External Stimuli and the Development and Organization of Behavior

  • Jay S. Rosenblatt

Abstract

Animals interact with their environment in many ways during development and in the process of adapting their behavior to it. Sensory interaction with the environment is particularly crucial because effects of sensory stimuli on animal behavior are well known and there are few aspects of the physiological functioning of animals that are not affected by sensory stimuli. The close relationship between animals and their environments and between physiological and behavioral functioning in animals are always mediated through multiple effects of key sensory stimuli. Comparative psychology has traced the evolution of increasingly higher levels of psychological capacities through processes of sensory integration (Schneirla, 1949, 1962) in general treatments, and in the treatment of special areas of behavioral functioning (Beach, 1948; Nissen, 1951; Wheeler, 1928).

Keywords

Estrogen Lactate Cage Respiration Beach 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adler, N. T. The behavioral control of reproductive physiology. In W. Montagna, and W.H. Sadler (Eds.), Reproductive behavior. New York: Academic Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  2. Alcock, J. Animal behavior, an evolutionary approach. Sunderland, Mass.: Sinauer Associated Publishers, 1975.Google Scholar
  3. Anokhin, P.K. and Shuleikina, K. V. System organization of alimentary behavior in the newborn and the developing cat. Developmental Psychobiology, 1977, 10, 385–419. Google Scholar
  4. Beach, F.A. Hormones and behavior. New York: Hoeber, 1948.Google Scholar
  5. Becker, R.F., Windle, W.F., Barth, E.E., and Schulz, M.D. Fetal swallowing, gastro-intestinal activity and defecation in amino. Surgery, Gynecology, and Obstetrics, 1940 70, 603–614.Google Scholar
  6. Beer, C.G. On the responses of laughing gull chicks (Larus atricilla) to the calls of adults. I. Recognition of the voices of parents. Animal Behaviour, 1970a, 18, 652–660.Google Scholar
  7. Beer, C.G. On the responses of laughing gull chicks (Larus atricilla) to the calls of the adults. II. Age changes and responses to different types of call. Animal Behaviour, 1970b, 18, 661–677.Google Scholar
  8. Beer, C.G. Individual recogni tion of voice and its development in birds. Proceedings of the 15th international ornithological congress, 1972, pp. 339–356.Google Scholar
  9. Birch, H.G. Sources of order in the maternal behavior of animals. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1956, 26, 279–284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bradley, R.M., and Mistretta, C.M. Investigations of taste function and swallowing in fetal sheep. In J.F. Bosma (Ed.), Fourth symposium on oral sensation and perception:Development in the fetus and infant, 1973. Google Scholar
  11. Brazelton, T. B., Koslowski, B., and Main, M. The origins of reciprocity: The early mother-infant interaction. In M. Lewis and L.A. Rosenblum (Eds.), The effect of the infant on its caregiver. New York: Wiley, 1974, pp. 49–76.Google Scholar
  12. Bridges, R.S. Long-term effects of pregnancy and parturition upon maternal responsiveness in the rat. Physiology and Behavior, 1975, 14, 245–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bridges, R.S. Parturition: Its role in the long term retention of maternal behavior in the rat. Physiology and Behavior, 1977, 18, 487–490.Google Scholar
  14. Brockway, B.F. Stimulation of ovarian development and egg laying by male courtship vocalization in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Animal Behaviour, 1965, 13, 575–578.Google Scholar
  15. Brockway, B.F. Roles of budgerigar vocalization in the integration of breeding behavior. In R.A. Hinde (Ed.), Bird vocalizations. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1969, pp. 131–158.Google Scholar
  16. Brown-Grant, K., Davidson, J.M. and Grieg, F. Induced ovulation in albino rats exposed to constant light. Journal of Endocrinology, 1973, 57, 7–22.Google Scholar
  17. Buntin, J. Stimulus factors involved in squab induced crop sac growth and nest occupation in ring doves (Streptopelia risoria). Journal of Comparative and PhysiologicalPsychology, Google Scholar
  18. Calhoun, J.B. A “behavioral sink.” In E.L. Bliss (Ed.), Roots of behavior. New York: Harper, 1962.Google Scholar
  19. Cheng, M.F. Effect of ovariectomy on the reproductive behavior of female ring doves (Streptopelia risoria). Journal of Comparatiue and Physiological Psychology, 1973, 83, 221–223.Google Scholar
