shown that this type of transformation can considerably enhance the mechanical properties of high-strength austenitic alloys— these alloys are now known as “TRIP” steels. Useful combinations of toughness, strength, and ductility can be obtained in these steels by control of the composition and the processing. TRIP steels are thermomechanically processed in the austenitic state. During this thermomechanical processing, changes occur in both chemistry and substructure, and these alter the stability of austenite with respect to deformation during subsequent mechanical testing. The present chapter discusses the several compositional, processing, and testing variables that influence this austenite stability. It is shown that the strength, ductility, stress-strain behavior, fracture toughness, fatigue properties, and corrosion resistance of TRIP steels are strongly affected by austenite stability. The considerations involved in designing TRIP Steels, their limitations, and some of the steps that have been taken to overcome these limitations, are reviewed. Recent studies are described in which attempts were made to incorporate the TRIP phenomenon in other classes of steels. These include nonnickel cryogenic steels and low and medium alloy quenched and tempered ultrahigh-strength steels.

Keywords

Yield Strength Fracture Toughness Hydrogen Embrittlement Maraging Steel Trip Steel 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Scheil, E., “Uber die Unwandlung des Austenits in Martensite in Eisen-Nickel-legierungen unter Belastung”, Z. Anorg. Allg. Chern., 207 (1932), 21–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    McReynolds, A.W., “Effects of Stress and Deformation on the Martensite Transformation”, J. Appl. Phys., 20 (1949), 896–907.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Averbach, B.L., Kulin, S.A. and Cohen, M., “The Effect of Plastic Deformation on Solid Reactions: Part II-The Effect of Applied Stress and Strain on the Martensite Reaction”, in Cold Working of Metals, Metals Park, Ohio: American Society for Metals (1949), 290–319.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kulin, S.A., Cohen, M. and Averbach, B.L., “Effect of Applied Stress on the Martensitic Transformation”, Trans. AIME, 194 (1952), 661–68.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fisher, J.C. and Turnbull, D., “Influence of Stress on Martensite Nucleation”, Acta Met., 1 (1953), 310–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Patel, J.R. and Cohen, M., “Criterion for the Action of Applied Stress in the Martensitic Transformation”, Acta Met., 1 (1953), 531–38.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cohen, M., Machlin, E.S. and Paranjpe, V.G., “Thermodynamics of the Martensitic Transformation”, in Thermodynamics in Physical Metallurgy, Metals Park, Ohio: American Society for Metals (1950), 242–70.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Machlin, E.S. and Cohen, M., “The Isothermal Mode of the Martensitic Transformation”, Trans. AIME, 194 (1952), 489–500.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Post, C.B. and Eberly, W.S., “Stability of Austenite in Stainless Steels”, Trans. ASM, 39 (1947), 868–88.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Angel, T., “Formation of Martensite in Austenitic Stainless Steels: Effects of Deformation, Temperature and Composition”, J. Iron Steel Inst., 177 (1954), 165–74.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cina, B., “Effect of Cold Work on the y-KX Transformation in Some Fe-Ni-Cr Alloys”, J. Iron Steel Inst., 177 (1954), 406–22.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fiedler, H.C., Averbach, B.L. and Cohen, M., “The Effect of Deformation on the Martensitic Transformation in Stainless Steels”, Trans. ASM, 47 (1955), 267–90.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Powell, C.W., Marshall, E.R. and Backofen, W.A., “Strain Hardening of Austenitic Stainless Steel”, Trans. ASM, 50 (1958), 478–97.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shyne, J.C., Zackay, V.F. and Schmatz, D.J., “The Strength of Martensite Formed from Cold-Worked Austenite”, Trans. ASM, 52 (1960), 346–61.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shyne, J.C., Schaller, F.W. and Zackay, V.F., “The Tensile and Yield Strength of Cr-Mn-N Steels at Low Temperatures”, Trans. ASM, 52 (1960), 848–52.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Guntner, C.J. and Reed, R.P., “The Effect of Experimental Variables Including the Martensitic Transformation on the Low Temperature Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steels”, Trans. ASM, 55 (1962), 399–419.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Carlsen, K.M. and Thomas, K.C., “Effect of Composition, Heat Treatment and Cold Rolling on Mechanical Properties of Cr-Ni Stainless Steels”, Trans. ASM, 55 (1962), 462–73.