  20. Cheng, M.F. Ovarian development in the female ring dove in response to stimulation by intact and castrated male ring doves. Journal of Endocrinology, 1974, 63, 43–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cheng, M.F., and Lehrman, D.S. Gonadal hormone specificity in the sexual behavior of ring doves. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 1975, 1, 95–102.Google Scholar
  22. Cheng, M.F., and Silver, R. Estrogen-progesterone regulation of nest building and incubation behavior in ovariectomized ring doves (Streptopelia risoria). Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1975, 88, 256–263.Google Scholar
  23. Clements, M. and Lien, J. Paired rotation and auditory stimulation of common murre (Uria aalge aalge) embryos and its posthatch effect. Behavioral Biology, 1976, 17, 417–423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Cosnier, J., and Couturier, C. Comportement maternel provoque chez les rattes adultes castrees. Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie, Paris, 1966, 160, 789–791.Google Scholar
  25. Cowie, A.T., and Folley, S.J. The mammary gland and lactation. In W.C. Young (Ed.), Sex and internal secretions (Vol. 1 ). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1961.Google Scholar
  26. Crews, D., Rosenblatt, J.S., and Lehrman, D.S. Effects of unseasonal environmental regime, group presence, group composition, and male's physiological state onGoogle Scholar
  27. ovarian recrudescence in the lizard, Anolis carolinensis. Endocrinology, 1974, 94, 541–547.Google Scholar
  28. Crews, D. Psychobiology of reptilian reproduction. Science, 1975, 189, 1059–1065.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Crook, J.H. Social organization and the environment: Aspects of contemporary social ethology. Animal Behavior, 1970, 18, 197–209.Google Scholar
  30. Crook, J.H., and Cartlan. J.S Evolution of primate societies. Nature, 1966, 210, 1200–1203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Diakow, C. Male-female interactions and the organization of mammalian mating patterns. In D.S. Lehrman, R.A. Hinde, J.S. Rosenblatt, and E. Shaw (Eds.), Advances in the study of behavior (Vol. 5 ). New York: Academic Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  32. Everett, J.W. The mammalian female reproductive cycle and its controlling mechanisms. In W. C. Young (Ed.). Sex and internal secretions (Vol. 1 ). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1961.Google Scholar
  33. Ewer, R.F. Sucking behavior in kittens. Behaviour, 1959, 15, 146–162.Google Scholar
  34. Ewer, R.F. Further observations on suckling behavior in kittens together with some general consideration of the interrelations of innate and acquired responses. Behaviour, 1961, 17, 247–260.Google Scholar
  35. Fleming, A.S., and Rosenblatt, J.S. Maternal behavior in the virgin and lactating rat. Journal of Compartive and Physiological Psychology, 1974a, 86, 957–972.Google Scholar
  36. Fleming, A.S., and Rosenblatt, J.S. Olfactory regulation of maternal behavior in rats. I. Effects of olfactory bulb removal in experienced and inexperienced lactating and cycling females. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1974b, 86,Google Scholar
  37. Fleming, A.S., and Rosenblatt, J.S. Olfactory regulation of maternal behavior in rats: II. Effects of peripherally induced anosmia and lesions of the lateral olfactory tract in pup-induced virgins. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1974c, 86, 235–246.Google Scholar
  38. Freeman, B.M., and Vince, M.A. Development of the avian embryo. Part 1. In B.M.Freeman and M.A. Vince (Eds.), Development of the avian embryo, a behavioral and physiological study. London: Chapman and Hall, 1974.Google Scholar
  39. Freeman, N.C.G., and Rosenblatt, J,S. The interrelationship between thermal and olfactory stimulation in the development of home orientation in newborn kittens. Developmental Psychobiology, 1978a.Google Scholar
  40. Freeman, N.C.G., and Rosenblatt, J.S. Specificity of litter odors in the control of home orientation among kittens. Developmental Psychobiology, 1978b.Google Scholar
  41. Friedman, M., and Lehrman, 0.5. Physiological conditions for the stimulation of prolactin secretion by external stimuli in the male ring dove. Animal Behaviour, 1968, 16, 235–237.Google Scholar
  42. Friedman, M.B. Auditory influences on the reproductive system of the ring dove. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Microfilms, 1972.Google Scholar
  43. Friedman, M.B. Interactions between visual and vocal courtship stimuli in the neuroendocrine response of female doves. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1977, 91, 1408–1416Google Scholar
  44. Gerlach, J.L., Heinrich, W., and Lehrman, D.S. Quantitative observations of the diurnal rhythm of courting, incubation and brooding behavior in the ring dove (Streptopelia risoria). Verhandlungsbericht del Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft, 1975, 67, 351–357.Google Scholar
  45. Gottlieb, G. Development of species identification of birds: An inquiry into the prenatal determinants of perception. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  46. Gottlieb, G. Development of species identification in ducklings. I. Nature of perceptual deficit caused by embryonic auditory deprivation. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 1975a, 89, 387–399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Gottlieb, G. Development of species identification in ducklings. II. Experiential prevention of perceptual deficit caused by embryonic auditory deprivation. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1975b, 89, 675–684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Gottlieb, G. Development of species identification in ducklings. III. “Maturational rectification of perceptual deficit caused by auditory deprivation.” Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1975c, 89, 899–912.Google Scholar
  49. Gottlieb, G. and Vandenbergh, J.G. Ontogeny of vocalization in duck and chick embryos. Journal of Experiment Zoology, 1968, 168, 307–326.Google Scholar
  50. Grier, J.B., Counter, A.S., and Shearer, W.M. Prenatal auditory imprinting in chickens. Science, 1967, 1692–1693.Google Scholar
  51. Grosvenor, C. E. Evidence that exteroceptive stimuli can release prolactin from the pituitary gland of the lactating rat. Endocrinology, 1965, 76, 340–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Grosvenor, C.E., Maiweg, H., and Mena, F.A. A study of factors involved in the development of the exteroceptive release of prolactin in the lactating rat. Hormones and Behavior 1970, 1, 111–120.Google Scholar
  53. Grosvenor, C.E., and Meria. F.A. Neural and hormonal control of milk secretion and milk ejection. In B.L Larson (Ed.). Lactation (Vol. 1 ). New York: Academic Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  54. Grosvenor, C. E., and Whitworth. N. Evidence for a steady rate of secretion of prolactin following suckling in the rat. Journal of Dairy Science, 1976, 57, 900–904.Google Scholar
  55. Hailman, J.P. Comments on the coding of releasing stimuli. In L.R. Aronson, E. Tobach, D.S. Lehrman, and J.S. Rosenblatt (Eds.). Development and evolution of behavior. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1970.Google Scholar
  56. Hall, W.G. Weaning and growth of artifically reared pups. Science, 1975, 190, 1313–1315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Hall, W.G., Cramer, C.P and Blass, E.M. The ontogeny of suckling in rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 1977, 91, 1141–1155.Google Scholar
  58. Hall, W.G. and Rosenblatt, J.S Suckling behavior and intake control in the developing rat pup. Journal of Comparative: and Physiological Psychology, 1977, 91, 1232–1246.Google Scholar
  59. Herrenkohl, L.R., and Campbell, C. Mechanical stimulation of mammary gland development in virgin and pregnant rats. Hormones and Behavior, 1976, 7, 183–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Hinde, R.A. Interaction of internal and external factors in integration of canary reproduction.In F.A. Beach (Ed). Sex and behavior. New York: Wiley, 1965.Google Scholar
  61. Hinde, R.A., Bell, R.Q., and Steel. E. Changes in sensitivity of the canary brood patch during the natural breeding season. Animal Behavior, 1963, 11, 553–569.Google Scholar
  62. Hinde, R.A., and Steel, E The effect of male song on an estrogen-dependent behavior pattern in the female canary (Serinus canarius). Hormones and Behavior, 1976, 7, 293–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Hofer, M.A., Shair, H., and Singh, P. Evidence that maternal ventral skin substances promote suckling in infant rats. Physiology and Behavior, 1976, 17, 131–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Hubel, D.H. and Wiesel, T.N. Receptive fields of single neurons in the eat’s striate cortex. Journal of Physiology, 1959, 148, 574–591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Hubel, D.H., and Wiesel, T.N Receptive fields, binocular interaction and functional architecture in the cat visual cortex. Journal of Physiology, 1962, 160, 106–154.Google Scholar