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Breedis, J.F. and Robertson, W.D., “Martensitic Transformation and Plastic Deformation in Iron Alloy Single Crystals”, Acta Met., 11 (1963), 547–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bokros, J.C. and Parker, E.R., “The Mechanism of the Martensite Burst Transformation in Fe-Ni Single Crystals”, Acta Met., 11 (1963), 1291–1301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lagneborg, R., “The Martensite Transformation in 18% Cr-8% Ni Steels”, Acta Met., 12 (1964), 823–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Reed, R.P. and Guntner, C.J., “Stress-Induced Martensitic Transformations in 18 Cr-8 Ni Steels”, Trans. Met. Soc. AIME, 230 (1964), 1713–20.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bressanelli, J.P. and Moskowitz, A., “Effects of Strain Rate, Temperature and Composition on Tensile Properties of Metastable Austenitic Steels”, Trans. ASM, 59 (1966), 223–39.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Reed, R.P. and Breedis, J.F., “Low-Temperature Phase Transformations”, in Behavior of Materials at Cryogenic Temperatures, ASTM Special Technical Publication 387. Philadelphia: American Society for Testing and Materials (1966), 60–132.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Boiling, G.F. and Richman, R.H., “The Plastic Deformation-Transformation of Paramagnetic F.C.C. Fe-Ni-C Alloys”, Acta Met., 18 (1970), 673–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Goodchild, D., Roberts, W.T. and Wilson, D.V., “Plastic Deformation and Phase Transformation in Textured Austenitic Stainless Steel”, Acta Met., 18 (1970), 1137–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tamura, I., Maki, T., Hato, H., Tomota, Y. and Okada, M., “Strength and Ductility of Austenitic Iron Alloys Accompanying Strain-Induced Martensitic Transformation”, in Second International Conference on the Strength of Metals and Alloys, Conference Proceedings, Vol. III, Metals Park, Ohio: American Society for Metals (1970), 900–04.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tamura, I., Maki, T. and Hato, H., “On the Morphology of Strain-Induced Martensite and the Transformation-Induced Plasticity in Fe-Ni and Fe-Cr-Ni Alloys”, Trans. Iron Steel Inst. Jap., 10 (1970), 163–72.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Richman, R.H. and Boiling, G.F., “Stress, Deformation, and Martensitic Transformation”, Met. Trans., 2 (1971), 2451–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Weiss, V., “Transformation Plasticity”, paper presented at Annual Pre-Congress Seminar of the American Society for Metals, Detroit, Mich., October 16-22, 1971.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lecroisey, F, and Pineau, A., “Martensitic Transformations Induced by Plastic Deformation in the Fe-Ni-Cr-C System”, Met. Trans., 3 (1972), 387–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Guimaraes, J.R.C. and De Angelis, R.J., “Stress-Strain Relationship During Transformation Enhanced Plasticity”, Met. Trans., 4 (1973), 2379–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Maxwell, P.C., Goldberg, A. and Shyne, J.C, “Stress-Assisted and Strain-Induced Martensites in Fe-Ni-C Alloys”, Met. Trans., 5 (1974), 1305–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Maxwell, P.C., Goldberg, A. and Shyne, J.C, “Influence of Martensite Formed During Deformation on the Mechanical Behavior of Fe-Ni-C Alloys”, Met. Trans., 5 (1974), 1319–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zackay, V.F., Parker, E.R., Fahr, D. and Busch, R., “The Enhancement of Ductility in High Strength Steels”, ASM Trans. Quart., 60 (1967), 252–59.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gerberich, W.W., Thomas, G., Parker, E.R. and Zackay, V.F., “Metastable Austenites: Decomposition and Strength”, in Second International Conference on the Strength of Metals and Alloys, Conference Proceedings, Vol. III, Metals Park, Ohio: American Society for Metals (1970), 894–99.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bhandarkar, D., Zackay, V.F. and Parker, E.R., “Stability and Mechanical Properties of Some Metastable Austenitic Steels”, Met. Trans., 3 (1972), 2619–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bozorth, R.M., Ferromagnetism, New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, 1951.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hoselitz, K., Ferromagnetic Properties of Metals and Alloys, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1952.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    de Miramon, B., “Quantitative Investigation of Strain Induced Strengthening in Steel”, M.S. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Contract Report No. UCRL-17849, September 1967.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fahr, D., “Enhancement of Ductility in High Strength Steels”, Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Contract Report No. UCRL-19060, September 1969.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fahr, D., “Stress-and Strain-Induced Formation of Martensite and its Effects on Strength and Ductility of Metastable Austenitic Stainless Steels”, Met. Trans., 2 (1971), 1883–92.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Stephenson, E.T. and Cohen, M., “The Effect of Prestraining and Retempering on AISI Type 4340”, Trans, ASM, 54 (1961), 72–83.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zackay, V.F., Gerberich, W.W., Busch, R. and Parker, E.R., “The Strength and Toughness of Dynamically Strain Aged Alloy Steels”, in Proceedings of the First International Conference on Fracture, Vol. 2, T. Yokobori, T. Kawasaki and J. L. Swedlow, eds., Sendai: The Japanese Society for Strength and Fracture of Materials (1966), 813–34.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Busch, R.A., “Strain Aging of Iron Alloys”, Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Contract Report No. UCRL-16585, January 1966.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Goel, V., Busch, R. and Zackay, V.F., “Dynamic Strain Aging of a High Strength Steel”, Trans. ASME, Ser. D, J. Basic Eng., 89 (1967), 871–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kalish, D., Kulin, S.A. and Cohen, M., “Flow Strength and Fracture Toughness of 9 Ni-4 Co Steel as Affected by Strain Tempering and Ausforming”, Metals Eng. Quart., 7 (1967), 54–61.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Page, E.W., “Structure and Properties of Dynamically Strain-Aged Steels”, M.S. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Contract Report No. UCRL-18244, June 1968.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kalish, D. and Cohen, M., “Structural Changes and Strengthening in the Strain Tempering of Martensite”, Mater. Sci. Eng., 6 (1970), 156–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Parker, E.R, and Hazlett, T.H., “Principles of Solution Hardening”, in Relation of Properties to Microstructure, Metals Park, Ohio: American Society for Metals (1954), 30–70.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hall, J., Zackay, V.F. and Parker, E.R., “Structural Observations in a Metastable Austenitic Steel”, ASM Trans. Quart., 62 (1969), 965–76.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Chanani, G.R., Zackay, V.F. and Parker, E.R., “Tensile Properties of 0.05 to 0.20 Pet C TRIP Steels”, Met. Trans., 2 (1971), 133–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Austin, J.B. and Rickett, R.L., “Kinetics of Decomposition of Austenite at Constant Temperatures”, Trans. AIME, 135 (1939), 396–415.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Weiss, V., Schroder, K., Sanford, W., Chandan, H., Kunio, T., Lai, D. and Sengupta, M., “The Relationships Between the Transformation Characteristics and the Fracture and Fatigue Properties of TRIP Steel”, Syracuse University, New York, Army Materials and Mechanics Research Center Contract Report No. AMMRC-CTR-73-50, December 1973. (AD 773 712)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Schwartzberg, F.R., Osgood, S.H., Keys, R.D. and Kiefer, T.F., “Cryogenic Materials Data Handbook”, Martin Marietta Corporation, Denver, Colo., Air Force Materials Laboratory Contract Report No. ML-TDR-64-280, August 1964. (AD 609 562)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kula, E.B. and DeSisto, T.S., “Plastic Behavior of Metals at Cryogenic Temperatures”, in Behavior of Materials at Cryogenic Temperatures, ASTM Special Technical Publication 387, Philadelphia: American Society for Testing and Materials (1966), 3–31.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Laporte, C P., “Effect of a Strain Induced Transformation on the Toughness of High Strength Materials”, M.S. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Contract Report No. UCRL-17810, September 1967.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gerberich, W.W., Hemmings, P.L., Merz, M.D. and Zackay, V.F., “Preliminary Toughness Results on TRIP Steel”, ASM Trans. Quart., 61 (1968), 843–47.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Antolovich, S.D., “Fracture Toughness and Strain Induced Phase Transformations”, Trans. Met. Soc. AIME, 242 (1968), 2371–73.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Gerberich, W.W., Hemmings, P.L., Zackay, V.F. and Parker, E.R., “Interactions Between Crack Growth and Strain Induced Transformations”, in Fracture 1969, P.L. Pratt, ed., London: Chapman and Hall Ltd. (1969), 288–305.