  66. Impekoven, M. Prenatal experience of parental calls and pecking in the laughing gull chick (Larus atricilla) Animal Behavior 1971, 19, 471–476.Google Scholar
  67. Impekoven, M. Response-contingent prenatal experience of maternal calls in the Peking duck (Arias platyrhynchos) Animal Behavior, 1973, 21, 164–168.Google Scholar
  68. Impekoven, M. Responses of laughing gull chicks (Larus atricilla) to parental attraction and alarm calls, and effects of prenatal auditory experience on the response to such calls Behaviour, 1976, 56, 250–278.Google Scholar
  69. Ingelbrecht, P. Influence du systeme nerveux central sur la mammelle lactante chez le rat blanc. Comptes Rendus. Society de Biologie, 1935, 120, 1369–1371.Google Scholar
  70. Ivanitskii, A.M. The morphophvsiological investigation of development of conditioned alimentary reaction in rabbits during ontogenesis. Works Higher Nervous Activity, Physiology Series(n.d.): 4, 126–141.Google Scholar
  71. Kolodny, R.C., Jacobs, L.S., and Daughaday, W.H. Mammary stimulation causes prolactin secretion in non-lactating women Nature, 1972, 238, 284–285.Google Scholar
  72. Komisaruk, B.R. Neural and hormonal intereactions in the reproductive behavior of female rats. In W. Montagna and W.A. Sadler (Eds.). Advances in behavioral biology. Vol. II: Reproductive behavior New York: Plenum, 1974.Google Scholar
  73. Konishi, M. Development of auditory neuronal responses in avian embryos. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences US, 1973, 70, 1795-1798.Google Scholar
  74. Lack, D. Ecological adaptations for breeding in birds. London: Methuen, 1968.Google Scholar
  75. Lambe, D.R., and Erickson, C. Ovarian activity of female ring doves (Streptopeliarisoria) exposed to marginal stimuli from males. Physiological Psychology, 1973, 1, 281–283.Google Scholar
  76. Langworthy, O.R. A correlated study of the development of reflex activity in foetal and young kittens and the myelinization of tracts of the nervous system. Contribution to Embryology, Carnegie Institute Washington, 1929, 20, 127–171.Google Scholar
  77. Larsson, K. Sexual behavior: the result of an interaction. In J. Zubin and J. Money (Eds.), Contemporary sexual behavior: Critical issues in the 1970s. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  78. Lehrman, D.S. Hormonal responses to external stimuli in birds. Ibis, 1959, 101, 478–496.Google Scholar
  79. Lehrman, D.S. Hormonal regulation of parental behavior in birds and infrahuman mammals. In C.W. Young (Ed.). Sex and internal secretions (Vol. 2 ). Baltimore: Williams and Williams, 1961.Google Scholar
  80. Lehrman, D.S. Interaction between internal and external environments in the regulation of the reproductive cycle of the ring dove. In F.A. Beach (Ed.), Sex and behavior. New York: Wiley, 1965.Google Scholar
  81. Leon, M. Dietary control of maternal pheromone in the lactating rat. Physiology and Behavior, 1975, 14, 311–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Leon, M. Filial responsiveness to olfactory cues in Rattus norvegicus. In J.S. Rosenblatt, R.A. Hinde, C.G. Beer, and M.C. Busnel (Eds.), Advances in the study of behavior (vol. 8). New York: Academic Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  83. Lettvin, J.Y., Maturana, H.R., McCullough, W.S., and Pitts, W.H. What the frog’s eye tells the forg’s brain. Proceedings of the Institution of Radio and Electronics Engineers of Australia, 1959, 47 194, 1951.Google Scholar
  84. Lewis, M., and Rosenblum, L.A. (Eds.). The effect of the infant on its caregiver. New York: Wiley, 1974Google Scholar
  85. Lien, J. Auditory stimulation of coturnix embryos (Cotumix coturnix japonica) and its later effect on auditory preferences. Behavioral Biology, 1976, 17, 231–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Lincoln, D.W., Hill, A., and Wakerly, J.B. The milk-ejection reflex of the rat: An intermittent function not abolished by surgical levels of anaesthesia. Journal of Endocrinology 1973 57 459–476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Lott, D.F., and Brody. P.N. Support of ovulation in the ring dove by auditory and visual stimuli. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1966, 62, 311–313.Google Scholar