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Birat, J.P. and Gerberich, W.W., “A Metastable Austenite with Plane Stress Fracture Toughness near 500,000 lb/in2-√in”, Int. J. Fract. Mech., 7 (1971), 108–10.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Antolovich, S.D. and Singh, B., “On the Toughness Increment Associated with the Austenite to Martensite Phase Transformation in TRIP Steels”, Met. Trans., 2 (1970), 2135–41.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Gerberich, W.W., Hemmings, P.L. and Zackay, V.F., “Fracture and Fractography of Metastable Austenites”, Met. Trans., 2 (1971), 2243–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Antolovich, S.D. and Fahr, D., “An Experimental Investigation of the Fracture Characteristics of TRIP Alloys”, Eng. Fract. Mech., 4 (1972), 133–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Parker, E.R. and Zackay, V.F., “Enhancement of Fracture Toughness in High Strength Steel by Microstructural Control”, Eng. Fract. Mech., 5 (1973), 147–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Zackay, V.F., Parker, E.R. and Wood, W.E., “Influence of Some Microstructural Features on the Fracture Toughness of High Strength Steels”, in Microstructure and Design of Alloys, Vol. I, London: Institute of Metals (1973), 175–79.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    “Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness of Metallic Materials”, Standard Test Method E-399-72, in Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Part 31, Philadelphia: American Society for Testing and Materials (1973), 960–79.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Chanani, G.R., “Fracture Characteristics of Metastable Austenitic Steels Under Cyclic Loading”, D. Eng. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Contract Report No. UCRL-19620, July 1970.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Chanani, G.R. and Antolovich, S.D., “Low Cycle Fatigue of a High Strength Metastable Austenitic Steel”, Met. Trans., 5 (1974), 217–29.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Coffin, L.F., Jr. and Tavernelli, J.F., “The Cyclic Straining and Fatigue of Metals”, Trans. Met. Soc. AIME, 215 (1959), 794–807.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Coffin, L.F., Jr., “Low Cycle Fatigue: A Review”, Appl. Mater. Res., 1 (1962), 129–41.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Manson, S.S., “Fatigue: A Complex Subject–Some Simple Approximations”, Exp. Mech., 5 (1965), 193–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Chanani, G.R., Antolovich, S.D. and Gerberich, W.W., “Fatigue Crack Propagation in TRIP Steels”, Met. Trans., 3 (1972), 2661–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Paris, P.C. and Erdogen, F., “A Critical Analysis of Crack Propagation Laws”, Trans. ASME, Ser. D, J. Basic Eng., 85 (1963), 528–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Wei, R.P., Talda, P.M. and Li, Che-Ye, “Fatigue Crack Propagation in Some Ultrahigh-Strength Steels, in Fatigue Crack Propagation, ASTM Special Technical Publication 415, Philadelphia: American Society for Testing and Materials (1967), 460–85.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Donaldson, D.R. and Anderson, W.E., “Crack Propagation Behavior of Some Airframe Materials”, in Proceedings of the Crack Propagation Symposium, Vol. 2, Cranfield, Eng.: The College of Aeronautics (1961), 375–441.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Carman, C M. and Katlin, J.M., “Low Cycle Fatigue Crack Propagation Characteristics of High Strength Steels”, 66-MET-3, Trans. ASME, Ser, D, Basic Eng., 88 (1966), 792–800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Challande, J.F., “Corrosion Resistance of Metastable Austenitic Steels”, M.S. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Contract Report No. UCRL-18475, September 1968.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Padilla, F.J., “Optimization of Corrosion Resistance in Metastable Austenitic Steel”, M.S. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Contract Report No. UCRL-19065, September 1969.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Padilla, F.J., Challande, J.F. and Ravitz, S.F., “Effect of Composition on the Corrosion Resistance of Some Ultra-High Strength Metastable Austenitic Steels”, University of California, Berkeley, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Contract Report No. UCRL-19657, June 1970.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Baghdasarian, A.J., “Corrosion Resistance of TRIP Steels”, M.S. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Contract Report No. LBL-806, May 1972.Google Scholar
  81. 82.