  88. Lott, D.F., Scholz, S.D, and Lehrman, D.S. Exteroceptive stimulation of the reproductive system of the female ring dove (Streptopelia risoria) by the mate and by the colony milieu. Animal Behavior, 1967, 15, 431–435.Google Scholar
  89. Lu, K.H., Chen, H.T., Grandison, L.,Huang, H.H., and Meites, J. Reduced luteinizing hormone release by synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) in postpartum lactating rats. Endocrinology, 1976, 98, 1235–1240.Google Scholar
  90. McClintock, M.K. Menstrual synchrony and suppression. Nature, 1971, 229, 244–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. McFarlane, J.A. Olfaction in the development of social preferences in the human neonate. In CIBA Foundation, Parent-infant interaction. New York: Elsevier, 1975.Google Scholar
  92. McMurtry, J.P., and Anderson, R.R. Prevention of self-licking on mammary gland development in pregnant rats. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 1971, 137, 354–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Matthews, M., and Adler,N. T. Facilitatory and inhibitory influences of reproductive behavior in sperm transport in rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology1977, 91, 727–741PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Mayer, A.D., and Rosenblatt, J. S. Olfactory basis for the delayed onset of maternal behavior in virgin female rates: Experiential effects. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1975, 89, 701–710.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Mayer, G. Delayed nidation in rats: A method of exploring the mechanisms of ovoimplantation. In A.C. Enders (Ed.), Delayed implantation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963.Google Scholar
  96. Moltz, H., and Leon, M. Stimulus control of the maternal pheromone in the lactating rat. Physiology and Behavior, 1973, 10, 69–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Morris, R.L., and Erickson, C.J. Pair-bond maintenance in the ring dove (Streptopelia risoria). Animal Behavior, 1971, 19, 398–406.Google Scholar
  98. Moore, C. Experiential and hormonal conditions affect squab-egg choice in ring doves (Streptopelia risoria). Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1976, 90, 583–589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Nissen, H.W. Phylogenetic comparison. In 5.5. Stevens (Ed.), Handbook of experimental psychology. New York: Wiley, 1951.Google Scholar
  100. Noirot, E. The onset of maternal behavior in rats, hamsters and mice. In D.S. Lehrman, R.A. Hinde, and E. Shaw (Eds.), Advances in the study of behavior. Vol. 4. New York: Academic Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  101. Nutting, E.F., and Meyer, R.K. Implantation delay, nidation, and embryonal survival in rats treated with ovarian hormones. In A.C. Enders (Ed.), Delayed implantation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963.Google Scholar
  102. Prechtl, H.F.R. Angeborene Bewegungsweisen junger Katzen. Experientia, 1952, 8, 220–221.Google Scholar
  103. Reisbick, S., Rosenblatt, J.S., and Mayer, A.B. Decline of maternal behavior in the virgin and lactating rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1975, 89, 722–732.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Rosenblatt, J.S. Social-environmental factors affecting reproduction and offspring in infrahuman mammals. In S.A. Richardson and A.F. Guttmacher (Eds.), Childbearing its social and psychological aspects. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1967Google Scholar
  105. Rosenblatt, J.S. Views on the onset and maintenance of maternal behavior in the rat. In L.R. Aronson, E. Tobach, D.S. Lehrman, and J.S. Rosenblatt (Eds.), Developmentand evolution of behavior, essays in memory of T.C. Schneirla. San Francisco: Freeman, 1970 pp. 489–515.Google Scholar
  106. Rosenblatt, J.S. Suckling and home orientation in the kitten: A comparative developmental study. In E. Tobach, L.R. Aronson, and E. Shaw (Eds.), The biopsychology of development. New York: Academic Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  107. Rosenblatt, J.S. Selective retrieval by maternal and nonmaternal female rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1975, 88, 678–686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Rosenblatt, J.S. Stages in the early behavioral development of altricial young of selected species of non-primate mammals. In P.P.G. Bateson and R.A. Hinde (Eds.), Grousing points in ethology. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  109. Rosenblatt, J.S., and Lehrman, D.S. Maternal behavior of the laboratory rat. In H.L. Rheingold (Ed.), Maternal behavior in mammals. New York: Wiley, 1963.Google Scholar
  110. Rosenblatt, J.S., and Siegel, H.I. Hysterectomy-induced maternal behavior during pregnancy in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1975, 89, 685–700.Google Scholar
  111. Rosenblatt, J.S. Turkewitz, G., and Schneirla, T.C. Development of home orientation in newly born kittens. Transaction of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1969, 31, 231–250.Google Scholar
  112. Rosenblum, L.A. The ontogeny of mother-infant relations in Macaques. In H. Moltz (Ed.), The ontogeny of vertebrate behavior. New York: Academic Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  113. Rosenblum, L.A., and Kaufman, I.C. Laboratory observations of early mother-infant relations in pigtail and bonnet Macaques. In S.A. Altman (Ed.), Social communication among primates. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  114. Roth, L., and Rosenblatt, J.S. Changes in self-licking during pregnancy in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1967, 63, 397–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Roth, L., and Rosenblatt, J.S. Self-licking and mammary development during pregnancy in the rat. Journal of Endocrinology, 1968, 42, 363–378.Google Scholar
  116. Rothchild, I. The corpus luteum-pituitary relationship: The association between the cause of luteotrophin secretion and the cause of follicular quiescence during lactation; the basis for a tentative theory of the corpus luteum-pituitary relationship in the rat. Endocrinology 1960, 67, 9–41.Google Scholar
  117. Sachs, B.D., and Barfield, R.J. Functional analysis of masculine copulatory behavior in the rat. In J.S. Rosenblatt, R.A. Hinde, E. Shaw, and C. Beer (Eds.), Advances in the study of behavior (Vol. 7 ). New York: Academic Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  118. Schneirla, T.C. Levels in the psychological capacities of animals. In R.W. Sellars, V.J. McGill, and M. Faber (Eds.), Philosophy for the future. New York: Macmillan Co., 1949.Google Scholar
  119. Schneirla, T.C. Psychology, comparative. Encyclopedia Briitanica, 1962.Google Scholar
  120. Schneirla, T.C.Aspects of stimulation and organization in approachwithdrawal processesunderlying vertebrate behavioral development. In D.S. Lehrman, R.A.Hinde. and E. Shaw (Eds.), Advances in the study of behavior (Vol. 1). New York: Academic Press, 1965.Google Scholar
  121. Schneirla, T.C., Rosenblatt, J.5., and Tobach, E. Maternal behavior in the cat. In H.L. Rheingold (Ed.). Maternal behavior in mammals. New York: Wiley, 1963.Google Scholar
  122. Selye, H. On the nervous control of lactation. American Journal of Physiology, 1934, 107, 535–538.Google Scholar
  123. Shelesnyak, M.C., and Kraicer, P.F. The role of estrogen in nidation. In A.C. Enders (Ed.), Delayed implantation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963.Google Scholar
  124. Siegel, H.I. and Rosenblatt, J.S, Hormonal basis of hysterectomy-induced maternal behavior during pregnancy in the rat. Hormones and Behavior, 1975a, 6, 211–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Siegel, H.I., and Rosenblatt, J.S. Latency and duration of estrogen induction of maternal behavior in hysterectomized-ovariectomized virgin rats: Effects of pup stimulation. Physiology and Behavior, 1975b, 14, 473–476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Slotnick, B.M., Carpenter, M. L., and Fusco, R. Initiation of maternal behaviour in pregnant nulliparous rats. Hormones and Behavior, 1973, 4, 53–59.Google Scholar
  127. Stanley, W.C., Bacon, W.E., and Fehr, C. Discriminated instrumental learning in neonatal dogs. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology,1970, 70, 335–343.Google Scholar
  128. Steel, E., and Hinde, R.A. Effect of a skeleton protoperiod on the daylength-dependent response to oestrogen in canaries (Sirenus canarius). Journal of Endocrinology, 1976, 70, 247–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Steele, E., Gosney, S., and Hinde, R.A. Effect of male vocalizations on the nest-occupation response of female budgerigars to oestrogen and prolactin. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 1977, 49, 123–125.Google Scholar
  130. Teicher, M.H. and Blass, E.M. First suckling response of the newborn albino roat: The roles of olfaction and amniotic fluid. Science, 1977, 198, 635–636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Teicher, M.T. and Blass, E.M. Suckling in newborn rats: Eliminated by nipple lavage reinstated by pup saliva. Science, 1976, 193, 422–425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Terkel, J., and Rosenblatt, J,S. Maternal behavior induced by maternal blood plasma injected into virgin rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 1968, 65, 479–482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Terkel, J., and Rosenblatt, J.S. Aspects of nonhormonal maternal behavior in the rat. Hormones and Behavior, 1971, 2, 161–171.Google Scholar
  134. Tilney, F., and Casamajor. L. Myolenogeny as applied to the study of behaviour. Archives of Neurological Psychiatry, 1924, 12, 1–66.Google Scholar
  135. Trivers, R.L. The evolution of reciprocal altruism. Quarterly Review of Biology, 1971, 46, 35–57.Google Scholar
  136. Trivers, R..L. Parent-offspring conflict. American Zoologist, 1974, 14, 249–264.Google Scholar
  137. Tschantz, B. Zur Brutbiologie der Trottellumme (Uria aalge). Behaviour, 1959, 14, 2–100.Google Scholar
  138. Tschantz, B. Trottellummen: Die Entstehung der personlichen Beziehung zwischen Jungvogel und Eltern. Zeitschrift iiir Tierpsychologie, Supplement, 1968, 4, 1–103.Google Scholar
  139. Tschantz, B., and Hirsbrunner-Scharf, M. Adaptations to colony life on cliff-ledges: A comparative study of guillemot and razorbill chicks. In G.P. Baerends, C.G. Beer, and A. Manning (Eds.). Evolution in behavior. New York: Oxford University Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  140. Vince, M.A. Social facilitation of hatching in the bobwhite quail. Animal Behavior, 1964, 12, 531–534.Google Scholar
  141. Vince, M.A. Artificial acceleration of hatching in quail embryos. Animal Behavior, 1966, 14, 389–394.Google Scholar
  142. Vince, M.A. Effect of rate of stimulation on hatching time in Japanese quail. British Poultry Science, 1968, 9, 87–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Vince, M.A. Embryonic communication, respiration and the synchronization of hatching. In R.A. Hinde (Ed.), Bird nocalizations. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1969.Google Scholar
  144. Vince, M.A. Some environmental effects on the activity and development of the avian embryo. In G. Gottlieb (Ed.), Studies on the development of behavior and the nervous system. Vol. 1. Behavioral embryology. New York: Academic Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  145. Vorheer, H., Kleeman, C.R., and Lehman, E. Oxytocin induced stretch reaction in suckling mice and rats: A semi-quantitative bio-assay for oxytocin. Endocrinology, 1967, 81, 711–715.Google Scholar
  146. Vuorenkoski. V., Wasz-Hockert, 0., Koivisto, E., and Lind, J. The effect of cry stimulus on the temperature of the lactating breast of primipara. A thermographic study. Experientia, 1969, 25, 1286–1287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Welker, W.J. Analysis of sniffing of the albino rat. Behavior, 1964, 22, 223–244.Google Scholar
  148. Wheeler, W.M. The social insects. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1928.Google Scholar
  149. Whitworth, N. Relationship between patterns of grooming, endocrine function and mammarygland development in the pregnant rat. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Rutgers University, N.J.: University Microfilms 1972, 72–27609Google Scholar
  150. Wilson, E.O. Sociobiology, the neu synthesis. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  151. Windle, W.F. Normal behavioral reactions of kittens correlated with postnatal development of nerve-fibre density in the spinal grey matter. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 1930, 50, 479–503.Google Scholar
  152. Zarrow, M.X., Johnson, NR., Denenberg, V.H., and Bryant, L.P. Maintenance of lactational diestrus in the postpartum rat through tactile stimulation in the absence of suckling.Neuroendocrinology,1973, 11, 150–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Zarrow, M.X., Schlein, P.A., Denenberg, V.H., and Cohen, H.A. Sustained corticosterone release in lactating rats following olfactory stimulation from the pups. Endocrinology,1972, 91 ,191–196PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jay S. Rosenblatt
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Animal BehaviorRutgers-The State University of New JerseyNewark

Personalised recommendations