    Edeleanu, C., “Method for the Study of Corrosion Phenomena”, Nature, 173 (1954), 739.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    “Standard Reference Method for Making Potentiostatic and Potentiodynamic Anodic Polarization Measurements”, Standard Recommended Practice G5-72, in Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Part 31, Philadelphia: American Society for Testing and Materials (1973), 1117-27.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Fontana, M. and Greene, N., Corrosion Engineering, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1967.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    France, W.D., Jr. and Lietz, R.W., “Improved Data Recording for Automatic Potentiodynamic Polarization Measurements”, Corrosion, 24 (1968), 298–300.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Wilde, B.E. and Greene, N.D., Jr., “The Variable Corrosion Resistance of 18 Cr-8 Ni Stainless Steels: Behavior of Commercial Alloys”, Corrosion, 25 (1969), 300–06.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Gold, E. and Koppenaal, T.J., “Anomalous Ductility of TRIP Steel”, ASM Trans. Quart., 62 (1969), 607–10.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    McCoy, R.A., Gerberich, W.W. and Zackay, V.F., “On the Resistance of TRIP Steel to Hydrogen Embrittlement”, Met. Trans.,1 (1970), 2031–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Zackay, V.F., Gerberich, W.W. and Ravitz, S.F., “Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Resistance of TRIP Steels”, University of California, Berkeley, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Contract Report No. UCRL-20523, February 1971.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    McCoy, R.A., “The Resistance of TRIP Steels to Hydrogen Embrittlement”, D.Eng. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Contract Report No. LBL-135, September 1971.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Sauby, M.E., “The Investigation of High Strength in High Carbon Stainless Steels”, M.S. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Contract Report No. UCRL-19678, September 1970.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Goldberg, A. and Hoge, K.G., “Effect of Strain Rate on Tension and Compression Stress-Strain Behavior in a TRIP Alloy”, Mater. Sci. Eng., 13 (1974), 211–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Dokko, C, “TRIP Phenomena in Impact Tests”, M.S. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Contract Report No. UCRL-19068, September 1969.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Dunning, J.S., “The Effect of Stacking Fault Energy on the Strain Induced Martensite Transformation and Tensile Characteristics in Iron Based Alloys”, Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Contract Report No. UCRL-19052, December 1969.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ambekar, S.M., “Joining TRIP Steels”, D.Eng. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Contract Report No. UCRL-19129, February 1970.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Birat, J.P., “Stress Corrosion Cracking of a TRIP Steel”, M.S. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Contract Report No. UCRL-20300, September 1970.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Atteridge, D.G., “An Investigation of the Structure and Properties of Iron-Manganese-Carbon Alloys”, D.Eng. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, In preparation.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Schanfein, M.J., Yokota, M.J., Zackay, V.F., Parker, E.R. and Morris, J.W., Jr., “The Cryogenic Properties of Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-Cr Alloys”, University of California, Berkeley, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Contract Report No. LBL-2764, May 1974.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Schanfein, M.J., “The Cryogenic Properties of Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-Cr Alloys”, M.S. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Contract Report No. LBL-2749, August 1974.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Koppenaal, T.J., “A Thermal Processing Technique for TRIP Steels”, Met. Trans., 3 (1972), 1549–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Koppenaal, T.J., “Research in Development of Improved TRIP Steels”, Philco-Ford Corporation, Aeronutronic Division, Newport Beach, Calif., Army Materials and Mechanics Research Center Contract Report No. AMMRC-CTR-73-4, January 1973. (AD 756 953)Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Adkins, H.E., Jr., “Structure and Properties of TRIP Steels Processed by Deformation and Thermal Cycling”, M.S. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Contract Report No. LBL-1491, April 1973.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Webster, D., “Development of a High Strength Stainless Steel with Improved Toughness and Ductility”, Met. Trans., 2 (1971), 2097–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Antolovich, S.D., Saxena, A. and Chanani, G.R., “Increased Fracture Toughness in a 300 Grade Maraging Steel as a Result of Thermal Cycling”, Met. Trans., 5 (1974), 623–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Lai, G.Y., Wood, W.E., Clark, R.A., Zackay, V.F. and Parker, E.R., “The Effect of Austenitizing Temperature on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of As-Quenched 4340 Steel”, Met. Trans., 5 (1974), 1663–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Lai, G.Y., Wood, W.E., Zackay, V.F. and Parker, E.R., “Influence of Microstructural Features on Fracture Toughness of an Ultra-High Strength Steel”, University of California, Berkeley. In preparation.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Parker, E.R., Zackay, V.F., Lai, G.Y. and Horn, R.M., “Untempered Ultra-High Strength Steels of High Fracture Toughness”, University of California, Berkeley, Army Materials and Mechanics Research Center Contract Report No. AMMRC-CTR-74-33, April 1974. (AD 780 017)Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Babu, B.N.P., “An Investigation of Bainite Transformation in Medium Carbon Low Alloy Steels”, D.Eng. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Contract Report No. LBL-2772, August 1974.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Lai, G.Y., Zackay, V.F. and Parker, E.R., “Enhancement of Fracture Toughness in a Low Alloy Steel by Retained Austenite as a Result of Upper Bainite Reaction”, University of California, Berkeley. In preparation.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. F. Zackay
    • 1
  • M. D. Bhandarkar
    • 1
  • E. R. Parker
    • 1
  1. 1.University of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations